Bibliotherapy (also referred to as poetry therapy or therapeutic storytelling) is a creative arts therapies modality that involves storytelling or the reading of specific texts with the purpose of healing. It uses an individual's relationship to the content of books and poetry and other written words as therapy. Bibliotherapy is often combined with writing therapy. It has been shown to be effective in the treatment of depression. A 3 year follow up study has suggested that the results are long-lasting.
Bibliotherapy is an old concept in library science. According to the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus, in his monumental work Bibliotheca historica, there was a phrase above the entrance to the royal chamber where books were stored by King Ramses II of Egypt. Considered to be the oldest known library motto in the world, ψγxhσ Iatpeion, is translated: "the house of healing for the soul". Galen, the extraordinary philosopher and physician to Marcus Aurelius of Rome, maintained a medical library in the first century A.D., used not only by himself but by the staff of the Sanctuary Asclepion, a Roman spa famous for its therapeutic waters and considered to be one of the first hospital centers in the world. As far back as 1272, the Koran was prescribed reading in the Al-Mansur Hospital in Cairo as medical treatment.
In the early nineteenth century, Benjamin Rush favored the use of literature in hospitals for both the "amusement and instruction of patients". By the middle of the century, Minson Galt II wrote on the uses of bibliotherapy in mental institutions, and by 1900 libraries were an important part of European psychiatric institutions.
After the term bibliotherapy was coined by Samuel Crothers in an August 1916 Atlantic Monthly article, it eventually found its way into the medical lexicon. During World War I, the Library War Service stationed librarians in military hospitals, where they dispensed books to patients and developed the emerging "science" of bibliotherapy with hospital physicians. When they returned from the war, they tried to implement these ideas in hospital libraries. E. Kathleen Jones, the editor of the book series Hospital Libraries, was the library administrator for the McLean Hospital in Massachusetts. This influential work was first published in 1923, and then updated in 1939, and then 1953. Pioneer librarian Sadie Peterson Delaney used bibliotherapy in her work at the VA Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama from 1924 to her death in 1958. Elizabeth Pomeroy, director of the Veterans Administration Library Service, published the results of her research in 1937 on the efficacy of bibliotherapy at VA hospitals. The United Kingdom, beginning in the 1930s, also began to show growth in the use in of reading therapy in hospital libraries. Charles Hagberg-Wright, librarian of the London Library, speaking at the 1930 British Empire Red Cross Conference, spoke about the importance of bibliotherapy as part of "curative medicine" in hospitals. In addition, reports from the 1930 Public Health Conference about bibliotherapy were included in the British journal Lancet. By the 1920s, there were also training programs in bibliotherapy. One of the first to offer such training was the School of Library Science at Western Reserve University followed by a program at the University of Minnesota School of Medicine.
With hospitals taking the lead, bibliotherapy principles and practice developed in the United States. In the United Kingdom, it should be noted, some felt that bibliotherapy lagged behind the US and Joyce Coates, writing in the Library Association Record, felt that "the possibilities of bibliotherapy have yet to be fully explored". In 1966, the Association of Hospital and Institution Libraries, a division of the American Library Association, issued a working definition of bibliotherapy in recognition of its growing influence. Then, in the 1970s, Arleen McCarty Hynes, a proponent for the use of bibliotherapy, created the "Bibliotherapy Round Table" which sponsored lectures and publication dedicated to the practice.
In its most basic form, bibliotherapy is using books to aid people in solving the issues that they may be facing at a particular time. It consists of selecting reading material relevant to a client's life situation. Bibliotherapy has also been explained as "a process of dynamic interaction between the personality of the reader and literature - interaction which may be utilized for personal assessment, adjustment, and growth." Bibliotherapy for adults is a form of self-administered treatment in which structured materials provide a means to alleviate distress. The concept of the treatment is based on the human inclination to identify with others through their expressions in literature and art. For instance, a grieving child who reads, or is read a story about another child who has lost a parent may feel less alone in the world.
The concept of bibliotherapy has widened over time, to include self-help manuals without therapeutic intervention, or a therapist "prescribing" a movie that might provide needed catharsis to a client.
The Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (2011) defines bibliotherapy as:
Although the term "bibliotherapy" was first coined by Samuel Crothers in 1916, the use of books to change behavior and to reduce distress has a long history, dating back to the Middle Ages. When applied in a therapeutic context, bibliotherapy can comprise both fictional and non-fictional materials. Fictional bibliotherapy (e.g., novels, poetry) is a dynamic process, where material is actively interpreted in light of the reader's circumstances. From a psychodynamic perspective, fictional materials are believed to be effective through the processes of identification, catharsis and insight. Through identification with a character in the story the reader gains an alternative position from which to view their own issues. By empathizing with the character the client undergoes a form of catharsis through gaining hope and releasing emotional tension, which consequently leads to insights and behavioral change. Working with an imaginative journey and a specific selection of metaphors, proponents claim that a therapeutic story approach has the potential to shift an out of balance behavior or situation back towards wholeness or balance. A patient might also find it easier to talk about his issues if he and the therapist can pretend that they are talking about the character's issues. Proponents suggest that the story form offers a healing medium that allows the listener to embark on an imaginative journey, rather than being lectured or directly addressed about the issue.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, bibliotherapy was a widely used but poorly researched therapeutic model. However, numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have documented the positive effects of bibliotherapy for clinical conditions such as deliberate self-harm, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and bulimia nervosa and insomnia. Research also supports bibliotherapy as an intervention for a wide array of psychological issues including emotional disorders, alcohol addiction, and sexual dysfunction. In a recent review of psychotherapeutic treatments for older depressed people, bibliotherapy emerged as an effective intervention.
The use of bibliotherapy in mental health programs, including those for substance abuse, has been shown to be beneficial to patients in the United Kingdom where it is a popular resource. Researchers have found that bibliotherapy can successfully complement treatment programs and reduce recidivism.
Bibliotherapy can be performed using affective treatment techniques, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and visual-based materials. Affective bibliotherapy relies upon fiction which can aid participants. By empathizing with a story's character, the client undergoes a form of catharsis by gaining hope and releasing emotional tension. There can also be a connection made between the circumstances in a story and the reader's own personal issues. This, consequently, leads to insights and behavioral change. Bibliotherapy using CBT relies mainly on self-help books which work to correct negative behaviors by offering alternative, positive actions. Visual-based materials, such as graphic novels, utilize both affective and CBT techniques.
The gains achieved in cognitive bibliotherapy illustrate that the most important element in cognitive bibliotherapy is content of the program and not the individual interactions with a therapist. Bibliotherapy using CBT have been empirically tested the most and directed CBT appears to be the most prevalent methodology in the literature. The selection of CBT books is important since there are many on the market that purport to help. Pardeck's analysis on choosing books is quite instructive and much of his criteria mirror what librarians teach in information literacy. These include the authority of the author on the topic, the type of empirical support offered for treatment claims, the existence of studies testing its clinical efficacy, and a comparative review of other books.
There is not as much research on using fiction in bibliotherapy when compared to cognitive self-help books. The recent work of Shechtman has been important in investigating the use of affective literature for bibliotherapy. In her work on counseling with aggressive boys, Shechtman discusses the deficits these children exhibit and describe affect disorders with symptoms of emotional arousal, low levels of empathy, and difficulties in self-expression. Using integrative treatment whereby the patient explores the problem, gains insight, and commits to change, Shechtman found that using affective bibliotherapy techniques achieved therapeutic change while indicating gains in empathy and insight.
