Bilabial nasal

The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨m⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is m. The bilabial nasal occurs in English, and it is the sound represented by "m" in map and rum.

It occurs nearly universally, and few languages (e.g. Mohawk) are known to lack this sound.

Bilabial nasal
m
IPA number114
Encoding
Entity (decimal)m
Unicode (hex)U+006D
X-SAMPAm
Kirshenbaumm
Braille⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
Listen
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Features

Features of the bilabial nasal:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Because the consonant is also nasal, the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.
  • Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe мазэ [maːza] 'moon'
Arabic Standard[1] مطابخ [maˈtˤaːbɪχ] 'kitchens' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] մայր [mɑjɾ]  'mother'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic mara [maːra] 'owner'
Basque maitatu [majt̪at̪u] 'to love'
Bengali মা [ma] 'mother' See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian мъгла [mɐɡla] 'fog'
Catalan[3] mare [ˈmaɾə] 'mother' See Catalan phonology
Cherokee [ama˦] 'water'
Chinese Cantonese / māau [maːu̯˥] 'cat' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin / māo [mɑʊ̯˥] See Mandarin phonology
Czech m [mʊʃ] 'man' See Czech phonology
Dutch[4] mond [mɔnt] 'mouth' See Dutch phonology
English mother [maðər] 'mother' See English phonology
Esperanto tempo ['tempo] 'time' See Esperanto phonology
Filipino manok [maˈnok] 'rooster' See Filipino phonology
Finnish minä [ˈminæ] 'I' See Finnish phonology
French[5] manger [mɑ̃ʒe] 'to eat' See French phonology
Georgian[6] სა [ˈsɑmi] 'three'
German Maus [maʊ̯s] 'mouse' See Standard German phonology
Greek[7] μάζα / maza [ˈmaza] 'clump' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati મો / mōr [moːɾ] 'male peacock' See Gujarati phonology
Hawaiian[8] maka [maka] 'eye' See Hawaiian phonology
Hindi मा [maː] 'mother' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Hebrew אמא [ˈʔimäʔ] 'mother' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian ma [mɒ] 'today' See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian[9] masuk [ˈmäsʊʔ] 'enter'
Italian[10] mamma [ˈmamma] 'mommy' See Italian phonology
Japanese[11] 乾杯 / kampai [kampai] 'cheers' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian мазэ [maːza] 'moon'
Kagayanen[12] manang [manaŋ] 'older sister'
Korean 마을 / maeul [mɐɯl] 'village' See Korean phonology
Macedonian мајка [ˈmajka] 'mother' See Macedonian phonology
Malay malam [mäläm] 'night'
Malayalam[13] കമ്മി [kəmmi] 'shortage'
Maltese ilma [ilma] 'water'
Marathi [mən] 'mind' See Marathi phonology
Mutsun muruṭ [muɾuʈ] 'night'
Norwegian mamma [ˈmɑmːɑ] 'mom' See Norwegian phonology
Ojibwe [ənaːˈmɪm] 'accuse' See Ojibwe phonology
Oriya ମା [maː] 'mother'
Persian مادر [mɒdær] 'mother' See Persian phonology
Pirahã baíxi [ˈmàí̯ʔì] 'parent' allophone of /b/
Polish[14] masa [ˈmäsä]  'mass' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[15] mato [ˈmatu] 'bush' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਮੈਂ [mɛ̃ː] 'I'
Russian[16] муж [muʂ]  'husband' Contrasts with palatalized version. See Russian phonology
Sanskrit मातृ [maːt̪r̩] 'mother' See Sanskrit phonology
Serbo-Croatian милина / milina [milǐnä] 'enjoyment' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak m [mu̞ʃ] 'man'
Spanish[17] grumete [ɡɾuˈme̞te̞] 'cabin boy' See Spanish phonology
Swahili miti [ˈmiti] 'trees'
Swedish mask [mask] 'worm' See Swedish phonology
Toki Pona mani [mani] 'money'
Tsez мец [mɛ̝t͡s] 'tongue'
Turkish benim [be̞nim] 'mine' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[18] молоко [moɫoˈkɔ] 'milk' See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu مکان [məkaːn] 'house' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Uyghur مهن [mæn] 'I'
Vietnamese[19] muối [mwoj˧ˀ˥] 'salt' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh mam [mam] 'mother' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian mar [mar] 'lake' See West Frisian phonology
Yi /ma [ma˧] 'bamboo'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[20] man [maŋ] 'animal'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Thelwall (1990:37)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:19)
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:53)
  4. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:45)
  5. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  6. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  7. ^ Newton (1972:10)
  8. ^ Ladefoged (2005:139)
  9. ^ Soderberg & Olson (2008:210)
  10. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  11. ^ Okada (1999:117)
  12. ^ Olson et al. (2010:206–207)
  13. ^ Ladefoged (2005:165)
  14. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  15. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  16. ^ Padgett (2003:42)
  17. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  18. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  19. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)
  20. ^ Merrill (2008:108)

References

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Newton, Brian (1972), The generative Interpretation of Dialect: A Study of Modern Greek Phonology, Cambridge Studies in Linguistics, 8, Cambridge University Press
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Soderberg, Craig D.; Olson, Kenneth S. (2008), "Illustrations of the IPA:Indonesian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (2): 209–213, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003320
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
Abon language

Abon (Abõ) is a Tivoid language of Nigeria.

