Bidar is a hill top city in the north-eastern part of Karnataka state in south India. It is the headquarters of the Bidar which borders Maharashtra and Telangana. It is a rapidly urbanising city in the wider Bidar Metropolitan area. The city is well known for its many sites of architectural, historical and religious importance.
Being located at the farthest of around 700 km (430 mi) from the state capital Bengaluru, it has been neglected by the state government for a long time. However, owing to its rich heritage, the city has a prominent place on the Archaeological Map of India. Picturesquely perched on the Deccan plateau, the Bidar fort is more than 500 years old and still standing strong. According to the book "Bidar Heritage" published by the state Department of Archaeology, Museums and Heritage, of the 61 monuments listed by the department, about 30 are tombs located in and around Bidar city., explaining its nickname, "City of Whispering Monuments". The heritage sites in and around Bidar have become the major attraction for film shooting in recent years with Bollywood making visits apart from kannada film industry
Bidar city is known for its Bidri handicraft products, and its rich history. Bidar is also considered one of the holiest place for Sikh pilgrimage. Unlike other places in the region, Bidar is the coldest and wettest place in north Karnataka. For the year 2009-10, Bidar was ranked 22nd among the cleanest cities in India, and 5th cleanest in Karnataka. SH4 passes through Bidar and the whole city is integrated with 4 lane road.
Ancient Karez System in the city have been recently discovered. The Karez (Qanat) is an underground network of aqueducts for water supply. The Bidar Karez, built in the 15th century, is more than 3 km (1.9 mi) long with 21 air vents. Underground canals, built to connect underground water streams, were meant to provide drinking water to civilian settlements and the garrison inside the Bidar fort. This was necessary in a city where the soil was rocky and drilling wells was difficult.
|Etymology: Viduranagara (Mahabharata)|
|Coordinates (Bidar): |
|• Total||43 km2 (17 sq mi)|
|Elevation||710 m (2,330 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||5,000/km2 (13,000/sq mi)|
|• Males density||2,592/km2 (6,710/sq mi)|
|• Females density||2,432/km2 (6,300/sq mi)|
|• per 1000 males||937 females|
|• in the age, 0-6||914 f / 1000 m|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Spoken languages||Kannada ,|
Bidar is believed to have got its name from Bidri works, .
Legend has associated Bidar with the ancient kingdom of Vidarbha, to which references are found in early Hindu literature like Malavikagnimitra, Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, Bhagavata, and a few other Puranas.:3 Its association can be seen apparently on account of the similarity in names Bidar and Vidarbha. This has been mentioned in Firishta's writings.
The traditional tales reveal that Vidura lived here; hence the place was earlier called Viduranagara and also as the place where Nala and Damayanti (Daughter of Raja Bhima, the King of Vidharba) were meeting.
The recorded History of the city goes back to third century B.C. when it was of the great Mauryan Empire. After the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Kadambas and Chalukyas of Badami and later Rashtrakutas reigned over Bidar territory. Chalukyas of Kalyana and Kalachuris of Kalyanis also regained the area. For a short period after Kalyani Chalukyas the area of Bidar was under the sevunas of Devgiri and Kakatiyas of Warangal.
Delhi rulers first headed by Allauddin Khilji and later Muhammed-bin-Tughluq took control of entire Deccan including Bidar. About the middle of the 14th century the Sultan's officers stationed in Deccan rebelled and this resulted in the establishment of Bahamani Dynasty in 1347 A.D. at Gulbarga (present Kalaburagi). There were frequent warfare between the Bahamnis and Vijaynagar Kingdom.
The history of the present fort at Bidar is attributed to the Sultan Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah the first sultan of the Bahmani dynasty to 1427 when he shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar since it had better climatic conditions and was also a fertile and fruit bearing land. Earliest recorded history of its existence as a small and strong fort is also traced to Prince Ulugh Khan in 1322, whereafter it came under the reign of the Tughlaq dynasty.
With the establishment of the Bahmani dynasty (1347), Bidar was occupied by Sultan Ala-Ud-Din Bahman Shah Bahmani. During the rule of Ahmad Shah I (1422–1486), Bidar was made the capital city of Bahmani Kingdom. The old Fort was rebuilt and beautiful madrasas, mosques, palaces and gardens were raised. Mahmud Gawan who became the Prime Minister in 1466 was a notable figure in the history of Bidar. Bidar remained under the Barid Shahi dynasty until conquest by Bijapur Sultanate in 1619. Aurangzeb came to Bidar after his father, Padshah (emperor) Shah Jahan, appointed him the Prince of Deccan. He wrested the Bidar Fort from the Adil Shahis after a 21-day war in 1656. With this, Bidar became a part of the Mughal dynasty for the second time. Bidar was made a subah (imperial top-level province) in 1656, which Telangana Subah was merged into the next year.
