Bhuj

Bhuj (pronunciation ) is a Municipality and District Headquarter of Kutch District in the state of Gujarat, India.

Bhuj
City
The Prag Mahal
Bhuj is located in Gujarat
Bhuj
Bhuj
Coordinates: 23°15′N 69°40′E / 23.25°N 69.67°ECoordinates: 23°15′N 69°40′E / 23.25°N 69.67°E
Country India
StateGujarat
DistrictKachchh
MunicipalityBhuj Municipality
Founded byRao Hamirji
Government
 • TypeElected
 • BodyMunicipality
Area
 • Total56 km2 (22 sq mi)
Elevation
110 m (360 ft)
Population
(2011)Census 2011
 • Total2,13,514
 • Density3,800/km2 (9,900/sq mi)
Languages
 • Officialkutchi, Gujarati
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
370001
Telephone code2832
Vehicle registrationGJ-12
Sex ratio0.97 /
Websitehttp://www.bhujnagarpalika.org
source:Census of India[1]

Etymology

According to legend, Kutch was ruled by the Nāga chieftains in the past. Sagai, a queen of Sheshapattana, who was married to King Bheria Kumar, rose up against Bhujanga, the last chieftain of Naga. After the battle, Bheria was defeated and Queen Sagai committed sati. The hill where they lived later came to be known as Bhujia Hill and the town at the foothill as Bhuj. Bhujang was later worshiped by the people as snake god, Bhujanga, and a temple was constructed to revere him.[2]

History

Jadeja Chief
A Jadeja Chief in Kutchi attire during reign of Deshalji II : A sketch drawn in 1838

Bhuj was founded by Rao Hamir in 1510 and was made the capital of Kutch by Rao Khengarji I in 1549.[3] Its foundation stone as state capital was formally laid on Vikram Samvat 1604 Maagha 5th (approx. 25 January 1548). From 1590 onwards, when Rao was forced to acknowledge the Mughal supremacy, Bhuj came to be known as Suleiman Nagar amongst Muslims. The city's walls were built by Rao Godji I in 1723, and the Bhujiya Fort by Devkaran Seth in Rao Deshalji I's time (1718 - 1741).[4].

Chhatedi
Bhujia hill from Chhatedi

Bhuj has been attacked six times. In two instances, the defense was successful and in four other instances, the defense failed. In 1728, an attack by Sarbuland Khan, Mughal Viceroy of Gujarat, was repulsed by Rao Deshalji I, and, in 1765 Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro was, by a timely display of the strength of the fortifications, induced to withdraw. During the civil troubles of the reign of the Rao Rayadhan III, Bhuj was thrice taken, by Meghji Seth in 1786, by Hansraj in 1801, and by Fateh Muhammad in 1808. On 26 March 1819, the hill fort of Bhujia was captured by a British detachment under Sir William Keir.[4]

Chhatedi of Bhuj
Chhatedi of Bhuj

In 1818, Bhuj had a population of 20,000 people. The earthquake on 16 June 1819 destroyed nearly 7000 houses with a loss of an estimated 1140 human lives. About one-third of the buildings that escaped ruin were heavily damaged, and the north face of the town wall was leveled with the ground.

Bhuj is home to one of the first Swaminarayan Sampraday temples, built in 1822. In 1837, Bhuj is said to have had a population of 30,000.[4]

After independence of India in 1947, Cutch State acceded unto the dominion of India and was constituted an independent commissionaire, Kutch State. In 1956, Kutch State was merged with Bombay state, which in 1960 was divided into the new linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra, with Kutch becoming part of Gujarat state as Kutch district. Bhuj is the district headquarters of Kutch District, the largest district in India.

In the 21 July 1956[5] as well as in the 26 January 2001, the city suffered great losses of life and property due to earthquakes. Many parts of Bhuj were demolished due to the extensive damage, whilst others were repaired. There has been great progress in rebuilding the City since the 2001 earthquake, with considerable improvements to roads, transportation, and infrastructure.

Geography

Skyline of Bhuj from Bhujia Fort atop Bhujia Hill
Skyline of Bhuj from Bhujia Fort atop Bhujia Hill

Bhuj has an average elevation of 110 metres (360 feet). On the eastern side of the city is a hill known as Bhujia Hill, on which there is a Bhujia Fort, that separates Bhuj city and Madhapar town ( considered one of the richest villages in Asia ). It has two lakes namely Hamirsar and Deshadsar (દેેેશળસર).

