Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar (Odia pronunciation ) is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Odisha. It is a centre of economic, educational and cultural importance of East India.

Along with the old town, the region historically was often depicted as Ekamra Khetra (Temple City). With the diverse ranges of heritage resources, it showcases significant sacred cultural landscape components which have evolved with the support of available natural resource base and cultural trigger.[5]

Although the modern city of Bhubaneswar was formally established in 1948, the history of the areas in and around the present-day city can be traced to the 3rd century BCE and earlier. It is a confluence of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain heritage boasting of some of the finest Kalingan temples. With many 6th-13th century CE Hindu temples, which span the entire spectrum of Kalinga architecture, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as a "Temple City of India". With Puri and Konark it forms the Swarna Tribhuja ("Golden Triangle"), one of eastern India's most visited destinations.[6]

Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the capital on 19 August 1949, 2 years after India gained its independence from Britain. The modern city was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. Along with Jamshedpur and Chandigarh, it was one of modern India's first planned cities. Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are often referred to as the 'twin cities of Odisha'. The metropolitan area formed by the two cities had a population of 1.7 million in 2011.[7] Bhubaneswar is categorised as a Tier-2 city. An emerging information technology (IT) and education hub, Bhubaneswar is one of the country's fastest-developing cities.

Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswara
Ekamra Khetra
Metropolis
Bhubaneswara
Nicknames: 
Sports Capital of India
Temple City of India
IT Hub and Startup Hub of East India[1]
Bhubaneswar is located in India
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar, Odisha
Bhubaneswar is located in Odisha
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar (Odisha)
Coordinates: 20°16′N 85°50′E / 20.27°N 85.84°ECoordinates: 20°16′N 85°50′E / 20.27°N 85.84°E
CountryIndia
StateOdisha
DistrictKhordha
Named forLord Shiva's name: Bhubaneswar
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyBhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC)
 • Member of ParliamentAparajita Sarangi (BJP)
 • MayorVacant
 • Municipal CommissionerSamarth Verma, IAS
 • Commissioner of PoliceSatyajit Mohanty, IPS
Area
 • Metropolis422 km2 (163 sq mi)
Elevation
58 m (190 ft)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Metropolis837,321
 • Rank60
 • Density2,131.37/km2 (5,520.2/sq mi)
 • Metro
881,988
Demonym(s)Bhubaneswarites[3]
Bhubaneswaria[4]
Languages
 • OfficialOdia, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
751xxx
Telephone code0674
Vehicle registrationOD-02 (South Bhubaneswar)
OD-33 (North Bhubaneswar)
UN/LOCODEIN BBI
Websitewww.bhubaneswar.me

Etymology

Bhubaneswar is the anglicisation of the native name "Bhubaneswara"(ଭୁବନେଶ୍ୱର), derived from the word Tribhubaneswara (ତ୍ରିଭୁବନେଶ୍ୱର), which literally means the Lord (Eeswara) of the Three Worlds (Tribhubana), which refers to Shiva.[8]

History

Sisupalagada Bhubaneswar
Remains of the ancient city of Sisupalagada, on the outskirts of Bhubaneswar, dated between 3rd century BCE
Hatigumfa
Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves near Bhubaneswar

The foundation of the modern Bhubaneswar city was laid in 1948, although the areas in and around the city have a history going back to 1st century BCE or earlier.[9]

Dhauli, near Bhubaneswar was the site of the Kalinga War (c. 262-261 BCE), in which the Mauryan emperor Ashoka invaded and annexed Kalinga.[9] One of the most complete edicts of the Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka, dating from between 272–236 BCE, remains carved in rock 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) to the southwest of the modern city.[10] After the decline of the Mauryan empire, the area came under the rule of Mahameghavahana dynasty, whose most well-known rule is Kharavela. His Hathigumpha inscription is located at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves near Bhubaneswar. The area was subsequently ruled by several dynasties, including Satavahanas, Guptas, Matharas, and Shailodbhavas.[9]

In 7th century, Somavamshi or Keshari dynasty established their kingdom in the area, and constructed a number of temples. After the Kesharis, the Eastern Gangas ruled Kalinga area until 14th century CE. Their capital Kalinganagara was located in present-day Bhubaneswar City. After them, Mukunda Deva of the Bhoi dynasty – the last Hindu ruler of the area until the Marathas – developed several religious buildings in the area.[9] Most of the older temples in Bhubaneswar were built between 8th and 12th centuries, under Shaiva influence. The Ananta Vasudeva Temple is the only old temple of Vishnu in the city.[11] In 1568, the Karrani dynasty of Afghan origin gained control of the area. During their reign, most of the temples and other structures were destroyed or disfigured.[9]