In 1724, Bidar became a part of the Asaf Jahi Kingdom of the Nizams. It was annexed by the Bijapur Sultanate in 1619–20 but the Mughal viceroy of Aurangzeb took it in 1657 and thus became a part the Mughal Empire in 1686. Third son of Asaf jah l ( Nizam l ) Mir Sa'id Muhammad Khan, Salabat Jang ruled from Bidar fort from 1751 to 1762, till his brother Mir Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah III imprisoned him in this fort, and was killed in Bidar fort on 16 September 1763. Mohammedabad old name of Bidar is also on his name.
Thus, Bahmanis ruled over Gulbaraga from 1347 to 1424 and from Bidar from 1424 till the extinction of the kingdom and its disintegration into five independent kingdoms of Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar and Berar. After India's independence, in 1956 all Kannada speaking areas were merged to form the Mysore State and Bidar became part of the new Mysore (now Karnataka) state.
Bidar is located at  lies at a central position in Deccan, a plateau at an elevation of 2300 ft from the sea level. It has common boundaries with Maharashtra and Telangana which is, with the districts of Nizamabad and Medak in Telangana on the East and the districts of Nanded and Osmanabad in Maharashtra on the west. On the south lies the district Gulbarga of Karnataka.,
The upper crust of the plateau is of laterite, a soft porous rock with limonitic surface. This crust varies in depth from 100 ft (30 m) to 500 ft (150 m) and rests on a bed of trap, which is of much harder texture and less pervious to water. The volume of water filtered during the monsoons through the laterite stratum is arrested by the trappean bed, and a nursery of springs is formed whose natural level of effluence is the line of contact of the two strata along the base of the cliffs of the plateau. The water in course of time frets out for itself an orifice and macerates and loosens portions of its rocky channel till a rift is produced. The rift gradually dilates into a ravine, and the ravine expands into a vale.
Bidar soils are deep (>100 cm), well-drained gravelly red clayey soils developed on plateaus of laterites. They are slightly acid to neutral (pH 6.6) in reaction with low cation exchange capacity. They are highly gravelly soils with gravel content (60 to 10%) that decrease with depth.
The winter season is from November to middle of February. Bidar is one of the coldest cities (by southern standards) in Karnataka as the minimum temperature during winter nights regularly hovers around 11-12 during December, which is the coldest month with mean daily maximum temperature of 27.3 C and mean daily minimum of 13.4 C. From the middle of the February, both day and night temperatures begin to rise rapidly. May is the hottest month with mean daily maximum temperature of 38.8 C and mean daily minimum of 25.9 C. With the withdrawal of southwest monsoon in the first week of October, there is slight increase in day temperature but night temperature decreases steadily. After October, both day and night temperatures decreases progressively. The highest maximum temperature recorded at Bidar was on 8-5-1931(43.3 degree C) and the lowest minimum was on 5-1-1901(2.9 degree C, the lowest temperature ever recorded in Karnataka).
Present day Bidar covers an expanse of 5448 square kilometres of land and lies between 17°35′ and 18°25′ North latitudes and 76°42′ and 77°39′ east longitudes.
|Climate data for Bidar|
|Average high °C (°F)||28.6
|Average low °C (°F)||14.0
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||12.6
Once a home to many cottage industries, such as cotton and oil-ginning mills, there are now few industries that draw on local raw materials or skills. Even the well known form of local articrafts, bidri ware, is in a state of decline. Increasing prices of materials, especially silver, and declining sales have meant that many of the hereditary artisans are no longer employed in the production of such ware. Bidar city is famous for a large industrial area i.e. kolhar industrial area in which one of most successful US FDA approved company i.e. Sai Life Sciences and so many successful pharma companies like vivimed, corvine pharma, shreegen pharma, santho carrels pharma,shreevan chemicals and so on.
one of most famous product of RSPL Group Uttar Pradesh i.e. Ghadi Detergents Powder and cake 's Unit factory is also located at bidar city.
Bidar is symbolically described as City of Whispering Monuments. The mountaintop city that served as the capital of medieval Deccan, has 98 monuments of which four national monuments are protected by the Archaeological Survey of India and 14 by the State Archaeology Department, Karnataka.