Khari Nadi-1, Bhuj
Khari Nadi, Bhuj
Khari Nadi, Bhuj
Khari Nadi, bhuj

Climate

The climate in Bhuj is called a desert climate. During the year, there is virtually no rainfall.The average annual temperature in Bhuj is 26.3 °C. The rainfall here averages 358 mm. Bhuj has a borderline hot desert climate (Köppen BWh) just short of a hot semi-arid climate (BSh). Although annual rainfall "averages" around 330 millimetres or 13 inches the variability is among the highest in the world with coefficient of variation of around sixty per cent[6] – among the few comparably variable climates in the world being the Line Islands of Kiribati, the Pilbara coast of Western Australia, the sertão of Northeastern Brazil, and the Cape Verde islands.[7] Recorded annual rainfall has been as low as 21.9 millimetres or 0.86 inches in 1899 – yet in 1926 a total of 1,177.1 millimetres or 46.34 inches fell and in the incomplete year of 1959 rainfall exceeded 1,160 millimetres or 45.67 inches, of which 730.6 millimetres or 28.76 inches fell during Bhuj's wettest-ever month of July 1959.

Apart from the cool mornings of the "winter" season from December to February, temperatures are very warm to sweltering throughout the year, which further reduces the effectiveness of the erratic monsoonal rainfall. During the "hot" season from mid-March to mid-June, temperatures of 40 °C or 104 °F are frequent, whilst during the monsoon season they exceed 34 °C or 93.2 °F with high humidity except during rainy spells accompanied by cooler temperatures but oppressive humidity.

Climate data for Bhuj (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.0
(98.6)
38.9
(102.0)
43.9
(111.0)
45.6
(114.1)
47.8
(118.0)
47.0
(116.6)
41.3
(106.3)
41.2
(106.2)
42.8
(109.0)
44.0
(111.2)
39.7
(103.5)
35.4
(95.7)
47.8
(118.0)
Average high °C (°F) 27.4
(81.3)
30.4
(86.7)
35.4
(95.7)
38.9
(102.0)
39.4
(102.9)
37.6
(99.7)
34.2
(93.6)
32.7
(90.9)
34.9
(94.8)
36.9
(98.4)
33.1
(91.6)
28.7
(83.7)
34.1
(93.4)
Average low °C (°F) 10.0
(50.0)
12.8
(55.0)
18.1
(64.6)
22.3
(72.1)
25.5
(77.9)
27.2
(81.0)
26.4
(79.5)
25.3
(77.5)
24.3
(75.7)
21.7
(71.1)
16.0
(60.8)
11.2
(52.2)
20.1
(68.2)
Record low °C (°F) −0.2
(31.6)
0.3
(32.5)
5.5
(41.9)
12.7
(54.9)
16.6
(61.9)
16.1
(61.0)
19.4
(66.9)
20.0
(68.0)
17.8
(64.0)
11.1
(52.0)
6.0
(42.8)
0.6
(33.1)
−0.2
(31.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.3
(0.05)
0.3
(0.01)
1.1
(0.04)
0.2
(0.01)
1.5
(0.06)
35.6
(1.40)
130.9
(5.15)
99.7
(3.93)
48.6
(1.91)
2.3
(0.09)
1.8
(0.07)
0.2
(0.01)
323.5
(12.73)
Average rainy days 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.3 1.8 5.0 3.8 2.2 0.4 0.2 0.1 14.3
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[8][9]

Places of interest

Hamirsar Lake Bhuj 2013-08-01 00-20
Hamirsar Lake
  • The Fort: The old city was surrounded by a fort wall with five major gates (Mahadev, Patvadi, Sarpat, Bhid and Vaniyavad) and one small gate known as Chhathi Bari (sixth window). The fort wall is 35 feet high and four feet thick, and during its use was armed with fifty-one guns.[4] Much of the fort wall has either fallen down or been demolished, due to the damage sustained in the 2001 earthquake and the city's redevelopment.
  • Hamirsar Lake
  • Prag Mahal
  • Aina Mahal
  • Sharadbaug Palace
  • Chhatardi
  • Kutch Museum
    Chhatardi-2
    Chhatardi, near Hamirsar.
    Ramkund
    Hamsir Lake, Bhuj, GJ
    Hamirsar Lake.
    Mohammad Pannah Masjid
  • Bharatiya Sanskriti Darshan Museum
  • Swaminarayan temple
  • Bhujia Fort and Smritivan on Bhujia Hill
  • Hill Garden
  • Tapkeshwari Temple
  • Chhatardi-3
    Chhatardi, near Hamirsar
    Trimadir: Glance at the Trimandir in Bhuj which signifies the Enlightened Vision of Gnani Purush Dada Bhagwan.
  • The Bhuj House: A historic, 19th century courtyard estate that is the ancestral home to the Parsi Bhujwala family, which has been redeveloped into a private boutique hotel reflecting a very specific era in Kutch's history when the Parsi community was prominent as close aides to the Rao court and friends to the British garrisons of Kutch in colonial India.[10]
Chhatardi-2
Chhatardi, near Hamirsar.
Hamsir Lake, Bhuj, GJ
Hamirsar Lake.
Chhatardi-3
Chhatardi, near Hamirsar
Ramkund Bhuj Kutch Gujarat