In the simplest sense, graphic novels are long-form comic books, usually 100 pages or more in length. Application of graphic novels in this context will allow people struggling with literacy to have better access to materials. Dozens of graphic novels have been published over the last decade that address public health topics, such as depression, drug abuse, and PTSD. Public health based comic books originated in the 1940s. The earliest public health comics averaged around twelve pages and were aimed at preventive instruction for children. Over the last fifteen years, however, the genre has evolved and public health graphic novels and are now commonly 150 pages long and focus more on adult struggles with physical or mental illness. This change has gotten the attention of medical professionals who gather and evaluate these materials. Currently, a group of physicians, professors, artists, and bioethicists run the website Graphic Medicine and hosts an annual conference to discuss the use of graphic novels and comic books in health. There is a wide range of research that indicates graphic novels are an effective tool for people struggling with literacy and communication problems. They also have been shown to be effective with populations that have trouble with traditional literacy instruction. Resistance to learning can take many forms, some of which can be seen in populations involved with the criminal justice system. Graphic novels are most often used to entice the group referred to as "reluctant readers", people who have abandoned reading for pleasure. While this group may be literate in the basic sense, research shows that people who read for pleasure continuously improve vocabulary and language skills, skills that can help people rehabilitate after incarceration. Research shows graphic novels are of use to students with traditional learning disabilities, like dyslexia and also have been shown to be effective when used in a bibliotherapeutic context to assist people who suffer from mental illness in explaining their own struggles to others. Graphic novels have also been described by professionals in the field as especially apt for portraying the struggles associated with mental illness.
Bibliotherapy has been studied by Jennie Bolitho (2011) in relationship to libraries, health and social connection for the elderly. Bolitho set up a pilot reading program where she read the text aloud to a group of participants at a local aged care hostel. (She described "being read to as part of the nurturing experience".) Her evaluation at the end of the 12-week program described all responses as positive and participants commented that they "look forward to the group as it made them think for themselves and gave them something to think about aside from their ailments and the monotony of the day" (p. 90).
Bibliotherapy has not been vastly researched to ensure that it will be successful for all students. It has many drawbacks, that include unavailable literature on certain topics that students may be struggling with, many students not being ready to face their issues and read, and students and parents defensively implementing the therapy. The resistance of using bibliotherapy is based on a lack of assertiveness, negative attitudes, anxiety, depression, sexual dysfunctions, and negative behaviors. There has been advocacy for reading books containing difficult themes in advance, rather than in response to a parent or teacher identifying a specific issue in a child's life. The major issue that lies behind bibliotherapy is the lack of research that has been conducted on this therapy device.
Advantages of bibliotherapy include teaching students to solve problems, help students cope with teasing, name calling, mockery, fears, sexuality changes, anxiety, and death. Despite the limited research on bibliotherapy and its effects, many teachers have shown improved achievement and self-concept.
Bibliotherapy can consist solely of reading, or it can be complemented with discussion or play activity. A child might be asked to draw a scene from the book or asked whether commonality is felt with a particular character in the book. The book can be used to draw out a child on a subject (s)he has been hesitant to discuss.
Of necessity, bibliotherapy originally used existing texts. Literature that touched on the particular subject relevant to the child provided the source material. (For example, Romeo and Juliet is typically read in 8th or 9th grade as Romeo is 15 and Juliet is 13; students at that age can identify with them.) Recently it has become possible to find texts targeted to the situation; e.g. many of The Berenstain Bears books target particular behaviors and responses to certain situations.
There is a division of opinion as to whether bibliotherapy needs to take place in a therapeutic environment, with therapists specially trained in the treatment reinforcing the idea for fear of the damage that could be done even by the selection of the wrong text. Other psychologists see no reason why children can't benefit from their parents selecting meaningful reading material.
Many therapeutic stories are written for specific individual needs, but practitioners have also used them to build psychological resilience when group and communities face challenges. For example, therapeutic storytelling can play a role in creating inclusive classroom and work communities. Therapeutic stories are also sometimes referred to as "healing stories". In the US, the National Storytelling Network has a special interest group called the Healing Story Alliance.
Implementing bibliotherapy in an elementary classroom can be very beneficial to both the students and the teacher. Teachers who use bibliotherapy in their classroom also learn much about the children they teach. Teachers as practitioners of bibliotherapy select appropriate reading materials and match them to the needs of individual students to assist them in the development of self-awareness, problem-solving skills, perspective-taking, and understanding of problems. The materials may include "any literacy activity, including reading (fiction, nonfiction, or poetry), creative writing, or storytelling." Teachers that select appropriate literature for their classroom needs may provide a child with a "character in a story to help the child understand himself Classroom story time and a guided discussion allows students to "become aware of problems of other children and develop empathy".
