Big tent

In politics, a big tent or catch-all party is a type of political party that seeks to attract voters from different points of view and ideologies. This is in contrast to other parties that defend a determined ideology and seek voters who adhere to that ideology and convince people towards it.

Examples

Finland

The centre-right National Coalition Party has been described as catch-all party supporting the interests of the urban middle classes.[1]

France

The La République En Marche! party founded by President Emmanuel Macron has been described as a centrist party with a catch-all nature.[2]

Germany

Both the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) and Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) are considered big tent or catch-all parties, known in German as Volksparteien ("people's parties").[3]

India

The Indian National Congress attracted support from Indians of all classes, castes and religions opposed to the British Empire.[4]

Ireland

Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil are considered catch-all parties, both being supported by people from different social classes and political ideologies.[5] Both parties are however usually described as being on the centre-right and liberal conservative.

Italy

In Italy, the Five Star Movement led by comedian and actor Beppe Grillo has been described as a catch-all, protest party and "post-ideological big tent" because its supporters do not share similar policy preferences, are split on major economic and social issues and are united largely based on "anti-establishment" sentiments.[6] The Five Star Movement's "successful campaign formula combined anti-establishment sentiments with an economic and political protest which extends beyond the boundaries of traditional political orientations", yet its "'catch-all' formula" has limited its ability to become "a mature, functional, effective and coherent contender for government".[6] Forza Italia and its predecessor on the centre-right and the Democratic Party on the centre-left are considered catch-all parties, both having been formed from mergers of political parties with numerous ideological backgrounds.

Mexico

The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) which held power in Mexico for 71 uninterrupted years from 1929 to 2000 was founded following the Mexican Revolution. Mexican president Plutarco Elías Calles founded the PRI, then known as the National Revolutionary Party, in 1929 with the intent of providing a political space in which all the surviving leaders and combatants of the Mexican Revolution could participate, and to solve the grave political crisis caused by the assassination of president-elect Álvaro Obregón in 1928. Throughout its nine-decade existence, the PRI has adopted a very wide array of ideologies (often determined by the President of the Republic in turn). It nationalized the petroleum industry in the 1940s and the banking industry in the 1970s. In the 1980s, the party went through reforms that shaped its current incarnation, with policies characterized as centre-right, such as the privatization of State-run companies, closer relations with the Catholic church, and embracing free-market capitalism and neoliberal policies.[7][8][9]

The National Regeneration Movement, founded by the current president of Mexico Andrés Manuel López Obrador, has often been described as a big tent party due to its various constituents that joined its ranks during the 2018 general elections.[10][11]

Portugal

The centre-left Socialist Party (PS) and centre-right Social Democratic Party (PSD) have been described as catch-all parties.[12]

United Kingdom

When Gordon Brown became British Prime Minister in 2007, he invited several members from outside the Labour Party into his government. These included former CBI Director-General Digby Jones who became a Minister of State and former Liberal Democrats leader Paddy Ashdown who was offered the position of Northern Ireland Secretary (Ashdown turned down the offer).[13][14] The media often referred to Brown's ministry as "a government of all the talents" or simply "Brown's big tent".[15]

United States

The Democratic Party during the New Deal coalition, formed in support of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal policies from 1930s until 1960s, was a "big-tent" party.[16] This coalition brought together labor unions, working-class voters, farm organizations, liberals, Southern Democrats, African Americans, urban voters and immigrants.[17][18]

The Blue Dog Coalition is a big-tent caucus of centrist and conservative Democrats in the House of Representatives, some being socially conservative and fiscally and economically progressive or vice versa. For a brief period following the 2006 and 2008 elections, when Democrats held a majority in the House, this caucus wielded increased influence over the party, but its power declined again after a large majority of its members were defeated or retired in the 2010 election. Its Republican counterpart is the Republican Main Street Partnership.