Bilabial click

The bilabial clicks are a family of click consonants that sound something like a smack of the lips. They are found as phonemes only in the small Tuu language family (currently two languages, one moribund), in the Hadza language of Tanzania, in the ǂHõã language of Botswana (also moribund), and in the extinct Damin ritual jargon of Australia. However, bilabial clicks are found paralinguistically for a kiss in various languages, and as allophones of labial–velar stops in some West African languages (Ladefoged 1968), as of /mw/ in some of the languages neighboring Shona, such as Ndau and Tonga.

The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the place of articulation of these sounds is ⟨ʘ⟩. This may be combined with a second letter to indicate the manner of articulation, though this is commonly omitted for tenuis clicks, and increasingly a diacritic is used instead. Common labial clicks are:

The last is what is heard in the sound sample at right, as non-native speakers tend to glottalize clicks to avoid nasalizing them.

Damin also had an egressive bilabial [ʘ↑], the world's only attested egressive click.

Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a labial consonant articulated with both lips.

Bilabial nasal click

The bilabial nasal click is a click consonant found in some of the languages of southern Africa. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʘ̃⟩ or ⟨ᵑʘ⟩.

Bilabial stop

In phonetics and phonology, a bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, made with both lips (hence bilabial), held tightly enough to block the passage of air (hence a stop consonant). The most common sounds are the stops [p] and [b], as in English pit and bit, and the voiced nasal [m]. More generally, several kinds are distinguished:

[p], voiceless bilabial stop

[b], voiced bilabial stop

[m], voiced bilabial nasal

[m̥], voiceless bilabial nasal

[ɓ], voiced bilabial implosive

[pʼ], bilabial ejective (rare)

[ɓ̥] or [pʼ↓], voiceless bilabial implosive (very rare)

Em (Cyrillic)

Em (М м; italics: М м) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.Em commonly represents the bilabial nasal consonant /m/, like the pronunciation of ⟨m⟩ in "him".

It is derived from the Greek letter Mu (Μ μ).

Em with tail

Em with tail (Ӎ ӎ; italics: Ӎ ӎ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. Its form is derived from the Cyrillic letter Em (М м) by adding a tail to the right leg.

Em with tail is used only in the alphabet of the Kildin Sami language to represent the voiceless bilabial nasal /m̥/.

Imrama

Imrama is the debut album of the Irish black metal band Primordial. It was originally released in 1995. In 2001, it was re-issued by Hammerheart Records with two bonus tracks. It was reissued again, this time by Metal Blade Records in 2009 as CD/DVD digipack in slipcase. It is a part of collector series of the first 4 albums reissues.

Immrama, meaning 'voyages' or literally 'rowings about' refers to a category of medieval Irish Christian literature in which a protagonist sets about voyaging in penance for sins committed. Medieval catelogues of literature see this genre as contrasting with Eachtra, 'expeditions' or 'adventures' in which the protagonist visits the Otherworld of Irish traditional lore.

In Ireland, an overwhelmingly English speaking country, usage of the Irish language is an outward expression of Irish identity, which is a central theme of Primordial's aesthetic and appeal. Imrama, correctly pronounced with a stressed first syllable and voiced labiodental fricative second 'm', is pronounced by the band themselves (as native speakers of English, ignorant of the Irish language and its orthography reading the word would) with a stressed second syllable and bilabial nasal second 'm'.

Labiodental nasal

The labiodental nasal is a type of consonantal sound. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɱ⟩. The IPA symbol is a lowercase letter m with a leftward hook protruding from the lower right of the letter. Occasionally it is instead transcribed as an em with a dental diacritic: ⟨m̪⟩.

It is pronounced very similarly to the bilabial nasal [m], except instead of the lips touching each other, the lower lip touches the upper teeth. The position of the lips and teeth is generally the same as for the production of the other labiodental consonants, like [f] and [v], though closure is incomplete for the fricatives.

Although commonly appearing in languages, it is overwhelmingly present non-phonemically, largely restricted to appear before labiodental consonants like [f] and [v]. A phonemic /ɱ/ has been reported for the Kukuya language, which contrasts it with /m, mpf, mbv/ and is "accompanied by strong protrusion of both lips". It is [ɱʷ] before /a/ and [ɱ] before /i/ and /e/, perhaps because labialization is constrained by the spread front vowels; it does not occur before back (rounded) vowels.It is doubted by some scholars that a true stop can be made by this gesture because of gaps between the incisors, which for many speakers would allow air to flow during the occlusion; this is particularly pertinent considering that one of the words with this consonant, /ɱáá/, means a 'gap between filed incisors,' a practice of the local people. The /ɱ/ might be better characterized as a labiodental nasal approximant than as a nasal occlusive.