In the 16th century, the area came under pachamani Mughal control. The Marathas, who succeeded the Mughals in mid-18th century, encouraged pilgrimage in the region. In 1803, the area came under British colonial rule, and was part of the Bengal Presidency (until 1912), Bihar and Orissa Province (1912-1936) and Orissa Province (1936-1947).[9] The capital of the British-ruled Orissa Province was Cuttack, which was vulnerabile to floods and suffered from space constraints. Because of this, on 30 September 1946, a proposal to move the capital to a new capital was introduced in the Legislative Assembly of the Orissa Province. After independence of India, the foundation of the new capital was laid by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on 13 April 1948.[9]

The name of the new capital came from "Tribhubaneswara" or "Bhubaneswara" (literally "Lord of the Earth"), a name of Shiva, the deity of the Lingaraja temple.[8] The Legislative Assembly of Orissa was shifted from Cuttack to Bhubaneswar in 1949.[9] Bhubaneswar was built as a modern city, designed by German architect Otto Königsberger with wide roads, gardens and parks.[12] Though part of the city followed the plan, it grew rapidly over the next few decades, outstripping the planning process.[13] According to the first census of independent India, taken in 1951, the city's population was just 16,512. From 1952 to 1979, it was administered by a Notified Area Council or a nagar panchayat; a municipality was established only on 12 March 1979. By the 1991 census, the population of Bhubaneswar had increased to 411,542. Accordingly, on 14 August 1994, the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation was established.[9]

Geography

Kalinga battlefield daya river dhauli hills
Daya River at the foothills of Dhauli

Bhubaneswar is in Khordha district of Odisha.[14] It is in the eastern coastal plains, along the axis of the Eastern Ghats mountains.[15] The city has an average altitude of 45 m (148 ft) above sea level.[15] It lies southwest of the Mahanadi River that forms the northern boundary of Bhubaneswar metropolitan area, within its delta.

Bhubaneswar skyline
City of Bhubaneswar from Khandagiri hill

The city is bounded by the Daya River to the south and the Kuakhai River to the east;[15] the Chandaka Wildlife Sanctuary and Nandankanan Zoo lie in the western and northern parts of Bhubaneswar, respectively.[12]

Bhubaneswar is topographically divided into western uplands and eastern lowlands, with hillocks in the western and northern parts.[15] Kanjia lake on the northern outskirts, affords rich biodiversity and is a wetland of national importance.[16] Bhubaneswar's soils are 65 per cent laterite, 25 per cent alluvial and 10 per cent sandstone.[17] The Bureau of Indian Standards places the city inside seismic zone III on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes.[18] The United Nations Development Programme reports that there is "very high damage risk" from winds and cyclones.[18] The 1999 Odisha cyclone caused major damage to buildings, the city's infrastructure and cost many human lives.[19][20] Floods and waterlogging in the low-lying areas have become common due to unplanned growth.[17][21]

Bhubaneswar Map
Bhubaneswar Schematic Tourist Map

Urban structure

Governor House Road
Rajpath, Bhubaneswar
Pathani Samanta Planetarium
Pathani Samanta Planetarium Bhubaneswar

The Bhubaneswar urban development area consists of the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation area, 173 revenue villages and two other municipalities spread over 393.57 square kilometres (151.96 sq mi).[22] The area under the jurisdiction of the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation covers 186 square kilometres (72 sq mi).[23] The city is somewhat dumbbell-shaped with most of the growth taking place to the north, northeast and southwest.[24] The north–south axis of the city is widest, at roughly 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi). Growth in the east is restricted due to the presence of Kuakhai River and by the wildlife sanctuary in the northwestern part.[24] The city can be broadly divided into the old town, planned city (or state capital), added areas and outer peripheral areas. It is subdivided into Units and Colonies.

The old town or "Temple Town", the oldest part of the city, is characterised by many temples, including the Lingaraja, Rajarani, and Muktesvara temples, standing alongside residential areas. This area is congested, with narrow roads and poor infrastructure.[24] Among neighbourhoods in the old town are Rajarani Colony, Pandaba Nagar, Brahmeswara Bagh, Lingaraja Nagar, Gouri Nagar, Bhimatanki and Kapileswara. The planned city was designed in 1948 to house the capital. It is subdivided into units, each with a high school, shopping centres, dispensaries and play areas. While most of the units house government employees, Unit V houses the administrative buildings, including the State Secretariat, State Assembly, and the Raj Bhavan. Private residential areas were later built in other areas of the planned city, including Saheed Nagar and Satya Nagar. Unit I, popularly known as the Market Building, was formed to cater to the shopping needs of the new capital's residents. Later, markets and commercial establishments developed along the Janpath and Cuttack-Puri Road at Saheed Nagar, Satya Nagar, Bapuji Nagar and Ashok Nagar. A dedicated institutional area houses educational and research institutes, including Utkal University, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology and Sainik School. Indira Gandhi Park, Gandhi Park and the Biju Patnaik Park are located in the unit.[24]