In counter to the New Deal coalition, the Republican Party was for much of its history a "big tent" party that encompassed a wide range of right-wing and center-right causes, including a wide range of politicians who were fiscally conservative and socially moderate or liberal and vice versa. During the 1970s and 1980s, the Republican party attracted support from wealthy suburban voters in the South and Midwest, Northeastern moderates, Western libertarians, and rural conservatives across the country. From 1968 to 1988, Republicans won five out of six presidential elections, with the only exception being a narrow loss to Democrat Jimmy Carter in 1976. The culture wars of the 1990s and the growing influence of the Christian right within the party prompted the socially moderate and liberal sections of the Republican base, particularly in the Northeast and Midwest, to begin slowly leaving the party in favor of moderate Democrats or independents. As a result, Republicans have lost the national popular vote in six out of seven presidential elections since 1992, while winning narrow Electoral College victories three times. However, moderate Republicans continued to thrive at the state level until the dawn of the 21st century.

Following the 1974 Dallas Accord, the Libertarian Party embraced the big tent idea to the extent it ensured that the anarchist-capitalist views would not be excluded from the majority minarchist party.[19]

Other examples

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Lauri Karvonen (2014). Parties, Governments and Voters in Finland: Politics Under Fundamental Societal Transformation. ECPR Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-910259-33-7.
  2. ^ a b Sophie Di Francesco-Mayot (2017). "The French Parti Socialiste (2010–16): from office to crisis". In Rob Manwaring; Paul Kennedy. Why the Left Loses: The Decline of the Centre-Left in Comparative Perspective. Policy Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-1-4473-3269-5.
  3. ^ a b c Isabelle Hertner; James Sloam (2014). "The Europeanisation of the German Party System". In Erol Külahci. Europeanisation and Party Politics: How the EU affects Domestic Actors, Patterns and Systems. ECPR Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-907301-84-1.
  4. ^ Meyer, Karl Ernest; Brysac, Shareen Blair (2012). Pax Ethnica: Where and How Diversity Succeeds. PublicAffairs. pp. 64–. ISBN 9781610390484. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  5. ^ Liam Weeks (2018). "Parties and the party system". In John Coakley; Michael Gallagher. Politics in the Republic of Ireland: Sixth Edition. Taylor & Francis. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-317-31269-7.
  6. ^ a b Valentina Romei, Five Star Movement: the protest party explained in charts: Direct democracy and rejection of binary politics brings success but stunts maturity, Financial Times (January 10, 2017).
  7. ^ "Meade, the King of the Mexican Sandwich". El Universal. January 11, 2018.
  8. ^ Russell, James W. (2009). Class and Race Formation in North America. University of Toronto Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-8020-9678-4.
  9. ^ Kopstein, Jeffrey; Lichbach, Mark; Hanson, Stephen E. (July 21, 2014). Comparative Politics: Interests, Identities, and Institutions in a Changing Global Order. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  10. ^ Schettino, Macario (6 June 2018). "Mexico 2018: How AMLO Took a Page from the PRI Playbook". Americas Quarterly. Retrieved 18 September 2018. Morena’s star has risen so quickly because it offers refuge to such a wide range of beliefs and ideologies. The party has room for old guard supporters of Hugo Chávez and Fidel Castro, young leftist academics, former PRI leaders, evangelical Christians, actors, athletes, and even the odd business tycoon or two. In this way the party resembles the big tent of the PRI, which more than a guiding philosophy was guided by the administration of political power.
