Bibliography of The Holocaust

This is a selected bibliography and other resources for The Holocaust, including prominent primary sources, historical studies, notable survivor accounts and autobiographies, as well as other documentation and further hypotheses.


Primary sources

The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied.pdf
"The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland", a note issued by the Polish government-in-exile, 1942
The Black Book of Poland (21–24)
Photos from The Black Book of Poland, published in 1942 by Polish government-in-exile in London and New York.

Historical studies

  • Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. Yale University Press; New Ed edition, 2002. ISBN 0-300-09300-4.
  • Bauer, Yehuda. Jews for Sale? Nazi–Jewish Negotiations 1933–1945. Yale University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-300-06852-2.
  • Berenbaum, Michael, A Mosaic of Victims: Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis (1990)
  • Bergen, Doris, War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust (2009)
  • Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair : Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule (2004)
  • Biesold, Horst. Crying Hands: Eugenics and Deaf People in Nazi Germany (2004)
  • Black, Edwin. The Transfer Agreement (1984)
  • Black, Edwin. IBM and the Holocaust (2001)
  • Black, Edwin. Nazi Nexus: America's Corporate Connections to Hitler's Holocaust. Washington, DC: Dialog Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-914153-09-2.
  • Black, Edwin. The Farhud: The Arab-Nazi Alliance in the Holocaust. Washington, DC: Dialog Press, 2010. ISBN 0-914153-14-5.
  • Braham, Randolph L.. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary 2 vols. Boulder: Social Science Monographs, Columbia University Press, 1981 (rev. and enlarged, (1994) ISBN 0-88033-247-6
  • Braham, Randolph L. and vanden Heuvel, William. The Auschwitz Reports and the Holocaust in Hungary. Columbia University Press, 2011.
  • Broszat, Martin. "Hitler and the Genesis of the ‘Final Solution’: An Assessment of David Irving’s Theses"" pages 73-125 from Yad Vashem Studies, Volume 13,1979; reprinted pages 390-429 in Aspects of the Third Reich edited by H.W. Koch, London: Macmillan, (1985) ISBN 0-333-35272-6.
  • Browning, Christopher R. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942 (2004). With contribution by Jürgen Matthäus.
  • Browning, Christopher R. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (1992)
  • Burleigh, Michael & Wippermann, Wolfgang The Racial State : Germany 1933-1945, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, (1991) ISBN 0-521-39114-8.
  • Chalmers, Beverley. Birth, Sex and Abuse: Women's Voices Under Nazi Rule, Surrey : Grosvenor House Publishing Ltd, (2015) ISBN 1781483531.
  • Davidowicz, Lucy, The War Against the Jews : 1933-1945 (1975).
  • Davies, Norman and Lukas, Richard C. Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation 1939-1944, (2001, c1996)
  • Dean, Martin: Robbing the Jews - The Confiscation of Jewish Property in the Holocaust, 1935 - 1945, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Dwork, Deborah. van Pelt, Robert Jan, Auschwitz: 1270 to the Present (1996)
  • Dwork, Deborah and van Pelt, Robert Jan. Holocaust: A History (2002)
  • Ehrenreich, Eric. "The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution" (2007) ISBN 978-0-253-34945-3.
  • Evans, Suzanne. Forgotten Crimes: The Holocaust and People with Disabilities (2004)
  • Friedländer, Saul. Nazi Germany and the Jews : Volume 1: The Years of Persecution 1933-1939 (1998); Volume 2: Nazi Germany and the Jews 1939-1945: The Years of Extermination. HarperCollins, 2007.
  • Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (1997, c1995)
  • Gilbert, Martin. Auschwitz and the Allies (1983, c198l)
  • Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe during the Second World War (New York, 1985) ISBN 0-8050-0348-7
  • Gilbert, Martin. The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust, Routledge, New York, 2002. ISBN 0-415-28145-8
  • Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Vintage, 1997.
  • Grau, Gunter & Shoppmann, Claudia. The Hidden Holocaust?: Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany 1933-45 (1995)
  • Gutman, Israel, Gutman, Yisrael, and Berenbaum, Michael, eds. Anatomy of the Auschwitz death camp (1994) ISBN 0-253-32684-2
  • Heberer, Patricia. Children during the Holocaust (2011)
  • Hedgepeth, Sonja & Saidel, Rochelle. Sexual Violence against Jewish Women during the Holocaust (2010)
  • Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews, vol. 1-3 (2003, c1961)
  • Hilberg, Raul. Perpetrators, Victims, Bystanders: The Jewish Catastrophe 1933-1945, (1992)
  • The Holocaust Chronicle, (2001)
  • Klempner, Mark. The Heart Has Reasons: Holocaust Rescuers and Their Stories of Courage (The Pilgrim Press, 2006) ISBN 0-8298-1699-2
  • Lewy, Gunter. The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies (2001)
  • Longerich, Peter (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5.
  • Lusane, Clarence. Hitler's Black Victims: The Historical Experience of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, Africans and African Americans in the Nazi Era (2002)
  • Mayer, Michael Staaten als Täter. Ministerialbürokratie und 'Judenpolitik' in NS-Deutschland und Vichy-Frankreich. Ein Vergleich. Preface by Horst Möller and Georges-Henri Soutou München, Oldenbourg, 2010 (Studien zur Zeitgeschichte; 80). ISBN 978-3-486-58945-0. (Comparative study of anti-Jewish policy implemented by the Government in Nazi-Germany, by German occupational forces in France and by the semi-autonomic French Government in Vichy)
  • Ofer, Dalia & Weitzman, Lenore. Women in the Holocaust (1999)
  • Peukert, Detlev “The Genesis of the `Final Solution’ from the Spirit of Science” pages 234-252 from Reevaluating the Third Reich edited by Thomas Childers and Jane Caplan, New York: Holmes & Meier, 1994 ISBN 0-8419-1178-9.
  • Plant, Richard. The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals (1988)
  • Poliakov, Léon. Harvest of Hate: The Nazi Program for the Destruction of the Jews of Europe (1954)
  • Pringle, Heather. The Master Plan: Himmler’s Scholars and the Holocaust. London: Fourth Estate, 2006.
  • Ioanid, Radu. The Holocaust in Romania: The Destruction of Jews and Gypsies Under the Antonescu Regime, 1940-1944 (2001)
  • Rees, Laurence (2017). The Holocaust: A New History. London: Viking Press. ISBN 978-1610398442.
  • Reitlinger, Gerald. The Final Solution: The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939-1945 (1953)
  • Rhodes, Richard. Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust. New York: Vintage, 2003.
  • Satloff, Robert. "Among the Righteous: Lost Stories from the Holocaust's Long Reach into Arab Lands" (Public Affairs, 2006)
  • Rossel, Seymour. The Holocaust: The World and the Jews, 1933-1945 (1992).
  • Schleunes, Karl A., The Twisted Road to Auschwitz: Nazi Policy Toward German Jews, 1933-1939 (1990, 1970).
  • Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. London: The Bodley Head. ISBN 978-0-224-08141-2.
  • Stone, Dan, ed. The Historiography of the Holocaust. New York: Palgrave, 2004
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Historical Atlas of the Holocaust, Macmillan Publishing (1996)
  • Waldstein Wilkes, Helen: Letters from the Lost, A Memoir of Discovery. 2009
  • Yahil, Leni. The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932-1945. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Selected survivor accounts