The added areas are mostly areas lying north of National Highway 5, including Nayapalli, Jayadev Vihar, Chandrasekharpur and Sailashree Vihar, #Niladri vihar which were developed by Bhubaneswar Development Authority to house the growing population.[24]

The peripheral areas are outside the municipal boundary or have subsequently been included within the extended boundary, including Tomando, Patia and Raghunathpur. Most of these areas were developed in a haphazard manner, without proper planning.[25]

Bhubaneswar secured the top rank in the Smart city list in India.[26]

Climate

Meteorological Centre, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
Meteorological Centre, Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar has a tropical savanna climate, designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. The annual mean temperature is 27.4 °C (81.3 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 22–32 °C (72–90 °F).[27] Summers (March to June) are hot and humid, with temperatures in the low 30s C; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June.[27] Winter lasts for only about ten weeks, with seasonal lows dipping to 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, when daily temperatures range from 32–42 °C (90–108 °F). January, the coldest month, has temperatures varying from 15–28 °C (59–82 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 46.5 °C (115.7 °F), and the lowest is 8 °C (46 °F).[27]

Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal branch of the south west summer monsoon[28] lash Bhubaneswar between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 1,542 mm (61 in). The highest monthly rainfall total, 330 mm (13 in), occurs in August.[27]

Economy

Bhubaneswar is an administrative, information technology, education and tourism city .[15] Bhubaneswar was ranked as the best place to do business in India by the World Bank in 2014.[31] Bhubaneswar has emerged as one of the fast-growing, important trading and commercial hub in the state and eastern India. Tourism is a major industry, attracting about 1.5 million tourists in 2011.[15][32] Bhubaneswar was designed to be a largely residential city with outlying industrial areas. The economy had few major players until the 1990s and was dominated by retail and small-scale manufacturing. With the economic liberalisation policy adopted by the Government of India in the 1990s, Bhubaneswar received investment in telecommunications, information technology (IT) and higher education.[15]

As of 2001, around 2.15% of the city's workforce was employed in the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, mining, etc.); 2.18% worked in the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing); and 95.67% worked in the tertiary sector (service industries).[15]

In 2011, according to a study by Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India, Bhubaneswar had the highest rate of employment growth among 17 Tier-2 cities in India.[33] It has been listed among the top ten emerging cities in India by Cushman and Wakefield, taking into consideration factors like demographics, physical, social and real estate infrastructure, current level and scope of economic activities and government support.[34] In 2012, Bhubaneswar was ranked third among Indian cities, in starting and operating a business by the World Bank.[35] Bhubaneswar has been traditionally home to handicrafts industry, including silver filigree work, appliqué work, stone and wood carvings and patta painting, which significantly contributes to the city's economy.[15] The late 2000s saw a surge of investments in the real estate, infrastructure, retail and hospitality sectors; several shopping malls and organised retails opened outlets in Bhubaneswar.[36][37][38][39]

The Department of Industries established four industrial areas in and around Bhubaneswar, in the Rasulgarh, Mancheswar, Chandaka, and Bhagabanpur areas.[15] In the informal sector, 22,000 vendors operate in regulated or unregulated vending zones.[40][41]

In 2009, Odisha was ranked ninth among Indian states in terms of software export by NASSCOM, with most IT/ITES companies established in Bhubaneswar.[42] In 2011–12, Odisha had a growth rate of 17% for software exports.[43] According to a 2012 survey, among the tier-2 cities in India, Bhubaneswar has been chosen as the best for conducting IT/ITES business.[44] The government fostered growth by developing of IT parks such as Infocity-1, Infovalley, STPI-Bhubaneswar and JSS STP.[45][46] Infocity was conceived as a five-star park, under the Export Promotion Industrial Parks (EPIP) Scheme to create infrastructure facilities for setting up information technology related industries. Infosys and Tech Mahindra have been present in Bhubaneswar since 1996. Other software companies include TCS, Wipro, IBM, Genpact, Firstsource, Mindtree, MphasiS, Ericsson, Semtech and Reliance Communications and SA Intellect. Apart from the big multinationals, some 300 small and mid-size IT companies and business start ups have offices in Bhubaneswar.[46]

Demographics

Population


As per the 2011 census of India, Bhubaneswar had a population of 837,737, while the metropolitan area had a population of 881,988.[2] As per the estimate of IIT Kharagpur, which made a development plan, the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack Urban complex, consisting of 721.9 square kilometres (278.7 sq mi), has a population of 1.9 million (as of 2008).[50] As of 2011, the number of males was 445,233, while the number of females were 392,504. The decadal growth rate was 45.90 per cent.