  11. ^ Graham, Dave (20 March 2018). "Mexican leftist's 'big tent' pitch puts presidency in sight". Reuters. Retrieved 18 September 2018. In a few months, he has assembled a coalition stretching from socially conservative Christian evangelicals to admirers of socialist Venezuela and business tycoons, each with contrasting visions for Mexico. Dozens of lawmakers from across the political spectrum have switched sides to join Lopez Obrador’s National Regeneration Movement (MORENA), a party that is not yet four years old.
  12. ^ a b c Marco Lisi; André Freire (2014). "The selection of political party leaders in Portugal". In Jean-Benoit Pilet; William Cross. The Selection of Political Party Leaders in Contemporary Parliamentary Democracies: A Comparative Study. Routledge. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-317-92945-1.
  13. ^ "In full: Brown's government". BBC News. June 29, 2007.
  14. ^ "The fallout from Brown's job offer". BBC News. June 21, 2007.
  15. ^ "First 100 days: Gordon Brown". BBC News. October 5, 2007.
  16. ^ David C. King, "The Polarization of American Parties and Mistrust of Government" in Why People Don't Trust Government (eds. Joseph S. Nye, Philip Zelikow, David C. King: Harvard University Press, 1997).
  17. ^ Lisa Young, Feminists and Party Politics (University of Michigan Press, 2000), p. 84.
  18. ^ Holly M. Allen, "New Deal Coalition" in Class in America: An Encyclopedia (Vol. 2: H-P), ed. Robert E. Weir (ABC-CLIO, 2007), p. 571: "During the 1930s liberals, labor unions, white ethnics, African Americans, farm groups, and Southern whites united to form the New Deal coalition. Though never formally organized, the coalition was sufficiently cohesive to make the Democratic Party the majority party from 1931 into the 1980s. Democrats won seven out of nine presidential contests and maintained majorities in both houses of Congress from 1932 to 1964. The divisiveness of the Civil Rights movement and the Vietnam War, the increasing segmentation of the labor force, and waning influence of unions, and the relative weakness of Democratic Party leadership are among the factors that led to the coalition's erosion in the late 1960s."
  19. ^ Paul Gottfried, The conservative movement: Social movements past and present , Twayne Publishers, 1993, p. 46.
  20. ^ Hroník, Jiří. "Známe tajemství velkého úspěchu Andreje Babiše". Parlamentní listy. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  21. ^ Mlejnek, Josef. "Marketing jako kingmaker aneb Kam směřují české politické strany?". Revue Politika. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  22. ^ a b Sarah Elise Wiliarty (16 August 2010). The CDU and the Politics of Gender in Germany: Bringing Women to the Party. Cambridge University Press. pp. 218–221. ISBN 978-1-139-49116-7.
  23. ^ Daniel Gallas. "Dilma Rousseff and Brazil face up to decisive month". BBC. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  24. ^ James L. Newell; James Newell (28 January 2010). The Politics of Italy: Governance in a Normal Country. Cambridge University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-521-84070-5.
  25. ^ Jane L. Curry (2011). "Poland: The Politics of "God's Playground"". In Sharon L. Wolchik; Jane L. Curry. Central and East European Politics: From Communism to Democracy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-7425-6734-4.
  26. ^ Maria Maguire (1986). "Ireland". In Peter Flora. Growth to Limits: Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy. Walter de Gruyter. p. 333. ISBN 978-3-11-011131-6.
