Bibliothèque des Ecoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome

Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome ("Library of the French schools of Greece and Rome") is the name of two published series of historical documents, such as the letters of 13th century Popes during the Crusades.

Modern history books which cite excerpts from letters of the Crusades, often list the BEF[1] in their citation.[2]

The first series began publication in 1877.[3]

The second series was published 1884–1960.[4]

Selected publications

First series

Second series

  • Les Registres d'Innocent IV (ed. Élie Berger, 4 vols., Paris, 1884–1921)[1]
  • Les Registres d'Alexandre IV (ed. C. Bourel de la Roncière, J. de Loye, P. de Cenival, and A. Coulon, 3 vols., Paris, 1902–1953)
  • Les Registres d'Urbain IV (ed. Jean Guiraud, 4 vols., Paris, 1899–1929)
  • Les Registres de Clément IV (ed. Edouard Jordan, 6 fasc., Paris, 1893–1945)
  • Les Registres de Grégoire X et de Jean XXI (ed. Jean Guiraud and L. Cadier, 4 fasc., Paris, 1892–1906)
  • Les Registres de Nicolas III (ed. Jules Gay [and Suzanne Vitte], fasc., Paris, 1898–1938)
  • Les Registres de Martin IV (ed. F. Olivier-Martin et al., 3 fasc., Paris, 1901–1935)
  • Les Registres d'Honorius IV (ed. Maurice Prou, Paris, 1886–1888)
  • Les Registres de Nicolas IV (ed. Ernest Langlois, 9 fasc., Paris, 1886–1893)

Other correspondence includes that of:[2]

See also


  1. ^ Runciman misspelled editor's name as "Bergen" instead of "Berger"
  2. ^ Steven Runciman (1987), A History of the Crusades, p. 484



BEF may refer to:

British Equestrian Federation

British Expeditionary Force (World War I)

British Expeditionary Force (World War II)

Brazilian Expeditionary Force

BEF (image format), High Dynamic Range imaging format

B.E.F. (British Electric Foundation)

Bonus Expeditionary Force

Belgian franc, ISO 4217 currency code for the former currency of Belgium

Bluefields Airport (IATA Code: BEF) in Bluefields, Nicaragua

Bonneville Environmental Foundation

Bibliothèque des Ecoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome

Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes

The Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes is a journal dedicated to the study and use of medieval manuscripts. It was founded in 1839 and continues to provide bi-annual issues with articles and abstracts in French, English, and German. Starting in 1995, one issue each year is devoted to a particular theme. It is published by the Société de l’École des chartes (Association of the Archive Training School) and distributed by Librairie Droz. As of 2016, the director is Michelle Bubenicek.

Scholars often cite this journal with the abbreviation BEC. Historical works on the Crusades, for example, often refer to medieval documents as published in the Bibliothèque.

Camille Enlart

Camille Enlart (22 November 1862 at Boulogne-sur-Mer - 14 February 1927 at Paris) was a French archaeologist and art historian. His areas of special interest were the Middle Ages and photography.

Ex voto of the Attalids (Delphi)

Several Hellenistic kings dedicated monuments in the sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi, in an effort to emphasize their prestige. Among those kings were the Attalids of Pergamon, who occupied a prominent position at the highest point of the Sacred Way, close to the temple of Apollo where they erected their ex votos.

Fernand Courby

Fernand Henri Fabien Courby (19 January 1878 – 6 March 1932) was a French archaeologist and Hellenist, a specialist of ancient Greece, a member of the French School at Athens (class 1905), and professor at the Faculté des lettres of the University of Lyon.

Francis Croissant

Francis Croissant is a French archaeologist and art historian specializing in Archaic Greece, especially sculpture.

A student at the École normale supérieure (class 1957 L), he has been a member of the French School at Athens and former general secretary of this institution (1968-1974).

He was a maître de conférences at the University of Nancy, and later a professor of Greek archaeology at Paris I.

François Chamoux

François Chamoux (4 April 1915 – 21 October 2007) was a French Hellenist and archaeologist, a member of the Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres.

Guichard of Pontigny

Guichard, also known under the name of Guichard of Pontigny (died in Lyon September 27, 1181) was a French churchman, Archbishop of Lyon from 1165.

Jacques Heurgon

Jacques Heurgon (25 January 1903 – 27 October 1995) was a French university, normalian, Etruscan scholar and Latinist, professor of Latin language and literature at the Sorbonne. Married to Anne Heurgon-Desjardins, founder in 1952, of the Centre culturel international de Cerisy-la-Salle, he was the father of Marc Heurgon, politician and historian, Catherine Peyrou and Edith Heurgon who continued the "Colloques of Cerisy".

A member of the École française de Rome (1928–1930), he was elected a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1969.

Jean Bayet

Jean Bayet (12 November 1892 – 5 December 1969) was a French Latinist. A Professor of Latin Language and Literature at the Sorbonne, he was Director-General of Education in 1944 and Director of the École française de Rome from 1952 to 1960. In 1948 he was elected a member of the Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres. A specialist of Latin literature and Religion in ancient Rome, Jean Bayet, through his works and the theses he directed, played a decisive role in the development of a French school of history of the Roman religion, particularly active in the second half of the twentieth century.


