Bidirectional traffic

In transportation infrastructure, a bidirectional traffic system divides travelers into two streams of traffic that flow in opposite directions.[1]

In the design and construction of tunnels, bidirectional traffic can markedly affect ventilation considerations.[2]

Microscopic traffic flow models have been proposed for bidirectional automobile, pedestrian, and railway traffic.[3] Bidirectional traffic can be observed in ant trails[4] and this has been researched for insight into human traffic models.[5] In a macroscopic theory proposed by Laval, the interaction between fast and slow vehicles conforms to the Newell kinematic wave model of moving bottlenecks.[6]

In air traffic control traffic is normally separated by elevation, with east bound flights at odd thousand feet elevations and west bound flights at even thousand feet elevations (1000 ft ≈ 305m). Above 28,000 ft (~8.5 km) only odd flight levels are used, with FL 290, 330, 370, etc., for eastbound flights and FL 310, 350, 390, etc., for westbound flights.[7] Entry to and exit from airports is always one-way traffic, as runways are chosen to allow aircraft to take off and land into the wind, to reduce ground speed.[8] Even in no wind cases, a preferred calm wind runway and direction is normally chosen and used by all flights, to avoid collisions.[9] In uncontrolled airports, airport information can be obtained from anyone at the airport. Traffic follows a specific traffic pattern, with designated entry and exits. Radio announcements are made, whether anyone is listening or not, to allow any other traffic to be aware of other traffic in the area.[10]

In the earliest days of railways in the United Kingdom, most lines were built double tracked because of the difficulty of coordinating operations in pre-telegraphy times.

Most modern roads carry bidirectional traffic, although one-way traffic is common in dense urban centres. Bidirectional traffic flow is believed to influence the rate of traffic collisions. In an analysis of head-on collisions, rear-end collisions, and lane-changing collisions based on the Simon-Gutowitz bidirectional traffic model, it was concluded that "the risk of collisions is important when the density of cars in one lane is small and that of the other lane is high enough", and that "heavy vehicles cause an important reduction of traffic flow on the home lane and provoke an increase of the risk of car accident".[11]

Bidirectional traffic is the most common form of flow observed in trails, however, some larger pedestrian concourses exhibit multidirectional traffic.[12]

Drive on left in australia
A traffic sign in Victoria, Australia that reads "Drive on left in Australia"

References

  1. ^ Moussa, Najem (2008-11-10). "Simon–Gutowitz bidirectional traffic model revisited". Physics Letters A. 372 (45): 6701–6704. arXiv:0903.1345. Bibcode:2008PhLA..372.6701M. doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2008.08.081.
  2. ^ Pursall, B. R.; King, Alan Leslie (1976). "The aerodynamics and ventilation of vehicle tunnels: a state of the art review and bibliography". BHRA Fluid Engineering. 2: 236. ISBN 978-0-900983-62-7.
  3. ^ Simon, P. M.; H. A. Gutowitz (February 1998). "Cellular automaton model for bidirectional traffic". Physical Review E. 57 (2): 2441–2444. arXiv:cond-mat/9801024. Bibcode:1998PhRvE..57.2441S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.57.2441.
  4. ^ Burd, Martin; N. Aranwela (February 2003). "Head-on encounter rates and walking speed of foragers in leaf-cutting ant traffic". Insectes Sociaux. Birkhäuser Basel. 50 (1): 3–8. doi:10.1007/s000400300001.
  5. ^ John, Alexander; Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury; Katsuhiro Nishinari (March 2008). "Characteristics of ant-inspired traffic flow". Swarm Intelligence. Springer New York. 2 (1): 25–41. arXiv:0903.1434. doi:10.1007/s11721-008-0010-8.
  6. ^ Laval, Jorge (December 2006). "A macroscopic theory of two-lane rural roads" (PDF). Transportation Research Part B: Methodological. 40 (10): 937–944. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2006.03.002. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
  7. ^ airways and aircraft separation
  8. ^ Relative Velocity
  9. ^ "Calm Wind Runways" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-17. Retrieved 2012-05-30. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  10. ^ "Operations at nontowered airports" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-01-13. Retrieved 2012-05-30. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  11. ^ Moussa, Najem (2009). "Simulation study of traffic accidents in bidirectional traffic models". International Journal of Modern Physics C. 21 (12): 1501–1515. arXiv:0905.4252. Bibcode:2010IJMPC..21.1501M. doi:10.1142/S0129183110016007.
  12. ^ Blue, Victor; Jeffrey Adler (1999). "Cellular automata microsimulation of bidirectional pedestrian flows" (PDF). Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. 1678 (1): 135–141. doi:10.3141/1678-17. Retrieved 2009-09-09.