Bidar earned a place on the World Monument Watchlist 2014. Of the 741 proposals received from 166 countries, 67 sites from 41 countries were finally selected which were announced by WMF president Bonnie Burnham in New York on October 8, 2013. Along with "the historic city of Bidar", two other sites in India to figure in the list were the house of Sheikh Salim Chisti in Fatehpur Sikri and Juna Mahal in Rajasthan.
The WMF in its current watch site for "the historic city of Bidar" says ″challenges to the site include a lack of integrated conservation and maintenance, environmental pollution, and the construction of new developments and roadways that encroach on the historic fabric. Current land use regulations also threaten the economic livelihood of many of the city's residents, and it is hoped that revised, context-specific planning policies would both protect Bidar's historic assets while also supporting the future of its local population. It is hoped that Watch-listing will spur documentation and analysis of the city's conditions, followed by policy development and applied conservation interventions that will reveal and maintain Bidar's rich heritage, as well as support a robust and sustainable tourist industry.″
This grandiose madrasa was built by the prime-minister of the Bahmani empire, Mahmud Gawan in the late 15th century. Its only the most imposing building of the Bahmani period, but in its plan and in the general style of its architecture it is a unique monument of its kind in India. The Madrasa, a multi-disciplinary university he set up, which had a library of around 3,000 valuable manuscripts, was severely damaged when gunpowder stored inside the rooms went off during a 27-day siege of the city by Mughal king Aurangazeb in 1656. The Mahmud Gawan Madrasa is protected by the Archaeological Survey of India.
Bidar Fort is considered one of the most formidable forts of the country. Bidar city was distinctly planned and built. The main citadel complex housed the royal places. Mahals and Mosque. Adjoining to this on the southern side, the city was built for the people. Both the citadel complex and city had separate forts for protection the plan of the Bidar city fortification is pentagonal. There are five gateways for entry into the city fort. It is main citadel complex fort which is stronger. It is built on the brink of the plateau. Engineers and architecture of various countries were employed on its design and construction. A Museum is preset there having old armor, old sculptures. including many of the ancient stones,
Gurudwara Nanak Jhira Saheb is known to be one of Holiest Place For Sikh Devotees in India and is believed that Saint Guru Nanak visited the place during famine in this region. Papa Nashini Mandir Dargah Hazrat Shah Shamsuddin Quadri (Multani Basha) Dargah Hazrat Syed Abul Faiz Mailar Mallana Mandir Narasimha Jharna Mandir Changleri Veerabhadra Mandir
Bidriware, one of the rarest and most intricate art forms is now unique to the city. This native art form has obtained Geographical Indications (GI) registry. The various art forms created by artists from Bidar city centuries ago are now major attractions in museums such as Victoria and Albert Museum, London, the National Museum in New Delhi and Indian Museum in Kolkata.
The Karnataka tableau at the 2011 Republic Day Parade at Rajpath in New Delhi featured Bidriware and Bidri artisans from Bidar.
Rehaman Patel did an extensive research in Bidri Art from Gulbarga University. His book in Kannada version (2012) and English version (2017) also published on Bidri Art.
All the dignitaries & guests of XIX Commonwealth Games 2010 were presented with mementos hand crafted in Bidri art. This art form is the Union government's choice for souvenirs at the World Economic Forum in Davos. The Kingfisher company owner Vijay Mallya has a bidri dining table with floral designs made of nearly 3.5 kg silver.
Bidar has connectivity with Bangalore, Hyderabad, Sainagar Shirdi, Parbhani Jn, Aurangabad, Latur, Nanded, Manmad, Mumbai, Machilipatnam and Renigunta (according to railway budget 2014-15) Construction of the Gulbarga-Bidar link is completed which was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Bidar-Hyderabad inter-city train service became operative in September 2012. A Bidar-Yeshwantpur (Daily) express train and Bidar-LTT Mumbai express train service has been started recently. another train starting from bidar through Latur to Mumbai started, which runs on Thursday,Saturday and Sunday the train which stars from auranagav
The city is home to an air force station. There is no civilian airfield; however, The Hindu reported in February 2017 that the opening of the air force base to passenger flights was likely under the central government's Ude Desh ka Aam Naagrik plan.
Bidar city is very far about education sector shaheen group of institutions is one of the big group of institutions in bidar city and one more group is coming far in bidar city about education field the Royal group of education providing quality education.Beside these another education institution that is famous and widely recognised in Bidar is Kendriya Vidyalaya Bidar which was founded in 1975 and still excelling in every field.