Ramkund

Chhatedi

Chhatardi

Bridge on Khari Nadi

Bridge on Khari Nadi

Demographics

In 2011 the of Bhuj was 213,514, which consisted of 111,146 males and 102,368 females.[1]

Culture

Sindhi shoes
A pair of shoes

Bhuj is a famous destination within India for observing the historic craftsmanship of the Kutch region, including the textile crafts of bandhni (tie-dye), embroidery, and leatherwork. Artists of nearby villages bring their artwork for sale in 'Bhuj Haat', which is situated near Jubilee Ground. Locals often visit Hamirsar Lake for relaxation in natural surroundings.

Bhuj is also famous for its regional cuisine, especially Pakvans, Kutchhi Dabeli (a vegetarian burger made with mashed potato, cooked with masala curry and chutneys), and regional Gujarati sweets.

Media and communications

State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Bhuj which transmits various programmes. Local TV channels and newspapers are the most popular media.

Education

Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Varma Kutch University Main Gate Bhuj
Main Gate of Kutch University
GEC-Bhuj.
GEC-Bhuj
Gujarat adani institute of medical sciences bhuj.
Gujarat adani institute of medical sciences Bhuj

Alfred High School, the first high school of Kutch, established in 1870, is also an architectural heritage of the town.

Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Verma Kachchh University is located in Bhuj. The university has 41 colleges affiliated, nineteen of which are in Bhuj. The university gives degrees in Arts, Science, Commerce, Law Education, Management, Pharmacy, Social Welfare, Medicine and Engineering.[11]

Primary and secondary

Higher education

Transportation

Bhuj railway station - Main Building
Bhuj Railway Station - Main Building
YP class loco outside Bhuj railway station
YP class loco outside Bhuj railway station
19132 Kutch Express at Bhuj railway station
19132 Kutch Express at Bhuj railway station

Bhuj is connected to Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Pune, Gaziabad, Jaipur, Ajmer, Hapur, Moradabad, Bareilly, Kharagpur, Ujjain and other cities within India by railway. The city has a domestic airport, from which daily flights connect to Mumbai with flights operated by Jet Airways and Air India. State Transport buses are available from the ST stand in the middle of the town to various places in Gujarat. Additionally, many private tour operators also run frequent buses to major cities within and outside of the state of Gujarat. Kandla Airport is 53 km from Bhuj. The city may be navigated by the city bus and auto rickshaw.

Trains

Train no. Train Name Runs From Destination Departure Days Arrival Days
11091-11092 Ahimsa Express Bhuj Pune Wednesday Tuesday
14312-14311 via Ahmedabad & 14322-14321 via Bhildi Ala Hazrat Express Bhuj Bareilly Tuesday, Thursday & Sunday for 14312. Monday, Wednesday, Friday & Saturday for 14322 Friday, Saturday, Monday for 14311. Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday & Sunday for 14321
22829-22830 Shalimar - Bhuj Weekly SF Express Bhuj Shalimar Tuesday Monday
22904-22903 Bandra Terminus Bhuj AC Superfast Express Bhuj Bandra Monday, Thursday, Saturday Thursday, Saturday, Monday
12960-12959 Bhuj Dadar Superfast Express Bhuj Dadar Monday, Thursday Wednesday, Saturday
19132-19131 Kutch Express Bhuj Bandra Daily Daily Daily
19116-19115 Shayajinagari Express Bhuj Dadar Daily Daily

Flight

Jet Airways aircraft at Bhuj Airport
Jet Airways aircraft at Bhuj Airport

Bhuj has well connected flights to Mumbai provided by the airlines of Jet Airways and Air India Regional.