  27. ^ Eoin O'Malley (2011). Contemporary Ireland. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-230-34382-5.
  28. ^ Ditrych, Ondrej (July 2013). "The Georgian succession" (PDF). European Union Institute for Security Studies. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2016. ...GD as a catch-all movement...
  29. ^ Lowell Barrington (2009). Comparative Politics: Structures and Choices. Cengage Learning. p. 379. ISBN 0-618-49319-0.
  30. ^ Mohammadighalehtaki, Ariabarzan (2012). Organisational Change in Political Parties in Iran after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. With Special Reference to the Islamic Republic Party (IRP) and the Islamic Iran Participation Front Party (Mosharekat) (Ph.D. thesis). Durham University. p. 176.
  31. ^ https://www.lesinrocks.com/2017/06/09/actualite/legislatives-le-parti-demmanuel-macron-un-caractere-attrape-tout-11954037/
  32. ^ Glenn D. Hook; Julie Gilson; Christopher W. Hughes; Hugo Dobson (2001). Japan's International Relations: Politics, Economics and Security. Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-134-32806-2.
  33. ^ Sigrid Baringhorst; Veronika Kneip; Johanna Niesyto (2009). Political Campaigning on the Web. transcript Verlag. p. 236. ISBN 978-3-8376-1047-5.
  34. ^ "MORENA (National Regeneration Movement)". 2018-01-21.
  35. ^ O'Kane, David; Hepner, Tricia (2011), Biopolitics, Militarism, and Development: Eritrea in the Twenty-First Century, Berghahn Books, p. xx, ISBN 9780857453990, retrieved 15 January 2011
  36. ^ William Cross (2015). "Party Membership in Quebec". In Emilie van Haute; Anika Gauja. Party Members and Activists. Routledge. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-317-52432-8.
  37. ^ David Torrance, "Scotland's Progressive Dilemma," The Political Quarterly, 88 (2017): 52–59. doi:10.1111/1467-923X.12319
  38. ^ Severin Carrell, "Alex Salmond's big tent bulges as Tommy Sheridan lends voteless support," The Guardian, 25 April 2011. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/blog/2011/apr/25/alex-salmond-tommy-sheridan-election
  39. ^ Tom Gallagher; Allan M. Williams (1989). "Southern European socialism in the 1990s". In Tom Gallagher; Allan M. Williams. Southern European Socialism: Parties, Elections, and the Challenge of Government. Manchester University Press. pp. 271–. ISBN 978-0-7190-2500-6.. Page 271.
  40. ^ a b Günther Pallaver (2008). "South Tyrol's Consociational Democracy: Between Political Claim and Social Reality". In Jens Woelk; Francesco Palermo; Joseph Marko. Tolerance Through Law: Self Governance and Group Rights In South Tyrol. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 305, 309. ISBN 978-90-04-16302-7.
  41. ^ a b David Lublin (2014). Minority Rules: Electoral Systems, Decentralization, and Ethnoregional Party Success. Oxford University Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-19-994884-0.
  42. ^ a b Sventlana S. Bodrunova; Anna A. Litvinenko (2013). "New media and political protest: the formation of a public counter-sphere in Russia, 2008–2012". In Andrey Makarychev; Andre Mommen. Russia’s Changing Economic and Political Regimes: The Putin Years and Afterwards. Routledge. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-135-00695-2.
  43. ^ "Junts pel Sí (Together for Yes): "We are all in, we've reached the end of the line"". Ara. 2015-07-21.
  44. ^ "Junts pel Sí (Together for Yes): "We are all in, we've reached the end of the line"". Ara. 2015-07-21.
  45. ^ "Serbian Compliance Patterns towards EU Integration under the Progressive Party: An Exercise in Statecraft" (PDF). Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  46. ^ Stojić, Marko (2017). Party Responses to the EU in the Western Balkans: Transformation, Opposition or Defiance?. Springer. p. 135.
2015 Polish parliamentary election