  • Altman, I. (ed.) Sokhrani moi pisma. [Keep My Letters]. (2010)
  • Améry, Jean. At the Mind's Limits: Contemplations by a Survivor on Auschwitz and its Realities (1998, c1980)
  • Beck, Gad. An Underground Life: Memoirs of a Gay Jew in Nazi Berlin (1999)
  • Blitz Konig, Nanette. Holocaust Memoirs of a Bergen-Belsen Survivor and Classmate of Anne Frank (2018) Amsterdam Publishers ISBN 9789492371614
  • Buber-Neumann Margarete Under Two Dictators. Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler (1949)
  • Delbo, Charlotte. Auschwitz and After (1995)
  • Dittman, Anita. Trapped in Hitler's Hell. 2005. ISBN 0-9721512-8-1
  • Dunn, Krista Perry. The Courtship of Julian and Frieda: A True Story (2005, 2006), ISBN 1-4134-8641-X
  • Frankl, Viktor E. Man's Search for Meaning (1997, c1984)
  • Gerrard, Mady Full Circle (Autobiography) Publisher: KLPM Ltd ISBN 095586500X ISBN 978-0955865008
  • Gutman, Israel, Resistance : The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1998)
  • Heger, Heinz. Men With the Pink Triangle: The True, Life-And-Death Story of Homosexuals in the Nazi Death Camps (1994, c1980)
  • Kertész, Imre. "Fateless" or "Fatelessness" Hungarian "Sorstalanság" (between 1969 and 1973) First published 1975
  • Klemperer, Victor. I Shall Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years, 2 vols., also published as I Will Bear Witness in the U.S. (2001, c1998)
  • Klüger, Ruth. Still Alive: A Holocaust Girlhood Remembered (2003) First published in German weiter leben: Eine Jugend (1992)
  • Kogon, Eugen. Der SS-Staat. Das System der deutschen Konzentrationslager (1974)
  • Lambert, Raymond-Raoul, Diary of a Witness, 1940-1943 (2007), Ivan R. Dee, Publisher ISBN 1-56663-740-6
  • Lengyel, Olga. Five chimneys: the story of Auschwitz. (1985, c1947)
  • Levi, Primo. If This Is a Man and The Truce, published separately in the U.S. as Survival At Auschwitz and The Reawakening (1995)
  • Levi, Primo. The Drowned and the Saved (1985)
  • Müller, Filip. Eyewitness Auschwitz: Three Years in the Gas Chambers at Auschwitz (1999, c1979)
  • Nomberg-Przytyk, Sara. Auschwitz: True Tales from a Grotesque Land (1985)
  • Nyiszli, Miklós. Auschwitz : A Doctor's Eyewitness Account (2001)
  • Orenstein, Henry. "I Shall Live: Surviving against all odds, 1939-1945" (1987), ISBN 0-8253-0441-5
  • Rekhtman, Moyshe. Here My Home Once Stood (2008) ISBN 0-615-21703-6
  • Rittner, Carol & Roth, John. Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust (1998)
  • Seel, Pierre. I, Pierre Seel, Deported Homosexual: A Memoir of Nazi Terror (1995)
  • Stojka, Ceija. We Live in Seclusion. The Memories of a Romni (1988), also known as Wir leben im Verborgenen. Erinnerungen einer Rom-Zigeunerin (1988)
  • Smith, Lyn, Forgotten Voices of the Holocaust (2005), Ebury Press ISBN 978-0-09-189826-7
  • Steinberg, Manny Outcry - Holocaust Memoirs, (2014), Amsterdam Publishers ISBN 978-9-082103137
  • Vrba, Rudolf. First published as I Cannot Forgive by Sidgwick and Jackson, Grove Press, 1963, ISBN 0-394-62133-6; also published as Escape from Auschwitz: I Cannot Forgive; latest edition I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, ISBN 1-56980-232-7.
  • Weissmann Klein, Gerda. All But My Life (1995)
  • Wiesenthal, Simon and James, Harry, et al. The Sunflower: On the Possibilities and Limits of Forgiveness (1998, c1997)
  • Wetzler, Alfréd. Escape from Hell: The True Story of the Auschwitz Protocol. Berghahn Books, 2007.
  • Winter, Walter. Winter Time: Memoirs of a German Sinto who Survived Auschwitz (2004)
  • Zuckerman, Yitzhak. A Surplus of Memory: Chronicle of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1993)