In the article "Read two books and write me in the morning", the authors highlight the fact that teachers are an integral part of a student's therapeutic team. It is the teacher who may be the first person to notice that something is troubling a child. They also note that teachers have been referred to as carryover agents, who carry out recommendations from other professionals who have suggested accommodations necessary to ensure a particular student's well-being or success in their classroom. In inclusive classrooms the teacher and the whole class play a role in meeting directly or indirectly, the needs of students with exceptionalities. Bibliotherapy can help the students in the class to learn coping skills that will help them deal with the social and emotional challenges that may occur. Books and reading are an integral part of classroom life. Through books, "children are able to see reflections of themselves, their times, their country, their concerns... well-written realistic fiction will always help readers gain a deeper understanding of themselves and others."
Bibliotherapy has three recognized stages: (1) identification, (2) catharsis, and (3) insight. Identification is when a reader associates themselves with the character or situation in the literary work. Catharsis is when the reader shares many of the same thoughts and feelings of the characters in the literary work, and insight is when the reader realizes that they relate to the character or situation and learn to deal more effectively with their own personal issues. Literary pieces allow teachers to identify for their class, or an individual student, a particular issue which they are dealing with directly or indirectly. In a class with a special needs student, for example, books featuring a character with the same needs will help students experience living with a chronic condition; through a guided discussion, they will able to verbalize their thoughts and concerns. This exercise will offer insight into the issue of how to help their classmate effectively. Bibliotherapy "does not prescribe meanings, nor is it a form of direct teaching; it is more an invitation and permission giving to children to unveil wisdom and insight that might otherwise be squelched."
Teachers who practice or need to use bibliotherapy can find connections to their state or provincial guidelines. A common challenge for classroom teachers is finding the right book, and although some annotated bibliographies are available online and in curriculum publications, not all issues are touched upon. A teacher may have to find their book. The following evaluation framework is suggested:
There are steps that make bibliotherapy a more effective solution for dealing with the issues that a student may be facing, including developing support, trust, and confidence with the student that is suffering from an issue, identifying other school personnel that could aid in implementing the therapy, seeking support from the student's parents or guardians, defining the issue that the student is facing and why the teacher wants to help solve it, creating goals that may help the student overcome the issue, researching books that may help with the specific problem, introducing the book to all the people that will be involved, incorporating reading activities, and evaluating the effects and successes that the book may have had on the student.
Audio therapy is the clinical use of recorded sound, music, or spoken words, or a combination thereof, recorded on a physical medium such as a compact disc (CD), or a digital file, including those formatted as MP3, which patients or participants play on a suitable device, and to which they listen with intent to experience a subsequent beneficial physiological, psychological, or social effect.Changing Lives Through Literature
Changing Lives Through Literature (CLTL) is a bibliotherapy program that offers alternative probation sentences to offenders. The program was created in 1991 by Robert Waxler, an English professor at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, and Superior Court Judge Robert Kane. At a cost of less than $500 a person, proponents say that CLTL saves the government tens of thousands of dollars when compared with the cost of housing an inmate for a lifetime at an annual rate of $30,000. The program is said to help reduce the recidivism rate among certain segments of the prison population. Former offenders credit the program for giving them a second chance.Several studies of the CLTL program have been published. A longitudinal study by Jarjoura & Krumholz (1998) found favorable results, with lower rates of recidivism than those in a comparison, non-program group. Liberal and conservative penal systems throughout the U.S., including Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, Texas, and Virginia, have embraced the program. CLTL was brought to Manchester, England as part of the "Stories Connect" program run by the Writers in Prison Network.The program has received a New England Board of Higher Education award for excellence and an Exemplary Education Grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.Comic book therapy
Comic book therapy is a form of art therapy in which those undergoing rehabilitation or those who have already completed rehabilitation express their experiences through personal narratives within a comics format. The combination of text and image enables patients to process their memories and emotions through two different, yet compatible mediums. Comic book therapy can also be used in a psychotherapeutic setting, whereby clients are encouraged to read specific comic books, often surrounding topics similar to their own diagnoses. Clients are encouraged to present their thoughts and feelings they experienced while reading as well as to draw parallels with their own lived experiences based on the events that occur within the books. This is done in an effort to reach a cathartic moment of clarity and understanding of one's own life.