College of Horticulture Bidar http://www.uhsbagalkot.edu.in/Home/Deans?deantype=Dean
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:
Anna Dušková (born 30 December 1999) is a Czech figure skater. Competing in pairs with partner Martin Bidař, she is the 2016 World Junior champion, 2016 Youth Olympic silver medalist (individually and in the team event), and 2015 JGP Final silver medalist. As a single skater, she is the 2015 NRW Trophy bronze medalist.Aurad
Aurad is a City and Taluka in Bidar district in the Indian southern state of Karnataka and birthplace of the Member of Parliament, Bhagwanth Khuba.Bahmani Sultanate
The Bahmani Sultanate (also called the Bahmanid Empire or Bahmani Kingdom) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms. Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Muslim kingdom in South India. The Kingdom later split into five offshoots that were collectively known as the Deccan sultanates.The last remnant of the Bahmani sultanate was defeated and destroyed in 1509 by Vijayanagar Empire.Basavakalyan
Basavakalyan also spelled Basavakalyana is a City and taluka in Bidar District of the state of Karnataka, India and was historically known as Kalyan and Basavakalyan is the Second Largest Municipality City in Bidar District.Bid Darreh
Bid Darreh (Persian: بيددره, also Romanized as Bīd Darreh; also known as Baidarreh, Bīdar, Bīdāreh, and Bīdarreh) is a village in Kumasi Rural District, in the Central District of Marivan County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 220, in 50 families.Bidar (Lok Sabha constituency)
Bidar Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 28 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Karnataka state in southern India. This constituency came into existence in 1962. It was reserved for the candidates belonging to the Scheduled castes till 2008. It comprises the entire Bidar district and part of Gulbarga district.Bidar Air Force Station
Air Force Station, Bidar is one of the Premier Flying Training establishments of the Indian Air Force. It was established during World War II, has been a training centre for budding pilots of the IAF since 1963. The air base had trainer aircraft like HT2 and various variants of Kiran aircraft for nearly four decades. Now it has been remodelled and refurbished for the arrival of the Hawks. The runway has been extended to 9,000 feet and new facilities for aircraft and engine maintenance and testing are built.It is home for the second biggest training centre in the country. Graduates from the Air Force Academy come here to learn the skills and techniques to become a next generation fighter pilot before being assigned to one of the combat units of the world’s fourth-largest air force. Around 60-90 sorties per day are flown from the base thereby generating the highest amount of single-engine flying hours in the country from this air base.
Once the home base for 52nd Squadron, the station now houses the three Hawk Operational Training Squadrons (HOTS-A Aggressors, HOTS-B Bravehearts and HOTS-C Cheetahs). In addition the Weapon System Operators' School also functions here. A fourth Squadron is ready to be raised shortly. In a phased manner, 66 Hawk aircraft are to be added to the AFS Bidar.Bidar Airport
Bidar Airport, also known as Bidar Air Force Station, (ICAO: VOBR) is a military airbase airport in Bidar, Karnataka, India.The Government of Karnataka has requested to open the Bidar Defence airports to civilian use. Government of India has already conveyed ‘in principle’ approval to the proposal in respect of Bidar airfield. However, no offer has been made for provision of additional land by the Government of Karnataka for Bidar airfield.Bidar Fort
Bidar Fort is situated in Bidar city of the northern plateau of Karnataka, India. The fort, the city and the district are all affixed with the name Bidar. Sultan Alla-Ud Din Bahman of the Bahmanid Dynasty shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar in 1427 and built his fort along with a number of Islamic monuments. There are over 30 monuments inside Bidar fort.Bidar Sultanate
Bidar sultanate was one of the Deccan sultanates of late medieval southern India.Bidar district
Bidar district is the northernmost part of the Karnataka state in India. Geographically, it resembles the "Crown of the State", occupying its northeastern end. It is bounded by Kamareddy and Sangareddy districts of Telangana state on the eastern side, Latur and Osmanabad districts of Maharashtra state on the western side, Nanded district of Maharashtra state on the northern side and Gulbarga district on the southern side.