Masties (reigned c. 426–494 or 449–516) was the ruler of Kingdom of the Aures, a Roman-berber kingdom in Tunisia and Eastern Algeria.

Michel Labrousse

Michel Labrousse (25 December 1912, Brive-la-Gaillarde – 1988) was a 20th-century French historian.

A student at the École normale supérieure in Paris from 1931 to 1935, Michel Labrousse obtained there his agrégation of history and geography. He was a member of the École française de Rome from 1936 to 1938, then a teacher in a high school in Bordeaux until the breakup of World War II. Drafted as Intelligence assessment officer, he was captured June 22, 1940, and was interned in Germany. He was a professor in the camp captivity University before being delivered and returned to France in 1945.

He then became professor of ancient and Roman history at the Faculty of Letters of Toulouse. He defended two thesis at the Sorbonne in 1969 and then became a doctor-es-lettres.

In addition to his teaching activities, he was also interested in archeology. He was Director of historic antiquities of Midi-Pyrénées from 1946 to 1981 and member of the Board of archaeological research. He was president of the "Société archéologique du Midi de la France" from 1958 to 1988. He led excavations on the site of the Battle of Gergovia and especially in his native region of Aquitaine.

Peter of Farfa

Peter (died ca. 919) was the long-serving Abbot of Farfa from about 890 until his death. He replaced the interim abbot Vitalis. His abbacy marked the return of stability after a period which saw four abbots in the space of two years.

In 897, Farfa was attacked and sacked, presumably by Saracens, who had begun to settle in south and central Italy and systematically plunder the countryside. An account of these events, the Destructio monasterii Farfensis, was written by the early eleventh-century abbot Hugh. He records "the properties of our monastery, which were given mercifully by the pious, [were] dispersed cruelly by the impious [through] evil destruction". His vague wording allows that at least some of the raiders were locals and not Saracens. Under Peter's direction, the monks of Farfa fled, some to Rome and others to Rieti. The abbey buildings were used as a barracks by the Saracens at first, but in 898 they were accidentally burnt down. The abbey's treasures were rescued by the monks, and its library and archive were brought by Peter and a few others to the church of Saint Hippolytus in Fermo. He soon had them moved again to the castle of Santa Vittoria in Monte Matenano. In the late eleventh century, the Farfese monk Gregory of Catino records that many documents were missing from the abbey's archives; these were probably lost during the itinerant period after 897. The books and documents did not return to Farfa until around 930, after Peter's death.

Philippe-Ernest Legrand

Philippe-Ernest Legrand (2 September 1866 – 1 July 1953) was a French Hellenist. An historian, philologist, archaeologist, epigrapher, his great work was the translation and editing of Histories (Herodotus), published in the Collection Budé, which is still a reference.

Renaud de Forez

Renaud de Forez (died in Lyon October 22, 1226) was a French churchman who was Archbishop of Lyon as Renaud II (1193–1226). A son of Count Guigues II of Forez, Renaud acted as regent of the county of Forez for his nephew, Guigues IV, between 1203 and 1218. He joined the Lyon chapter during the episcopate of Guichard of Pontigny. He became abbot of Saint-Just in 1182.


Uppenna or Upenna is a Tunisian archaeological site located on the site of the present locality of Henchir Chigarnia. The site has delivered a basilica and the remains of a fortress .

Viam agnoscere veritatis (1248)

Viam agnoscere veritatis is the name of a letter written by Pope Innocent IV to the Mongols. It was written on November 22, 1248, and was Pope Innocent's reply to a message from Mongol commander Baiju. Innocent IV had previously sent two letters to the Mongols in 1245, Cum non solum and Dei patris immensa.

The letter was probably transmitted from the Pope via Mongol envoys Aïbeg and Serkis, was dated November 22, 1248, and was the Pope's reply to a letter from Baiju. Some historians refer to it as "Viam agnoscere veritatis" and some as "Viam cognoscere veritatis" (both "agnoscere" and "cognoscere" are Latin for "to know"). According to historian Denis Sinor, the letter "stated that Innocent IV had acted out of a sense of duty to let the true religion be known to the Mongols, and that he regretted the Mongols' perseverance in their errors and adjured them to cease their menaces."

"Better that you humble yourself before [Christ], face to face, and recognize His great forbearance, Who for so long has endured your destructive actions: that in waiting obligingly, you may be turned from errors to truth, and be able to fear Him, lest He provoked for too long a time should threaten you with the lash of His anger, since you do not recognize His omnipotence."

Winged Lion of Vulci

The Winged Lion of Vulci is a nenfro sculpture of a lion with wings, carved between 550 BC and 540 BC and discovered in excavations of the necropoli of the Etruscan city of Vulci. It is now in the Louvre.

Inspired by both ancient Greek and ancient Near East models, it is one of many such sculptures discovered in the excavations and intended for the entrances to tombs and funerary chambers.

Yves Modéran

Yves Modéran (1955 – 1 July 2010, Paris) was a French historian, a professor of Roman history at the University of Caen Normandy.

Agrégé d'histoire in 1978, he was a specialist of North Africa during Antiquity and later, in particular of the Vandals period. He took part to the excavations at Bulla Regia as part of studies organized by the École française de Rome.

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