Further reading

  • "Structural design issues". Transportation research record. National Research Council, Transportation Research Board. 2000. ISBN 978-0-309-06744-7. Two-lane rural highways with bidirectional traffic
  • Michael S. Bernick; Robert Cervero (1996). Transit villages in the 21st century. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-005475-2. Satellite subcenters would function as countermagnets to central Stockholm, leading to efficient bidirectional traffic flows.
  • "Annual meeting". Compendium of Technical Papers. Institute of Transportation Engineers. 53. 1983. Madras conducted some field studies to evolve a relationship between speed and volume of traffic on single and two lane bidirectional traffic roads.
  • Bickel, John; T. R. Kuesel (1982). Tunnel engineering handbook. University of California: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. p. 499. ISBN 978-0-442-28127-4. This results in bidirectional traffic in a single tunnel.
  • Highway Research Board; National Research Council (1972). "Proceedings of a workshop held May 17–19, 1971". Systems building for bridges. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-309-02063-3. Obviously the hazards are far more numerous and the need for better headlighting much greater on these millions of miles of streets and highways carrying bidirectional traffic, particularly because so few of these miles have even mediocre fixed highway lighting.
  • National Research Council; Transportation Research Board (1993). Pavement management systems. National Academy Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-309-05468-3.
  • Transportation Research Board; National Research Council; Federal Transit Administration. "Report 65: "Evaluation of Bus Bulbs"" (PDF). Transit Cooperative Research Program: 20. Retrieved 2009-09-09. Conversely, at 44 sq ft (4.1 sq m), passing slower pedestrian traffic is easier, crossing bidirectional traffic is nearly unhindered, and traveling through the zone is dramatically less affected by other walking or standing pedestrians.
  • Stone, H. David (2008). Vital rails: the Charleston & Savannah Railroad and the Civil War in coastal South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-57003-716-0. Single tracking and the relative lack of sidings made bidirectional traffic difficult — a difficulty that became more obvious during the conflict with the North.
  • Behrens, John (1974). "A staff technical report". Recommendation for the Chicago area freight system for 1995. Chicago Area Transportation Study. The average yard handle 350 vans of bidirectional traffic each day.
  • National Research Council; Transportation Research Board (1993). "Transportation system management, parking, and travel demand management". Transportation Research Record. 1404: 39. ISBN 978-0-309-05550-5. This is especially true for physically challenged users and the elderly, who have to weave through bidirectional traffic.
  • Borndörfer, Ralf; Marika Neumann; Marc E. Pfetsch (2005-11-16). "Optimal Fares for Public Transport" (PDF). In Haasis, Hans-Dietrich; Kopfer, Herbert; Schönberger, Jörn (eds.). Operations Research Proceedings 2005. Operations Research Proceedings. 2005. Bremen: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/3-540-32539-5. ISBN 978-3-540-32537-6. It consists of a network containing 23 nodes (stations) and a corresponding upper-triangular origin-destination matrix (d0st) with 210 nonzero entries that account for a symmetric bidirectional traffic.
  • Burger, H. (1993). "Options for tunnelling". Developments in Geotechnical Engineering: 35. ISBN 978-0-444-89935-4. A tunnel with an inner diameter of 9.75 meters allowing a bidirectional traffic of 2 x 3 car lanes on two superimposed levels.
  • Cervero, Robert (1998). The transit metropolis: a global inquiry. Island Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-55963-591-2. As shown in Stockholm and Curitiba, mixed land uses can translate into balanced, bidirectional traffic flows.
  • "Volume 26, Issues 1-7". Electronic Design. Hayden Pub. Co. 1978. But to get the sign's X-band Doppler radar to work reliably from overpasses (see photo) or from overhead sign posts, two major problems had to be overcome: fluctuations in the Doppler returns because of multipath cancellations from cars approaching the sign, and interference caused by bidirectional traffic flow.
  • Tang, T.Q.; Huang, H.J.; Wong, S.C.; Xu, X.Y. (2007-03-15). "A new overtaking model and numerical tests". Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications. 376: 649–657. Bibcode:2007PhyA..376..649T. doi:10.1016/j.physa.2006.10.044. The overtaking in a two-lane bidirectional traffic flow is also analyzed.
  • Bényei, András; Péter Golarits (2002). "Measurements to define relationship between traffic volume and traffic conditions in Hungary" (PDF). Periodica Polytechnica Ser. Civ. Eng. 46 (1): 83–94. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2009-09-09. In Fig. 3 the s = f (V∗) functions are presented, showing the V∗ PCU/h fictive bidirectional traffic volumes delimiting the proposed three grades of level of services. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  • Hamza-lup, Georgiana; Kien A. Hua; Minh Le; Rui Peng (2004). "Enhancing intelligent transportation systems to improve and support homeland security" (PDF). IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference. Washington, D.C. p. 250. doi:10.1109/ITSC.2004.1398906. In the Fastest-Links approach, links that are not on the multicast tree are allowed to have bidirectional traffic, so we only need to enforce certain directions for the traffic flowing through the intersections/nodes in the multicast tree.
  • US 5815161 "As shown, the two links 100, 102 have mutually opposite traffic directions. This means that in the joining, the complex road junction can get a bidirectional traffic indication."
  • Sato, Yoshimichi; Koji Makanae (December 2006). "Development and Evaluation of In-vehicle Signing System Utilizing RFID tags as Digital Traffic Signs" (PDF). International Journal of ITS Research. 40 (1). Retrieved 2009-09-09. This approach makes the system applicable also to a narrow undivided road carrying bidirectional traffic
  • Blue, Victor; Jeffrey Adler (2000). "Cellular automata model of emergent collective bi-directional pedestrian dynamics" (PDF). In M.A. Bedau, J.S. McCaskill, N.H. Packard, S. Rasmussen (eds.). Artificial Life VII: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Artificial Life, eds. Portland, Oregon: The MIT Press. pp. 437–445. ISBN 978-0-262-52290-8. Retrieved 2009-09-09. The bi-directional vehicular flow model focuses on modeling acceleration and passing movements within the framework of two lanes of opposing flow.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  • "Road Watch: The Budapest Sun traffic buster". The Budapest Sun. 2008-05-07. Retrieved 2009-09-09. The bidirectional traffic flow is controlled by traffic lights.
  • Dorna, B.; M. Kramar Fijavžb; R. Nagela; A. Radla (2009-06-21). "The semigroup approach to transport processes in networks" (PDF). Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena. 239 (15): 1416. Bibcode:2010PhyD..239.1416D. doi:10.1016/j.physd.2009.06.012. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
Astoria Boulevard