The Bidar district is constituted by five talukas, Aurad, Basavakalyan, Bhalki, Bidar and Humnabad with Bidar being the headquarters of the district. New Three Talukas Hulsoor, Chitgoppa, Kamalnagar.In the Bidar district
It is connected with NH9 and NH218.Bidar railway station
Bidar railway station (Station code: BIDR) is located in Bidar district in the Indian state of Karnataka and serves Bidar.Bidriware
Bidriware is a metal handicraft from Bidar. It was developed in the 14th century C.E. during the rule of the Bahamani Sultans. The term 'Bidriware' originates from the township of Bidar, which is still the chief centre for the manufacture of the unique metalware. Due to its striking inlay artwork, Bidriware is an important export handicraft of India and is prized as a symbol of wealth. The metal used is a blackened alloy of zinc and copper inlaid with thin sheets of pure silver. This native art form has obtained Geographical Indications (GI) registry.Deccan sultanates
The Deccan Sultanates were five Muslim dynasties that ruled several late medieval Indian kingdoms, namely Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Berar in south-western India. The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau, between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range. These kingdoms became independent during the break-up of the Bahmani Sultanate. They were noted for the destruction of temples and general economic misery. In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year. Golkonda became independent in 1518 and Bidar in 1528.The five sultanates were of diverse origin; the Ahmadnagar Sultanate and Berar Sultanate were of Hindu lineage (Ahmadnagar being Brahmin-Hindu and Berar being Kanarese-Hindu), the Bidar Sultanate being founded by a former Turkic slave, the Bijapur Sultanate was founded by a Georgian-Oghuz Turkic slave, and the Golconda Sultanate was of Turkmen origin.Although generally rivals, they did ally against the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, permanently weakening Vijayanagar in the Battle of Talikota. Notably, the alliance destroyed the entire city of Vijayanagar with important temples such as the Vitthala Temple being razed to the ground. In 1574, after a coup in Berar, Ahmadnagar invaded and conquered it. In 1619, Bidar was annexed by Bijapur. The sultanates were later conquered by the Mughal Empire; Berar was stripped from Ahmadnagar in 1596, Ahmadnagar was completely taken between 1616 and 1636, and Golkonda and Bijapur were conquered by Aurangzeb's 1686–87 campaign.Humnabad railway station
Humnabad railway station , (station code:HMBD) is an Indian Railways Train station located in Humnabad, Bidar in the Indian state of Karnataka and serves Humnabad area. It is located on the Bidar-Kalaburagi line of Secunderabad railway division in South Central Railway zone.Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University
Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University is a public university. It was established by an Act of Karnataka Legislative Assembly which was passed on 10 February 2004. This university has its headquarters in the Bidar district of Karnataka state of India.
As the name says this university was created for the education and control of veterinary, animal and fisheries science education in the state of Karnataka.
As many as 21 allied institutions including colleges, research institutions, veterinary hospitals among others and the employees are transferred to the new university. These include Veterinary College, Bangalore; College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry (Shimoga and Hassan) and Veterinary College, Bidar; Veterinary College Hospital, Hebbal; Dairy Science College, Bangalore; Rural Veterinary Hospital at Yelahanka; District Veterinary Hospital, Bidar of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services Department.
Institutions relating to fisheries which are transferred under the new university include College of Fisheries at Mangalore; Fisheries Research Station, Hesaraghatta; Fisheries Research Station, Ankola; Fish Seed Production farms at Munirabad and Shivapura, in Koppal district.
Other institutions under the university are the Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Bangalore; livestock farm at Hesaraghatta; Livestock Breeding and Training Centre, Kurikuppe, Bellary; Devani Cattle Breeding Station, Hallikhed, Bidar; Killar Breeding Station, Arabhavi; Sheep Breeding, Bandoor, Malavalli; Main Research Station, Hebbal; Agriculture Research Station (ARS) at Mangalore and Nagamangala and Zonal ARS at Konnehally, Tiptur.Martin Bidař
Martin Bidař (born 24 February 1999) is a Czech pair skater. With partner Anna Dušková, he is the 2016 World Junior champion, 2016 Youth Olympic silver medalist (individually and in the team event), and 2015 JGP Final silver medalist.Narasimha Jharni
Narasimha Jharni (local kannada: ನರಸಿಂಹ ಝರನಿ) is a cave temple located in Bidar. It is associated with Lord Narasimha, an incarnation (avatar) of Hindu god Vishnu. The ancient temple is excavated in a 300 m tunnel under the Manichoola hill range situated at around 4.8 km from the city.Shabandar
Shabandar (Persian: شباندر, also Romanized as Sha‘bāndar and Shaban Dar; also known as Shab Bīdār and Shab Dar) is a village in Sepiddasht Rural District, Papi District, Khorramabad County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 249, in 50 families.