Airline Departs Arrives
Jet Airways Bhuj Mumbai
Air India Regional Bhuj Mumbai

The Jet Airways flight from Bhuj to Mumbai continues on to Delhi

References

  1. ^ a b "Census of India". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, New Delhi, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2007-06-26. Retrieved 2015-09-03.
  2. ^ Ward (1 January 1998). Gujarat–Daman–Diu: A Travel Guide. Orient Longman Limited. pp. 316–317. ISBN 978-81-250-1383-9.
  3. ^ "History of Bhuj". Bhuj Online. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Cutch, Palanpur, and Mahi Kantha. Printed at the Government Central Press. 1880. pp. 215–216.
  5. ^ "Quake rocks Kutch". The Hindu. 24 July 1956. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  6. ^ Van Etten, Eddie J.B.; ‘Inter-annual Rainfall Variability of Arid Australia: greater than elsewhere?’; Australian Geographer; 40 (2009), pp. 109-120
  7. ^ Dewar, Robert E. and Wallis, James R; ‘Geographical patterning of interannual rainfall variability in the tropics and near tropics: An L-moments approach’; in Journal of Climate, 12; pp. 3457-3466
  8. ^ "Bhuj Climatological Table Period: 1981–2010". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  9. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  10. ^ "Introducing The Bhuj House: An Interview with Jehan Bhujwala". Greaves Tours. 2 May 2016.
  11. ^ "ક્રાંતિગુરુ શ્યામજી કૃષ્ણ વર્મા કચ્છ યુનિવર્સિટી". Kskvku.digitaluniversity.ac. Retrieved 2012-08-05.

External links

2001 Gujarat earthquake

The 2001 Gujarat earthquake, also known as the Bhuj earthquake, occurred on 26 January, India's 52nd Republic Day, at 08:46 AM IST and lasted for over 2 minutes. The epicentre was about 9 km south-southwest of the village of Chobari in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District of Gujarat, India.The intraplate earthquake reached 7.7 on the moment magnitude scale and had a maximum felt intensity of X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. The earthquake killed between 13,805 and 20,023 people (including 18 in southeastern Pakistan), injured another 167,000 and destroyed nearly 400,000 homes.

Adesar railway station

Adesar railway station is a railway station in Kutch district, Gujarat, India on the Western line of the Western railway network. Adesar railway station is 168 km far away from Bhuj. One Passenger, one Express and one Superfast trains halt here.

Adipur Junction railway station

Adipur Junction railway station is a railway station in Kutch district, Gujarat, India on the Western line of the Western railway network. Adipur Junction railway station is 49 km far away from Bhuj. It is connected to Mundra Port by rail.

Anjar railway station

Anjar railway station is a railway station in Kutch district, Gujarat, India on the Western line of the Western railway network. Anjar railway station is 42 km away from Bhuj.

Bandra Terminus Bhuj AC Superfast Express

The 22903/22904 Bandra (T) Bhuj AC Superfast Express(Ashapura Express) is a super fast express train belonging to Indian Railways that runs between Bandra Terminus and Bhuj It is a 3 times a week service. It operates as train number 22903 from Bandra Terminus to Bhuj and as train number 22904 in the reverse direction.

Bhuj Airport

Bhuj Airport (IATA: BHJ, ICAO: VABJ) is a domestic airport located in Bhuj in the Kutch District of the state of Gujarat, India. It is located 4 km from Bhuj.

It is situated at an altitude of 257 feet (78 m) and occupies a total area of 832 acres (337 ha). It is located 30 miles (48 km) from the Indo-Pakistan border.The airport was previously made up of two bunkers/buildings near the Bhuj Rudra Mata Air Force Base, with which it shares the runway. On one side of the passing road there was an Indian Airlines bunker, and on the other side a Jet Airways bunker. From there a coach would transport passengers across the Indian Air Force grounds to the small departures terminal.

Bhuj Rudra Mata Air Force Base

Bhuj Rudra Mata Air Force Base (IATA: BHJ, ICAO: VABJ) is an Indian Air Force base, which shares its runway with Bhuj Airport at the town of Bhuj in Gujarat, India. It is part of South Western Air Command.

The base at Bhuj which suffered extensive damage during the 2001 Gujarat earthquake on 26 January 2001, now stands completely reconstructed. At a solemn ceremony, Air Marshal AR Ghandhi, AOC-in-C, South Western Air Command, inaugurated a special Memorial erected at the air base to pay respects to 30 'air warriors' and 68 family members of the IAF personnel who lost their lives in the tragedy. Later, the Air Marshal also inaugurated married accommodation, messes for the Airmen and officers and operational complexes rebuilt at the airbase.

When the earthquake devastated this region, Bhuj airbase became the nodal point where all immediate relief materials were flown in by special Air Force and other civil aircraft including those from foreign countries. Nearly 1,300 landings by relief aircraft belonging to various agencies were coordinated from 26 January to March 2001 by the personnel of the airbase. Despite the loss of their own comrades and near-and-dear ones, the 'air warriors' helped save thousands of lives.

Bhuj Air Force Base houses the 27 Wing.