Selected semi-autobiographical by survivors

Other documentation

  • Arad, Yitzhak, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps (1999, c1987)
  • Browning Christopher R., Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (1998, c1992)
  • Carr, Firpo Wycoff Germany's Black Holocaust, 1890-1945 (2003)
  • Czech, Danuta, Auschwitz Chronicle: 1939-1945 (1999)
  • Dean, Martin. Collaboration in the Holocaust: Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine, 1941-44 (1999)
  • Dippler, Christoph "The German Resistance and the Jews" pages 51–93 from Yad Vashem Studies, Volume 16, 1984.
  • Lucjan Dobroszycki (ed.), The Chronicle of the Lodz Ghetto, 1941-1944 (1987, c1984)
  • Gilbert, Martin, Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War (1987, c1985)
  • Fings, Karola and Kenrick, Donald (ed.) The Gypsies During the Second World War, 2 vols. (1999)
  • Gutman, Israel, Berenbaum, Michael, et al. (ed.), Yehuda Bauer, Raul Hilberg, et al. (ed. bd.) Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp (1998, c1994)
  • Hogan, David J. and Aretha, David, eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures. Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International, 2000
  • Kaplan, Vivian Jeanette - Ten Green Bottles: Nazi Occupied Vienna to Shanghai (2004)
  • Koren, Yehuda and Negev, Eliat, In Our Hearts We Were Giants: The Remarkable Story of the Lilliput Troupe - A Dwarf Family's Survival of the Holocaust (2005)
  • The Protest of Zofia Kossak-Szczucka
  • Oppenheimer, Deborah and Harris, Mark Jonathan (ed.), Into the Arms of Strangers : Stories of the Kindertransport (2001, c1998)
  • Pressac, Jean-Claude, Auschwitz: Technique and operation of the gas chambers (1989)
  • van Pelt, Robert Jan. The Case for Auschwitz: Evidence from the Irving Trial (2002)
  • Steger, Bernd and Wald, Peter (ed.). Hinter der grüne Pappe: Orli Wald im Schatten von Auschwitz – Leben und Erinnerungen (2008)[1]
  • Vromen, Suzanne. Hidden Children of the Holocaust: Belgian Nuns and their Daring Rescue of Young Jews from the Nazis (2010)