Parliamentary elections to both the Sejm and Senate were held in Poland on 25 October 2015.

The election was won by the largest opposition party Law and Justice (PiS) with 37.6% of the vote against the governing Civic Platform (PO), which achieved 24.1%. Official results, announced on 27 October, gave Law and Justice 235 of 460 seats (51 percent), a majority of four. PiS vice chairwoman Beata Szydło succeeded PO leader Ewa Kopacz as Prime Minister of Poland, heading a one-party cabinet.

It was the first election for a national parliament in Europe since the 1993 Norwegian elections in which the two largest parties were led by a female candidate, and the second election in history (also since the 1993 Norwegian election) where more than three parties fielded female leadership candidates. It was also the first election in Poland since the restoration of full democracy in 1991 (the 1989 elections were only partially free as the Communists and their then-allies had a guaranteed majority) that a party won an absolute majority in the Sejm.

Ardent Records

Ardent Records, often shortened to "Ardent," is a Memphis record label founded by John Fry in 1959. Ardent of the 1960s and 1970s featured pop music acts and was distributed by Stax Records from 1972 until 1975. It is best remembered today for Big Star, whose first two albums, released in 1972 and 1974, helped define the style known as power pop. The label was initially an attempt by the R&B-focused Stax to move into rock music, but distribution problems prevented any releases from succeeding. Big Star became widely known through 1980s reissues and the long delayed first release of Third/Sister Lovers, recorded in 1974.

The label was revived in the 1990s with two divisions: Alternative Mainstream and Contemporary Christian. Former Big Star guitarist Alex Chilton released recordings on the Ardent mainstream division, which also released recordings by bands such as Spot, Jolene, Two Minutes Hate, The Idlewilds, Neighborhood Texture Jam, and Techno-Squid Eats Parliament. The mainstream division of Ardent Records was closed in the mid-1990s.

Ardent's Christian label issued its first Christian releases in 1995. Initial projects included albums from Big Tent Revival, Skillet, and Smalltown Poets. To date, Ardent Records has released more than 35 albums by artists such as Skillet, Todd Agnew, Jonah33, Smalltown Poets, Satellite Soul, Clear, All Together Separate, Brother's Keeper, Justifide, Before You Breathe, NonFiction, and Joy Whitlock. In 2005, Ardent inked a deal with INO Records, a division of Integrity Media, to distribute and market its entire roster. The label's albums are recorded at Ardent Studios in Memphis.

Big Tent Revival

Big Tent Revival is a Christian rock band formed in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1991 by Steve Wiggins. They were signed to Ardent Records who had a distribution deal with Forefront Records. They disbanded in 2000 after having released five albums, had two releases after disbanding, and reformed in 2012 after as successful crowdfunding campaign for a new album. They are best known for their songs "Two Sets of Jones", "Choose Life", and "What Would Jesus Do?" and were featured at the Harvest Crusades.

Cambiemos

Cambiemos (Spanish pronunciation: [kamˈbjemos]; Spanish for "Let’s change") is an Argentine center-right big tent political coalition created in 2015. It is composed of the Republican Proposal (PRO), the Radical Civic Union (UCR), and the Civic Coalition (CC-ARI). These three parties respectively nominated Mauricio Macri, Ernesto Sanz, and Elisa Carrió as their representatives in the August 2015 primary elections, which were held to choose which candidate would run in the 2015 presidential election on 25 October. On 9 August 2015 Mauricio Macri was elected as the candidate who would represent Cambiemos in the presidential election; on 22 November he won the presidential election.

Dallas Accord

The Dallas Accord was an implicit agreement made at the 1974 Libertarian National Convention to compromise between the larger minarchist and smaller anarcho-capitalist factions by adopting a platform that explicitly did not say whether it was desirable for the state to exist.The purpose of the Dallas Accord was to make the Libertarian Party of the United States a "big tent" that would welcome more ideologically diverse groups of people interested in reducing the size of government. Therefore, the 1974 platform, including a "Statement of Principles," focused on statements arguing for getting government out of various activities, and used phrases such as "where governments exist they must not violate the rights of any individual." The previous version of the Statement of Principles adopted at the party's first convention in 1972, in contrast, affirmatively endorsed the minarchist perspective with statements such as "Since government has only one legitimate function, the protection of individual rights...." It was agreed that the topic of anarchism would not even be on the table for discussion until a limited government was achieved.During the following years the number of anarchists in the party was estimated to have dropped by about half and more conservative-oriented and constitutionalist members joined. Denunciations of equating the Libertarian Party with anarchism have persisted throughout the party's history, from John Hospers, the party's first presidential nominee in 1972, to Judge Jim Gray, the party's 2012 nominee for Vice President.During the 2006 Libertarian National Convention delegates deleted a large portion of the very detailed platform. They added the phrase "Government exists to protect the rights of every individual including life, liberty and property." This development was described as the "Portland Massacre" by its opponents. Some took this as meaning the Dallas Accord was dead. Delegates tried in 2008 to restore the platform, without success.