Astoria Boulevard is an important east-west commercial street in northwestern Astoria, Queens, New York City. It runs from 1st Street at the East River to the World's Fair Marina on Flushing Bay, where it merges with Northern Boulevard. Just before the junction of the two boulevards, there is a large two lane ramp leading to the Whitestone Expressway. Most of the traffic on Astoria Boulevard heads toward this ramp, and then onto the Expressway.

Astoria Boulevard is the southern border of Astoria Heights, and the northern border of North Corona.

In East Elmhurst, Astoria Boulevard is a wide six lane, median divided street. However, traffic is usually light on the boulevard, presumably because the boulevard runs parallel to the busier Northern Boulevard and Grand Central Parkway. During rush hours, though, this road becomes a major artery, serving as an alternate route to the Grand Central Parkway to access the Whitestone Expressway, and as a result, it frequently becomes congested. The efficient synchronization of the traffic lights minimize heavy delays, making this a popular alternate route to take instead of the Grand Central. The portion of Astoria Boulevard between roughly 31st and 78th Streets in Astoria serves as a frontage road, or service road for the Grand Central Parkway.

Between 31st and 1st streets, it is a busy two lane road, with bidirectional traffic. Here most of the traffic is bound for either the Whitestone Expressway or the Grand Central Parkway.

Astoria Boulevard is served by the BMT Astoria Line at the Astoria Boulevard station (N and ​W trains), as well as the Q19, Q49 and M60 bus routes.

Higashi-Hachimori Station

Higashi-Hachimori Station (東八森駅, Higashi-Hachimori-eki) is a railway station on the JR East located in the town of Happō, Yamamoto District, Akita Prefecture, Japan.

Ikeba Station

Ikeba Station (池場駅, Ikeba-eki) is a railway station on the Iida Line in Shinshiro, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. It is located 50.1 rail kilometers from the southern terminus of the Iida Line at Toyohashi Station.

Kakidaira Station

Kakidaira Station (柿平駅, Kakidaira-eki) is a railway station on the Iida Line in Shinshiro, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. It is 42.9 kilometres (26.7 mi) by rail from the southern terminus of the Iida Line at Toyohashi Station.

Kakunodate Station

Kakunodate Station (角館駅, Kakunodate-eki) is a railway station in Semboku, Akita Prefecture, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company (JR East).

Kii-Ichigi Station

Kii-Ichigi Station (紀伊市木駅, Kii-Ichigi-eki) is a railway station in Mihama, Minamimuro District, Mie Prefecture, Japan, operated by Central Japan Railway Company (JR Central). The station is 165.6 rail kilometers from the terminus of the line at Kameyama Station.