Hypotheses and historiography

  • Agamben, Giorgio. Remnants of Auschwitz: The Witness and the Archive (1999)
  • Bloxham, Donald. The Final Solution: A Genocide (2009)
  • Christopher Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 11 and the Final Solution in Poland (Penguin, 1992)
  • Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (1994, c1963)
  • Cole, Tim (2000). Selling the Holocaust. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92813-3.
  • Goldhagen, Daniel J., Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (1997)
  • Dippel, John V. H. Bound Upon a Wheel of Fire: Why so many German Jews made the tragic decision to remain in Nazi Germany (1996)
  • Feig, Konnilyn, Hitler's Death Camps: The Sanity of Madness (1981)
  • Finkelstein, Norman G.. Ruth Bettina Birn, A nation on trial: the Goldhagen thesis and historical truth (1998)
  • Kershaw, Ian, The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation, London: Hodder Arnold, (2000, c1985)
  • Tom Lawson, Debates on the Holocaust, (University of Manchester Press) 2010
  • Leff, Laurel Buried By The Times: The Holocaust And America's Most Important Newspaper, Cambridge University Press (2005), hardcover, 426 pages, ISBN 0-521-81287-9
  • Linden, R. Ruth. Making Stories, Making Selves: Feminist Reflections on the Holocaust (1995)
  • Lipstadt, Deborah. Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory (1994)
  • Marrus, Michael R. The Holocaust in History (1989, c1987)
  • Mason, Timothy "Intention and Explanation: A Current Controversy about the Interpretation of National Socialism" pages 3–20 from The Nazi Holocaust Part 3, The "Final Solution": The Implementation of Mass Murder Volume 1 edited by Michael Marrus, Mecler: Westpoint, CT
  • Niewyk, Donald L. Holocaust: Problems & Perspective of Interpretation (1997, c1992)
  • Novick, Peter. The Holocaust in American Life (1999)
  • Rosenbaum, Alan S. (ed.) Is the Holocaust Unique?: Perspectives on Comparative Genocide (2001, c1996)
  • Shepherd, Ben (2016). Hitler's soldiers : the German army in the Third Reich. New Haven London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-17903-3.
  • Troncoso, Sergio. The Nature of Truth (2003)
  • Weiss, John. Ideology of Death: Why the Holocaust Happened in Germany (1997)
  • Wolffsohn, Michael Eternal Guilt? : Forty years of German-Jewish-Israeli Relations, New York : Columbia University Press, (1993) ISBN 0-231-08274-6.

Selected filmography

  • America and the Holocaust The American Experience. 1994, 2005 WGBH Educational Foundation, ISBN 1-59375-235-0
  • Auschwitz: The Nazis and the 'Final Solution', BBC. 2005.
  • Daring to Resist: Three Women Face the Holocaust is a 57-minute documentary from 1999 which tells the stories of three Jewish teenagers who resisted the Nazis: Faye Schulman, a photographer and partisan fighter in the forests of Poland (now Belarus); Barbara Rodbell, a ballerina in Amsterdam who delivered underground newspapers and secured food and transportation for Jews in hiding; and Shulamit Lack, who acquired false papers and a safe house for Jews attempting to escape from Hungary.[2][3][4] The movie was produced and directed by Barbara Attie and Martha Goell Lubell, and narrated by Janeane Garofalo.[3]
  • Into the Arms of Strangers: Stories of the Kindertransport
  • Liebe Perla is a 53-minute documentary that documents Nazi Germany's brutality towards disabled people through the exploration of a friendship between two women with dwarfism: Hannelore Witkofski of Germany and Perla Ovitz, who at the time of filming was living in Israel. Perla Ovitz was experimented on by Joseph Mengele during the Nazi regime. The film was made by Shahar Rozen in Israel and Germany in 1999, and it is in German and Hebrew with English subtitles.[5][6]
  • Memory of the Camps, as shown by PBS Frontline
  • Night and Fog, 1955, directed by Alain Resnais, narrated by Michel Bouquet.
  • One Survivor Remembers is a 1995 Oscar-winning documentary (40 minutes) in which Holocaust survivor Gerda Weissmann Klein describes her six-year ordeal as a victim of Nazi cruelty.[7][8]
  • Paper clips
  • Paragraph 175 is an 81-minute documentary directed by Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman that discusses the plight of gays and lesbians during the Nazi regime using interviews with all of the known gay and lesbian survivors of this era, five gay men and one lesbian.[9][10]
  • Shoah is a nine-hour documentary completed by Claude Lanzmann in 1985. The film, unlike most historical documentaries, does not feature reenactments or historical photos; instead it consists of interviews with people who were involved in various ways in the Holocaust, and visits to different places they discuss.
  • The Sorrow and the Pity, 1972, directed by Marcel Ophüls.
  • Swimming in Auschwitz is a 2007 documentary which interweaves the stories of six Jewish women who were imprisoned inside the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp during the Holocaust. The women all survived and tell their stories in person in the documentary; at the time of its filming they were all living in Los Angeles.[11][12][13]