Anarchist libertarians continue to work in the party and run for office. Anarchist philosophies of no monopolist government are, they contend, referenced implicitly in the current platform planks, one of which describes the "right to alter or abolish government."

Whether such an agreement remains in effect, and if so whether it should, or what limits it places on the party's public statements or candidates, all remain disputed. The party's Statement of Principles also states support for "the prohibition of the initiation of physical force against others," and "the prohibition of robbery, trespass, fraud, and misrepresentation." The platform states in its Criminal Justice plank, that "[t]he prescribed role of government is to protect the rights of every individual including the right to life, liberty and property."

David Cracknell

David Cracknell is a former journalist in the United Kingdom. Formerly Political Editor of The Sunday Times, he is head of a public relations firm, Big Tent Communications.

Grammy Award for Best Rock Gospel Album

The Grammy Award for Best Rock Gospel Album was awarded from 1991 to 2011. From 1991 to 1993 the category was awarded as Best Rock/Contemporary Gospel Album. From 2007 to 2011 it was awarded as Best Rock or Rap Gospel Album.

The award was discontinued from 2012 in a major overhaul of Grammy categories. From 2012, recordings in this category were shifted to either Best Contemporary Christian Music Album or Best Gospel Album categories.

Hipster hop

Hipster hop, a portmanteau of hipster and hip hop, is a microgenre of alternative hip hop, more specifically, "indie rock-informed hip-hop". It is also known as hipster rap.

Kerry Olitzky

Rabbi Kerry M. Olitzky is an Associate at Mersky, Jaffe & Associates, a firm that specializes in financial resource development and executive search solutions for the nonprofit community. He was previously the Executive Director of Big Tent Judaism (formerly known as the Jewish Outreach Institute), a United States independent organization dedicated to bringing Judaism to interfaith families and the unaffiliated.

Machrouu Tounes

Machrouu Tounes (Arabic: مشروع تونس‎; French: Projet de la Tunisie; English: Project Tunisia) is a big tent secularist Tunisian political party founded on 20 March 2016 by Mohsen Marzouk as a breakaway from Nidaa Tounes, the then ruling party. It includes members of the centre-left and centre-right, as well as nationalists.

Mirantis

Mirantis Inc. is a Campbell, California, based B2B cloud computing services company. It focuses on the development and support of OpenStack. The company was founded in 1999 by Alex Freedland and Boris Renski. It was one of the founding members of the OpenStack Foundation, a non-profit corporate entity established in September, 2012 to promote OpenStack software and its community.

Nidaa Tounes

Nidaa Tounes (Arabic: حركة نداء تونس‎ Nidā’ Tūnis, French: Appel de la Tunisie; usually translated as "Call of Tunisia", "Call for Tunisia", or "Tunisia's Call") is a big tent secularist political party in Tunisia. After being founded in 2012, the party won a plurality of seats in the October 2014 parliamentary election. The party's founding leader Beji Caid Essebsi was elected President of Tunisia in the 2014 presidential election.

One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning the elections.

Paul Nelson (creationist)

Paul A. Nelson (born 1958) is an American philosopher of science noted for his advocacy of young earth creationism and intelligent design.

Rochester International Jazz Festival

Established in 2002, the CGI Rochester International Jazz Festival Presented by M&T Bank takes place in June of each year, in Rochester, New York. It is owned and produced by RIJF, LLC, whose principles are John Nugent, Co-Producer and Artistic Director, and Marc Iacona, Co-Producer and Executive Director.

The nine-day festival is held at 20 diverse venues throughout downtown Rochester New York's East End cultural and entertainment district, including Kodak Hall at Eastman Theatre, Kilbourn Hall at the Eastman School of Music, Hatch Recital Hall, Lutheran Church of the Reformation, Christ Church, the Rochester Regional Health Big Tent, Max of Eastman Place, Montage Music Hall, Xerox Auditorium, Wilder Room, The Little Theatre, and multiple outdoor free stages and venues - all within walking distance and many on "Jazz Street" (otherwise known as Gibbs Street during the rest of the year), which is closed off for the festival's nine days. More than 90 free concerts and events are presented on outdoor stages and other free venues. A five-day Youth Jazz Workshop provides an opportunity for elementary and high school music students to learn from and play alongside noted musicians performing at the festival. The festival supports the RIJF Eastman School of Music Jazz Scholarship, which has awarded almost $500,000 in scholarships since 2002 to 40 students to attend the Eastman School of Music.