Both forms of therapy can be used throughout a patient's treatment process: immediately after diagnosis, throughout rehabilitation, and during the events that follow, including readjustment and general coping.
Comic book therapy is currently being applied to a variety of populations, including patients diagnosed with life-altering diagnoses (i.e. cancer, Dementia, Parkinson's Disease, diabetes, etc.), patients and family members experiencing severe illness or death, families undergoing therapy, sexual assault survivors, and soldiers returning from war. One such therapy, originally conceptualized by Captain Russel Shilling, is currently being developed by The United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).Earthquake in Zipland
Earthquake in Zipland is a computer game , which was originally developed by moris oz, aimed at helping children whose parents are undergoing divorce to cope with it. Game designer & therapist Chaya Harash says that it is the “first research-based psychological computer game designed to help children deal indirectly with divorce and separation.”The quest takes the child in a basement full of colorful characters and challenging tasks, while dealing indirectly with a number of important issues such as anger, guilt, loyalty conflicts, the fantasy to reunite the divorced parents and other emotional effects of divorce on children.
Designed to increase communication between parents and children, the game comes with a comprehensive Parent’s Guide with tips and information on how to use the game with the child most effectively.
Earthquake in Zipland is also recommended for therapists and school counselors as an innovative form of interactive play therapy, as well as a tool for support groups dealing with children of divorce. The interactive story includes all the proven benefits of bibliotherapy brought to life on screen.
The game is available in two versions, one for parents and children and one for therapists and helping professionals.International Literacy Association
The International Literacy Association (ILA), formerly the International Reading Association (IRA), is an international professional organization that was created in 1956 to improve reading instruction, facilitate dialogue about research on reading, and encourage the habit of reading.The organization, whose headquarters are in Newark, Delaware, United States, has approximately 300,000 members from 84 countries , and more than 1,250 councils and affiliates, worldwide. Membership fees range from 24 to 39 dollars, plus fees for journal subscriptions. Discounted subscription rates are available for residents of developing economies. The current ILA President is Professor Douglas Fisher. He was as Vice President of the ILA Board of Directors between 2016 and 2017.Jane Yolen
Jane Hyatt Yolen (born February 11, 1939) is an American writer of fantasy, science fiction, and children's books. She is the author or editor of more than 365 books, of which the best known is The Devil's Arithmetic, a Holocaust novella. Her other works include the Nebula Award-winning short story Sister Emily's Lightship, the novelette Lost Girls, Owl Moon, The Emperor and the Kite, the Commander Toad series and How Do Dinosaurs Say Goodnight. She gave the lecture for the 1989 Alice G. Smith Lecture, the inaugural year for the series. This lecture series is held at the University of South Florida School of Information "to honor the memory of its first director, Alice Gullen Smith, known for her work with youth and bibliotherapy." In 2012 she became the first woman to give the Andrew Lang lecture.Limited-edition book
A limited-edition book is a book released in a limited-quantity print run, usually fewer than 1000 copies (much smaller than publishing-industry standards). The term connotes scarcity or exclusivity. The higher the quantity printed the less likely the book will become scarce and thus increase in value. Limited editions were introduced by publishers in the late 19th century. The term also implies that no further additional printings of the book with the same design treatment will take place, unlike open-ended trade editions wherein further copies may be released in more print runs as the first and subsequent printings sell out.Limited-edition books may also be numbered or lettered to distinguish in that set each book. For example, a numbered, limited book could have a marking such as "Copy 1 of a limited edition of 250 copies" or "1/250". Much less common is the lettered limited-edition book that could have denotations such as "1 of 26" or "1/26" or "A of 26" or "Copy A", etc. Sometimes a copy of a limited-edition book is stated as being "out of series": this is an unnumbered copy, often a review copy.