External links

General Sites

Sites in languages other than English


Particular groups involved in The Holocaust

Holocaust education

Victim information and databases

Documentation and evidence

Other topics


See also


  1. ^ Mechthild Schneiders, "Sensibler Seele und Widerstandskämpferin" Triericher Volksfreund (January 27, 2009). Retrieved July 15, 2011 (in German)
  2. ^ "Daring to Resist: Three Women Face the Holocaust - Educational Media Reviews Online (EMRO)". Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  3. ^ a b "PBS - Daring To Resist". Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  4. ^ "Daring to Resist: Three Women Face the Holocaust". Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-06-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-06-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "'Oscar's Docs' Remembers the Holocaust". Newsmax. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2011-06-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Paragraph 175". Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-23. Retrieved 2011-06-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^
  12. ^ "The PBS documentary "Swimming in Auschwitz" is a Thursday TV pick". The Seattle Times. April 23, 2009.
  13. ^ "Holocaust Survivors talk in 'Swimming in Auschwitz'. International Premiere at DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE FILM FESTIVAL: London June 1st-7th". Retrieved 12 May 2016.
Alfréd Wetzler

Alfréd Israel Wetzler (10 May 1918– 8 February 1988), who wrote under the alias Jozef Lánik, was a Slovak Jew.

He is known for escaping from Auschwitz concentration camp and co-writing the Vrba-Wetzler Report.

Antisemitism (authors)

This is a list of authors in the field of antisemitism in alphabetical order.

Lighthouse Trails Publishing

Lighthouse Trails Publishing is a Christian publishing company located in Eureka, Montana.

The company publishes biographies, documentaries, research articles, apologetics documents, children's novels, and various other related topics. Lighthouse Trails Publishing has 35 authors and editors with around 20,000 people.

Lists of books

For the corresponding Wikipedia Library research page, see Wikipedia:List of bibliographies.This is a list of book lists (bibliographies) on Wikipedia, organized by various criteria.

Randolph L. Braham

Randolph Lewis Braham (December 20, 1922 – November 25, 2018) was an American historian and political scientist, born in Romania, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the City College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. A specialist in comparative politics and the Holocaust, he was a founding board member of the academic committee of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), Washington, D.C., and founded The Rosenthal Institute for Holocaust Studies at the Graduate Center in 1979.Braham's career was spent teaching comparative politics and Soviet studies at The City College of New York, where he chaired the political science department. He was the author or editor of over 60 books, authored or co-authored chapters in 50 others, and published a large number of scholarly articles. The vast majority of his published work deals with the Holocaust in Hungary. He became best known for his two-volume work The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary, first published in 1981.

Responsibility for the Holocaust

Responsibility for the Holocaust is the subject of an ongoing historical debate that has spanned several decades. The debate about the origins of the Holocaust is known as functionalism versus intentionalism. Intentionalists such as Lucy Dawidowicz argue that Adolf Hitler planned the extermination of the Jewish people as early as 1918, and that he personally oversaw its execution. However, functionalists such as Raul Hilberg argue that the extermination plans evolved in stages, as a result of initiatives by bureaucrats who were responding to other policy failures. The debate has settled to a large degree as historians have conceded that both positions have merit.

The primary responsibility for the Holocaust rests on Hitler, and the Nazi Party leadership, but initiatives to persecute Jews, Gypsies, and others were also perpetrated by the Schutzstaffel (SS), the German military, ordinary German citizens as well as by collaborationist members of various European governments, including their military personnel and civilians alike. A host of factors contributed to the environment under which atrocities were committed across the continent, ranging from general racism (including antisemitism), religious hatred, blind obedience, political opportunism, coercion, profiteering, and xenophobia.

The Holocaust in popular culture

There is a wide range of ways in which people have represented the Holocaust in popular culture.


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