Kosciuszko Bridge

The Kosciuszko Bridge is a bridge over Newtown Creek in New York City, connecting Greenpoint in Brooklyn to Maspeth in Queens. The bridge consists of a pair of cable-stayed bridge spans: the eastbound span opened in April 2017, while the westbound span opened in August 2019. An older bridge, a truss bridge of the same name that was located on the site of the westbound cable-stayed span, was originally opened in 1939 and was closed and demolished in 2017. The crossing is part of the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway (BQE), which carries Interstate 278.

The older truss bridge replaced a swing bridge called the Meeker Avenue Bridge, which connected Meeker Avenue in Brooklyn to Laurel Hill Boulevard in Queens. The old Kosciuszko Bridge, originally also called the Meeker Avenue Bridge, carried six lanes of traffic, three in each direction. In 1940, a year after opening, the bridge was renamed after Polish military leader Tadeusz Kościuszko, who fought alongside the Americans in the American Revolutionary War.

In 2014, a contract was awarded and work begun to build one of two replacement bridges with more capacity, with the first bridge initially carrying bidirectional traffic. The replacement bridges have the same name as the original bridge, and are both cable-stayed bridges that will each carry one direction of traffic. The first bridge, located south of the old truss bridge, opened on April 27, 2017, with three lanes in each direction. Once the old bridge was demolished via controlled explosion in October 2017, a new westbound cable-stayed bridge with four lanes and a bike/pedestrian path started construction on the site of the old bridge. The first cable-stayed bridge became eastbound-only with five lanes when the westbound bridge opened on August 29, 2019.

Mikawa-Makihara Station

Mikawa-Makihara Station (三河槙原駅, Mikawa-Makihara-eki) is a railway station on the Iida Line in Shinshiro, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. It is located 40.6 rail kilometers from the southern terminus of the Iida Line at Toyohashi Station.

Nagashinojō Station

Nagashinojō Station (長篠城駅, Nagashinojō-eki) is a railway station on the Iida Line in Shinshiro, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. It is located 30.8 rail kilometers from the southern terminus of the Iida Line at Toyohashi Station.

Rail transport in Hungary

Rail transport in Hungary is mainly owned by the national rail company MÁV, with a significant portion of the network owned and operated by GySEV.

The railway network consists of 7,893 km, its gauge is 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge and 3,060 km are electrified.

Hungary is a member of the International Union of Railways (UIC). The UIC country code for Hungary is 55.

Rail transport in Turkey

Turkey has a well-developed, state-owned railway system built to standard gauge (1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)) which falls under the remit of the Ministry of Transport and Communication. The primary rail carrier is the Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları (TCDD) (Turkish State Railways) which is responsible for all long-distance and cross-border freight and passenger trains. A number of other companies operate suburban passenger trains in urban conurbations.

Native railway industry extends to the production of locomotives, passenger vehicles and freight wagons; some vehicles are also produced through licensing agreements and cooperation with foreign countries.

In the early 21st century, major infrastructural projects were realized; such as the construction of a high-speed railway network as well as a tunnel under the Bosphorus strait which connects Europe and Anatolia by rail for the first time.

Turkey is a member of the International Union of Railways (UIC). The UIC Country Code for Turkey is 75.

Satomi Station

Satomi Station (里見駅, Satomi-eki) is a railway station operated by the Kominato Railway Company's Kominato Line, located in Ichihara, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. It is 25.7 kilometers from the western terminus of the Kominato Line at Goi Station.

Takataki Station

Takataki Station (高滝駅, Takataki-eki) is a railway station operated by the Kominato Railway Company's Kominato Line, located in Ichihara, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. It is 23.8 kilometers from the western terminus of the Kominato Line at Goi Station.

Takinoma Station

Takinoma Station (滝ノ間駅, Takinoma-eki) is a railway station on the JR East located in the town of Happō, Yamamoto District, Akita Prefecture, Japan.

Torigata Station

Torigata Station (鳥形駅, Torigata-eki) is a railway station on the JR East located in the city of Noshiro, Akita Prefecture, Japan.

Torii Station (Aichi)

Torii Station (鳥居駅, Torii-eki) is a railway station on the Iida Line in Shinshiro, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. It is located 29.3 rail kilometers from the southern terminus of the Iida Line at Toyohashi Station.

Traffic violations reciprocity

Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."

Yuya-Onsen Station

Yuya-Onsen Station (湯谷温泉駅, Yuya-Onsen-eki) is a railway station on the Iida Line in Shinshiro, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. It is located 38.0 rail kilometers from the southern terminus of the Iida Line at Toyohashi Station.

Ōka Station

Ōka Station (相可駅, Ōka-eki) is a railway station in Taki, Taki District, Mie Prefecture, operated by Central Japan Railway Company (JR Central). The station is 46.4 rail kilometers from the terminus of the line at Kameyama Station.

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