The airbase today is again brimming with activities as the station, with new residential structures, has been equipped with all amenities such as playgrounds, parks, auditorium, swimming pool, shopping complex and an Air Force School. An arboriculture drive has also been launched to ensure greenery around the campus.

Bhuj railway station

Bhuj railway station is a Class 'A' railway station in Bhuj, Gujarat, India, on the Western line of the Western railway network. It is the last station on the western railway line in the area. It is not a busy station and handles only nine trains.

Cutch State Railway

Cutch State Railway (CSR) was an isolated 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) narrow gauge railway in Cutch State in British India.

Gandhidham Junction railway station

Gandhidham Junction railway station, located in Gandhidham, Gujarat, India, serves the people residing in Gandhidham and Kandla areas.

Gandhidham–Bhuj section

The Gandhidham–Bhuj section belongs to Western Railway of Kutch district in Gujarat state. It passes through Adipur and Anjar

Gujarat Samachar

Gujarat Samachar is a Gujarati language daily newspaper in India.It has headquarter in Ahmedabad. It has one branch in Surat as well and distributes editions from Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat, Rajkot, Bhavnagar, Mumbai, Mehsana, Bhuj and New York City.

The paper was founded in 1932, and acquired by Shantilal Shah (1920-c.1984) in 1952. Its first issue was published on 16 January 1932.

Kutch district

Kutch district (Kutchi and Gujarati: કચ્છ જિલ્લો; also spelled as Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India. Covering an area of 45,674 km², it is the largest district of India. The population of Kutch is about 2,092,000. It has 10 Talukas, 939 villages and 6 Municipalities. The Kutch district is home to the Kutchi people who speak the Kutchi language.

Kutch literally means something which intermittently becomes wet and dry; a large part of this district is known as Rann of Kutch which is shallow wetland which submerges in water during the rainy season and becomes dry during other seasons. The same word is also used in Sanskrit origin for a tortoise. The Rann is famous for its marshy salt flats which become snow white after the shallow water dries up each season before the monsoon rains.

The district is also famous for ecologically important Banni grasslands with their seasonal marshy wetlands which form the outer belt of the Rann of Kutch.

Kutch District is surrounded by the Gulf of Kutch and the Arabian Sea in south and west, while northern and eastern parts are surrounded by the Great and Little Rann (seasonal wetlands) of Kutch. When there were not many dams built on its rivers, the Rann of Kutch remained wetlands for a large part of the year. Even today, the region remains wet for a significant part of year. The district had a population of 2,092,379 as of 2011 census, of which 30% were urban. Motor vehicles registered in Kutch district have their registration Number starting with GJ-12. The district is well connected by road, rail and air. There are four airports in the district: Naliya, Kandla, Mundra, and Bhuj. Bhuj is well connected with Mumbai airport. Being a border district, Kutch has both an army and an airforce base.

List of goat breeds

This is a list of goat breeds. There are many recognized breeds of domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus). Goat breeds (especially dairy goats) are some of the oldest defined animal breeds for which breed standards and production records have been kept. Selective breeding of goats generally focuses on improving production of fiber, meat, dairy products or goatskin. Breeds are generally classified based on their primary use, though there are several breeds which are considered dual- or multi-purpose.

Naliya Cantonment railway station

Naliya Cantonment railway station is a small railway station in Kutch district, Gujarat. Its code is NLC. It serves Naliya village. The station consists of 1 platforms. It is a last station on Western side of India.

The station had a railway line laid in 1980 to get connected town with Bhuj. The line was abandoned later since Gandhidham-Bhuj section got converted to broad gauge and this 101.24 km line became isolated. Recently gauge conversion to broad gauge has been approved by the Government of India in June 2016 so that can be used for public, military or freight purpose.

Samakhiali Junction railway station

Samakhiali Junction railway station is a railway station belonging to Western Railway of Ahmedabad division.

Samatra TV Tower

Samatra TV Tower, is a television and radio broadcasting tower located near Samatra village, 12 miles west of Bhuj in Kutch district, Gujarat, India. It was completed in 1999. With a height of 300 m (984 ft), it is 8th tallest structure in India and 201st tallest structure in the world.

Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Bhuj

Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Bhuj (Devnagari: श्री स्वामिनारायण मंदिर, भुज) is a Hindu temple in Bhuj. This temple (mandir) that was constructed by lord Swaminarayan, founder of the Swaminarayan Sampraday.

Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Bhuj (New temple)

Shri Swaminarayan Mandir is a temple complex in Bhuj, Kutch district, Gujarat which is managed by Nar Narayan Dev Gadi of the Swaminarayan Sampraday, a sect of Hinduism. The inauguration ceremony of the temple held from 15 to 23 May 2010.

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