In 2018, the festival drew a record-setting crowd of more than 208,000 people from around the world to see more than 1500 musicians from 20 countries performed in 320+ shows.

CGI Communications became the festival's new title sponsor as of July 2018, succeeding Xerox, which was the title sponsor for 10 years from 2009 through 2018.

M&T Bank is the presenting sponsor.In 2009, attendance was estimated at a record 133,000 for the 225 concerts presented.In 2010, 162,000 people attended the Xerox Rochester International Jazz Festival's 250 concerts presented over nine days, breaking the record set the prior year of 133,000.2011 saw another record-setting year with 285 concerts presented over nine days and in 18 different venues. Attendance reached an all-time high of 182,000.In 2012, the 11th Edition hit another attendance record of 187,000, a record number of headliner sell-outs, the addition of new venue, Hatch Recital Hall and 9 days of spectacular weather. Norah Jones, Diana Krall, Steve Martin & The Steep Canyon Rangers, Esperanza Spalding, Zappa Plays Zappa, and Daryl Hall "Live From Daryl's House" with special guest Keb' Mo' headlined this year.

The Phantom of the Big Tent

The Phantom of the Big Tent (German: Phantom des großen Zeltes) is a 1954 West German thriller film directed by Paul May and starring René Deltgen, Angelika Hauff and Ilse Steppat.The film's sets were designed by the art directors Hans Kuhnert and Theo Zwierski. It was shot at the CCC Studios in Berlin, with location filming taking place at a circus in Spandau.

The Saturday Big Tent Wedding Party

The Saturday Big Tent Wedding Party is the twelfth mystery novel The No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency series by Alexander McCall Smith and first published in 2011. The Motswana Precious Ramotswe is featured as the principal detective.

Umbrella organization

An umbrella organization is an association of (often related, industry-specific) institutions, who work together formally to coordinate activities or pool resources. In business, political, or other environments, one group, the umbrella organization, provides resources and often an identity to the smaller organizations. Sometimes in this kind of arrangement, the umbrella organization is to some degree responsible for the groups under its care.

White movement

The White movement (Russian: Бѣлое движеніе/Белое движение, tr. Beloye dvizheniye, IPA: [ˈbʲɛləɪ dvʲɪˈʐenʲɪɪ]) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Бѣлогвардейцы/Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Бѣлые/Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of anti-communist forces that fought the Communist Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/1923) and to a lesser extent continued operating as militarized associations insurrectionists both outside and within Russian borders in Siberia until roughly World War II (1939–1945).

During the Russian Civil War, the White movement was a big tent political movement representing an array of political opinions in Russia united in their opposition to the Communist Bolsheviks, from the republican-minded bourgeois liberals and Kerenskyite social democrats who had profited from the February Revolution of 1917 on the left to the champions of Tsarism and the Russian Orthodox Church of Eastern Orthodox Christianity on the right.

Following their defeat, there were remnants and continuations of the movement in several organizations, some of which only had narrow support, enduring within the wider White émigré overseas community until after the fall of Communism in the Eastern European Revolutions of 1989 and the subsequent Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990–1991. This community-in-exile of anti-communists was often divided between the liberals and the more conservative segments, with some still hoping for the restoration of the Romanov dynasty, including several claimants to the empty throne like Nicholas Romanov, Prince of Russia (1924–2014) living in Italy and Prince Andrew Romanov (b. 1923) in the United States and other exiles, still hopes for a true constitutional democratic republic in Russia.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.