Bicolored frog

The bicolored frog or Malabar frog (Clinotarsus curtipes) is a species of frog endemic to the Western Ghats of India.[2] The tadpoles of the species are black and form dense and compact schools in slow moving streams in forested areas.

Bicolored frog
Bicolored Frog ( Clinotarsus curtipes )
Male in breeding colours
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Ranidae
Genus: Clinotarsus
Species:
C. curtipes
Binomial name
Clinotarsus curtipes
(Jerdon, 1854)
Synonyms

Rana curtipes Jerdon, 1854

Description

The bicolored frog's vomerine teeth scarcely developed, sometimes indistinct. The teeth are in two slightly oblique series on a level with the hind edge of the choanae. Its head large; snout short, rounded, with well-marked canthus rostralis and concave loreal region ; nostril nearer to the end of the snout than to the eye; interorbital space broader than the upper eyelid; tympanum distinct, nearly as large as the eye. Fingers moderate, first extending beyond second; toes short, nearly entirely webbed; tips of fingers and toes swollen or dilated into very small disks; subarticular tubercles much developed; inner metatarsal tubercle small, oval, blunt; a rather large, flat tubercle at the base of the fourth toe; no tarsal fold. The tibio-tarsal articulation reaches the eye. Skin finely granular above; a moderately prominent, rather narrow glandular lateral fold; another told behind the tympanum down to the shoulder. Clinotarsus curtipes is greyish or brown above, with or without blackish dots; lateral fold lighter, edged with black; a blackish oblique spot or band below the eye; upper lip with a blackish margin; limbs dark purplish brown, without cross bands; light brown beneath, the throat sometimes dark brown. Male with an internal subgular vocal sac.[3][4]

The spot patterns on the backs are often distinctive enough to use for population estimation using capture and recapture techniques. Use of this technique in the Bisale Reserve Forest in Kodagu during January 1999 – July 2001 gave a population density estimate of 0.08–0.1 frogs per square metre.[5]

Adult frogs may occasionally feign death to escape predators.[6]

The tadpoles are large (more than 9 cm (3.5 in) in total length) and form shoals in slow moving streams.[7] They are collected for local consumption.[1]

RanaCurtipes1

Underside of a breeding male

RanaCurtipes2

Upperside of a breeding male

Rana curtippes shoal

Shoals of tadpoles in a stream

Rana bicolor

A pair in amplexus

Rana curtipes
Bicolored Frog or Malabar Frog

Malabar Frog

References

  1. ^ a b Biju, S.D.; Dutta, Sushil & Inger, Robert (2004). "Clinotarsus curtipes". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T58583A11789937. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T58583A11789937.en. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Clinotarsus curtipes (Jerdon, 1853)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
  3. ^ Boulenger, G. A. (1890) The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma: Reptilia and Batrachia.
  4. ^ Desai R.N. & Pancharatna K. (2003). "Rana curtipes coloration". Herpetological Review. 34 (1): 53–54.
  5. ^ Krishna, S. N.; Krishna S. B. & Vijaylaxmi, K. K. (2005). "Dorsal spot pattern as unique markers to estimate the population size of Rana curtipes". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 102 (1): 16–18. ISSN 0006-6982.
  6. ^ Gramapurohit, N. P.; Shanbhag, B. A. & Saidapur, S. K. (2001). "Rana curtipes (bicolored frog). Death feigning". Herpetological Review. 32 (2): 103.
  7. ^ Hiragond, Ningappa C.; Shanbhag, Bhagyashri A. & Saidapur, Srinivas K. (2001). "Description of the tadpole of a stream breeding frog, Rana curtipes". Journal of Herpetology. 35 (1): 166–168. doi:10.2307/1566044. JSTOR 1566044.
Clinotarsus

Clinotarsus is a small genus of ranid frogs. Members of this genus are found in India and Southeast Asia.

Endemism

Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area.

List of amphibians of India

This is an index to the amphibians found in India. The amphibians of India show a high level of endemism. This list is based largely on Frost (2006) and includes common names from older books and journals.

List of amphibians of Kerala

This is a list of amphibian species found in the Kerala, India.

List of near threatened amphibians

As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 402 near threatened amphibian species. 6.2% of all evaluated amphibian species are listed as near threatened.

No subpopulations of amphibians have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of near threatened amphibian species evaluated by the IUCN.

Periyar National Park

Periyar National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary (PNP) is a protected area near Thekkady in the district of Idukki, Kottayam and Pathanamthitta in Kerala, India. It is notable as an elephant reserve and a tiger reserve. The protected area covers an area of 925 km2 (357 sq mi). 305 km2 (118 sq mi) of the core zone was declared as the Periyar National Park in 1982. The park is a repository of rare, endemic and endangered flora and fauna and forms the major watershed of two important rivers of Kerala, the Periyar and the Pamba.

The park is often called the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary or Thekkady. It is located high in the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the south Western Ghats along the border with Tamil Nadu. It is 4 km (2.5 mi) from Kumily, approximately 100 km (62 mi) east of Kottayam, 110 km (68 mi) west of Madurai and 120 km (75 mi) southeast of Kochi.

True frog

The true frogs, family Ranidae, have the widest distribution of any frog family. They are abundant throughout most of the world, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. The true frogs are present in North America, northern South America, Europe, Africa (including Madagascar), and Asia. The Asian range extends across the East Indies to New Guinea and a single species (the Australian wood frog (Hylarana daemelii)) has spread into the far north of Australia.

Typically, true frogs are smooth and moist-skinned, with large, powerful legs and extensively webbed feet. The true frogs vary greatly in size, ranging from small—such as the wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica)—to the largest frog in the world, the goliath frog (Conraua goliath).

Many of the true frogs are aquatic or live close to water. Most species lay their eggs in the water and go through a tadpole stage. However, as with most families of frogs, there is large variation of habitat within the family. Those of the genus Tomopterna are burrowing frogs native to Africa and exhibit most of the characteristics common to burrowing frogs around the world. There are also arboreal species of true frogs, and the family includes some of the very few amphibians that can live in brackish water.

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