Limited-edition books are also sometimes signed by the author, illustrator and/or other contributors to make them more exclusive and collectible. In some instances, the limited-edition version contains additional material not found in the mass-market (or trade) version of the book. Likewise, they are sometimes housed in slipcases.List of forms of alternative medicine
This is a list of articles covering alternative medicine topics.Mooli Lahad
Professor Mooli Lahad (Hebrew: מולי להד; born 1953) is an Israeli psychologist and psychotrauma specialist, known for his creative methods of intervention and treatment of stress. He is the founder and former director of the Institute of Dramatherapy, and founding president of the CSPC - The International Stress Prevention Centre, at Tel Hai College in Kiryat Shmona, Israel. He is also Professor of Psychology at Tel Hai College and was a visiting Professor of Dramatherapy at Surrey University, England.Lahad received his first PhD in psychology and a second in human and life science.
Lahad champions the application of creative approaches such as dramatherapy and bibliotherapy in the prevention and treatment of psychotrauma.
He developed the Integrative Model of Coping and Resiliency 'BASIC PH' and the 'SEE FAR CBT' psychotrauma treatment protocol, adopted by other practitioners worldwide. This centres on people's natural coping mechanisms, of which he has identified six types. The method aims to help people suffering from anxiety disorders or traumatized individuals to reduce their symptoms either completely or to a manageable level to enable them to regain a sense of control of their lives.
Lahad has practised his methods in the immediate aftermath of disasters such as the 1999 earthquake in Turkey, the United States dealing with the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, in New York City and New Jersey and in Sri Lanka following the 2004 tsunami and Japan 2011-2014 following the tsunami. This has included both dealing with individual cases and providing 'cascade' training of professionals known as 'train the trainers' or 'helping the helpers' who then go on to train others, to quickly build a large force of counsellors a concept he calls 'building islands of resiliency'.
In 1979, he founded the Community Stress Prevention Center, in conjunction with the Israeli Ministry of Education.Lahad is the former director of the Kiryat Shmona educational psychology services (1984–88), and former head of the Haifa University bibliotherapy course (1986–89). He is the author or co-author of 35 books and the recipient of seven professional prizes among them : The Bonner Prize for outstanding contributions to Stress Prevention and the Education System in Israel from the Israeli Psychological Association, The Adler Institute for the welfare of the child Prize Tel Aviv University, and the Isareli Lottery Prize for Innovations in medicine for developing telepsychology services. In 2017 he received the world WIZO organization award for his humanitarian work in disaster areas worldwide.Poems in the Waiting Room
Poems in the Waiting Room (PitWR) is a U.K.-based and registered arts in health charity. The main aim of the charity is to supply short collections of poems for patients in National Health Service General Practice waiting rooms to read while waiting to see their doctor. The aim is to promote poetry, and to make the paient's wait more pleasant. The service is free to the waiting rooms and general practice managers, and is supported by grants and donations. The poems are presented as A4 sized three-fold cards typically reproducing between six and eight poems. Batches of cards are printed and distributed to waiting rooms four times a year. Patients are invited to take the cards away with them.
An additional service provided by the charity is 'PiTWR for Hospitals'. This provides larger print-runs of the poetry cards for distribution in hospitals. These are adapted to display the hospitals own message and sponsorship details.
A key consideration for the charity is the selection of poems. Guidelines for the selection of poems have been devised with this in mind, and with help from a consultant psychiatrist as well as from poets. To quote the Editor "In a patient centred health service, poetry arts in health too needs to be patient centred. The readers are patients – the worried well and the worried sick. The poems selected draw from the springs of well-being. In time of trouble, a measure of comfort is welcome". The selection of poems is therefore different from, for example, the poetry that patients may themselves write as writing therapy. Poems selected for inclusion in PiTWR collections are a mix of contemporary work and poems from the canon of English poetry. Translations of poems from other traditions are also included. The essential is that they all contain positive images of hope, home, security, safe journey and arrival, beauty and transcendence, love and loving. The approach is indeed more akin to bibliotherapy rather than art therapy. Submissions from poets are encouraged, and a set of guidelines is provided to indicate the sort of poetry that meets the need of the charity.