Nonetheless, it is common phonetically, as it is a typical allophone of /m/ and /n/ before the labiodental fricatives [f] and [v], as in English comfort, circumvent, infinitive, or invent. In Angami, it occurs as an allophone of /m/ before /ə/. For Drubea, [ɱ] is reported as an allophone of /v/ before nasal vowels.A proposal to retire the letter ⟨ɱ⟩ was made at the Kiel Convention, at the same time the extensions to the IPA were presented, with the labiodental nasal to be transcribed solely by ⟨m̪⟩, but the proposal was defeated in committee.

List of consonants

This is a list of all the consonants which have a dedicated letter in the International Phonetic Alphabet, plus some of the consonants which require diacritics, ordered by place and manner of articulation.

Mani (letter)

Mani (asomtavruli Ⴋ, nuskhuri ⴋ, mkhedruli მ) is the 13th letter of the three Georgian scripts.In the system of Georgian numerals it has a value of 40.Mani commonly represents the bilabial nasal consonant /m/, like the pronunciation of ⟨m⟩ in "mine".

Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. The vast majority of consonants are oral consonants. Examples of nasals in English are [n], [ŋ] and [m], in words such as nose, bring and mouth. Nasal occlusives are nearly universal in human languages. There are also other kinds of nasal consonants in some languages.

Ndau dialect

Ndau (also called chiNdau, Chindau, Ndzawu, Njao, Sofala, Southeast Shona, Chidanda) is a Bantu language spoken by 1,400,000 people in central Mozambique and southeastern Zimbabwe. The major varieties in Mozambique are called Shanga and Danda; that in Zimbabwe is simply called Ndau or Ndaundau.

Ndau is part of a continuum with other neighboring varieties of the Shona group (e.g. Manyika, Karanga) and has often been included as a Shona dialect. The 2013 Constitution of Zimbabwe accorded Ndau status as an official language.

At least some speakers have a bilabial nasal click where neighboring dialects have /mw/, as in mwana 'child'.

Strč prst skrz krk

Strč prst skrz krk ([str̩tʃ pr̩st skr̩s kr̩k] ) is a Czech and Slovak tongue-twister meaning "stick a finger through the throat".The sentence is well known for being a semantically and syntactically valid clause without a single vowel, the nucleus of each syllable being a syllabic r, a common feature among many Slavic languages. It is often used as an example of such a phrase when learning Czech or Slovak as a foreign language.In fact, both Czech and Slovak have two syllabic liquid consonants, the other being syllabic l. (There is also the syllabic bilabial nasal m in sedm in Czech.) As a result, there are plenty of words without vowels. Examples of long words of this type are scvrnkls, čtvrthrst, and čtvrtsmršť, the latter two being artificial occasionalisms.

There are other examples of vowelless sentences in Czech and Slovak, such as "Prd krt skrz drn, zprv zhlt hrst zrn" meaning "A mole farted through grass, having swallowed a handful of grains".

Tee language

Tẹẹ ([tɛ̀ː]), or Tai, is an Ogoni language and the language of the Tai tribe of the Ogoni people of Rivers State, Nigeria. It is to a limited degree mutually intelligible with Khana, the main Ogoni language, but its speakers consider it to be a separate language.

Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe)

Tonga (Chitonga), also known as Zambezi, is a Bantu language primarily spoken by the Tonga people who live mainly in the Southern and Western provinces of Zambia, and in northern Zimbabwe, with a few in Mozambique. The language is also spoken by the Iwe, Toka and Leya people, and perhaps by the Kafwe Twa (if they are not Ila), as well as many bilingual Zambians and Zimbabweans.

It is one of the major lingua francas in Zambia, together with Bemba, Lozi and Nyanja. The Tonga of Malawi, which is classified by Guthrie as belonging to zone N15, is not particularly close to Zambian Tonga, which is classified as zone M64, and can be considered a separate language.

The Tonga-speaking inhabitants are the oldest Bantu settlers, with the Tumbuka, a small ethnic group in the east, in what is now known as Zambia. There are two distinctive dialects of Tonga; Valley Tonga and Plateau Tonga. Valley Tonga is mostly spoken in the Zambezi valley and southern areas of the Batonga (Tonga people) while Plateau Tonga is spoken more around Monze District and the northern areas of the Batonga.Tonga (Chitonga or iciTonga) developed as a spoken language and was not put into written form until missionaries arrived in the area. The language is not standardized, and speakers of the same dialect may have different spellings for the same words once put into written text.At least some speakers have a bilabial nasal click where neighboring dialects have /mw/, as in mwana 'child' and kumwa 'to drink'.Maho (2009) removes Shanjo as a separate, and not very closely related, language.

Voiceless bilabial nasal

The voiceless bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨m̥⟩, a combination of the letter for the voiced bilabial nasal and a diacritic indicating voicelessness. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is m_0.

Western Fijian language

Western Fijian, also known as Wayan is an Oceanic language spoken in Fiji by about 57,000 people.

It is distinct from Eastern Fijian (also known as Bauan or Standard Fijian), though it is not taught in schools. Colonial linguists considered Eastern Fijian to be superior, and thus marginalized Western Fijian.

IPA topics

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