In addition to the selection, production and distribution of the poetry cards the charity also undertakes research into the cost effectiveness of the scheme, and supports related arts in health initiatives. Recent work focusses on the extension of the scheme to support the production of special editions tailored for distribution in hospitals, rather than general practice waiting rooms. Collaborative work with other arts in health or literature based organisations, such as The Reader (magazine) is actively pursued.Sadie Peterson Delaney
Sadie Peterson Delaney (1889– May 4, 1958) was the chief librarian of the Veterans Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama, for 34 years. She is well known as a pioneer for her work with bibliotherapy.Samuel McChord Crothers
Samuel McChord Crothers (June 7, 1857–November 1927) was an American Unitarian minister with The First Parish in Cambridge. He was a popular essayist.Crothers graduated from Wittenberg College in 1873. In 1874, he graduated from College of New Jersey. After earning a divinity degree at Union Theological Seminary in 1877, he became a Presbyterian minister. He resigned in 1881 and converted to the Unitarian church in 1882.
Crothers died suddenly at his home in Cambridge, Massachusetts.Slow reading
Slow reading is the intentional reduction in the speed of reading, carried out to increase comprehension or pleasure. The concept appears to have originated in the study of philosophy and literature as a technique to more fully comprehend and appreciate a complex text. More recently, there has been increased interest in slow reading as result of the slow movement and its focus on decelerating the pace of modern life.Susan Elderkin
Susan Elderkin (born 1968 in Crawley) is an English author of two critically acclaimed novels, her first, Sunset Over Chocolate Mountains won a Betty Trask Prize and was shortlisted for the Orange Prize for Fiction, her second, The Voices was shortlisted for the Ondaatje Prize and longlisted for the International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award. She was one of Granta Magazine's 20 Best Young British Novelists in 2003 and won the 2007 Society of Authors Travel Award.The Reader (magazine)
The Reader is a Liverpool-based literary magazine published quarterly by The Reader Organisation. The magazine was founded in 1997 by Sarah Coley, Jane Davis, and Angela Macmillan with a grant from the University of Liverpool's School of English. It operated as part of the University of Liverpool until 2008 when the parent organisation became an independent charitable body. The Reader magazine is currently edited by Philip Davis, author, biographer, and Professor of English at the University of Liverpool. The Deputy Editor is Sarah Coley.
The magazine features original poetry and short fiction, essays, interviews and recommendations with an emphasis on the enjoyment of reading good quality writing. Issues are based loosely around a given theme, with letters, a crossword and the famously tricky 'Buck's Quiz' making up the last section. Since taking over the editorship from his wife in 2007 Philip Davis has overseen a successful redesign and relaunch and the magazine now includes a small amount of photography. The magazine has managed to attract many high-profile contributors over the years, including A. S. Byatt, Howard Jacobson, Seamus Heaney, Will Self, Graham Swift, John Kinsella, Les Murray, John Carey, Bel Mooney and Jonathan Bate.
As well as the magazine, The Reader Organisation promotes live literature and outreach events and educational community-based projects such as Get Into Reading, promoting and researching the therapeutic value of reading ('bibliotherapy'). In this context The Reader supports and works with other U.K. arts in health charities such as Poems in the Waiting Room. In 2008 it spun off from the University of Liverpool as an independent charitable organisation with Blake Morrison as its Chair and Jane Davis as director.The School of Life
The School of Life is an educational company that offers advice on life issues. It was founded in 2008 and based in branches in London (headquarters), Antwerp, Amsterdam, Berlin, Istanbul, Melbourne, Paris, São Paulo, Sydney, Seoul, Taipei and Tel Aviv. The School offers a variety of programmes and services covering finding fulfilling work, mastering relationships, achieving calm, and understanding and changing the world. The School also offers psychotherapy and bibliotherapy services and runs online and physical shops.William C. Menninger
William Claire Menninger (October 15, 1899 – September 6, 1966) was a co-founder with his brother Karl and his father of The Menninger Foundation in Topeka, Kansas, which is an internationally known center for treatment of behavioral disorders.