Literacy

Effective male literacy was 95.69 per cent, while female literacy was 90.26 per cent. About 75,237 were under six. Bhubaneswar's literacy rate is 93.15 per cent[2]—significantly higher than the national average of 74.04 per cent.[51]

Language

The main language spoken in the city is Odia, however, English and Hindi are understood by most residents. Although Odias comprise the vast majority, migrants from other states like Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Jharkhand also dwell in city. Growth in the information technology industry and education sector in Bhubaneswar changed the city's demographic profile; likely infrastructure strains and haphazard growth from demographic changes have been a cause of concern.

Religion

Bhubaneswar is a very religiously diverse city. Hindus form the majority in it. It also has large minorities of muslims and Christians.

Civic administration and utilities

The Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC) oversees and manages civic infrastructure for the city's 67 wards.[53] Residents of each ward elect a corporator to the BMC for a five-year term. Standing committees handle urban planning and maintain roads, government-aided schools, hospitals and municipal markets.[54] As Bhubaneswar's apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor and other elected members. The executive wing is headed by a Commissioner. BMC responsibilities include drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management and street lighting.[15] As of 2014, the Biju Janata Dal party controlled the BMC; the mayor was Ananta Narayan Jena and deputy mayor was K. Shanti.[55] The Bhubaneswar Development Authority is responsible for statutory planning and development and building regulation.[15]

Krushi Bhavan Bhubaneswar
Krushi Bhavan building in Bhubaneswar

As the seat of the Government of Odisha, Bhubaneswar is home to the Odisha Legislative Assembly and the state secretariat. Bhubaneswar has lower courts: the Court of Small Causes and the District Civil Court decide civil matters; the Sessions Court rules in criminal cases.[56] The Bhubaneswar–Cuttack Police Commissionerate, established in 2008, is a city police force with primary responsibilities in law enforcement and investigation in the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack area.[57][58] Shri Yogesh Bahadur Khurania is the police commissioner.[59]

Citizens of Bhubaneswar elect one representative to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and three representatives to the state legislative assembly, through the constituencies of Bhubaneswar North, Ekamra-Bhubaneswar and Bhubaneswar Central.[60][61]

ORISSA SECRETARIAT
Odisha State Secretariat building

Utilities

Electricity is supplied by the state-operated Central Electricity Supply Utility of Odisha, or CESU.[17] Fire services are handled by the state agency Odisha Fire Service. Drinking water is sourced from the Mahanadi, Kuakhai and Daya rivers. Water supply and sewerage are handled by the Public Health Engineering Organisation.[15] State-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, and Tata DoCoMo, are the leading telephone, cell phone and internet service providers in the city.[62][63]

Education

IOP Bhubaneswar library
Institute Of Physics Bhubaneswar library
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Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar
AIIMS Bhubaneswar 01
All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhubaneswar
Utkal University Main Gate
Utkal University Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar is a centre for higher education in the Eastern Region and is considered the education hub of Eastern India with several government and privately funded Universities and colleges. IIT Bhubaneswar, AIIMS Bhubaneswar, NIFT Bhubaneswar and NISER are some of the elite institutions of country which are located in the city. Utkal University Bhubaneswar is the oldest university in Odisha and the 17th oldest university in India.

Primary & secondary education

Odia and English are the primary languages of instruction. Schools in Bhubaneswar follow the "10+2+3" plan for Regular Graduates and "10+2+4" plan for Technical studies. Schools in Bhubaneswar are either run by the state government or private organisations. Students typically enroll in schools that are affiliated with any of the following mediums of Education.

Notable private schools in the city include D.A.V. Public School, Chandrasekharpur, DAV Public School, Unit-8 and KIIT International School.
Government schools located in Bhubaneswar include Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1, Sainik School, Badagada Government High School and Capital High School.

Higher Education

Several Colleges are affiliated with Universities or institution based in Bhubaneswar or elsewhere in India. Most offer a wide range of programs in STEM & Applied Research and are rated highly by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India

Engineering and Applied Sciences Institutions

Medical Institutions

Universities

Tourism education is another field of study emerging. The Eastern Regional Centre of Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management (IITTM), the second in the country after Gwalior, was established in 1996. One IATA Authorised Training Centre (ATC) is also located in the city premises. Several regional management educational institutions also have travel and tourism related courses in their curriculum.

Transport

The headquarters of the Odisha State Road Transport Corporation (OSRTC) is in Bhubaneswar. The main Bhubaneswar inter-state bus terminus is at Barmunda, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the city centre, from where OSRTC and private operators run buses connecting Bhubaneswar to cities in Odisha and with the neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh.[65] Bhubaneswar is connected to the rest of Odisha and India by National Highway-NH 16, which is a part of the Kolkata-Chennai prong of the Golden Quadrilateral, NH 203, State Highway 13 (Odisha) and State Highway 27 (Odisha). Asian Highway- AH 45 passes through the city.[22] Nowadays popular online cab or auto transport system provided by Jugnoo, Ola, uber are widely used.

Road

Aerial view of flyover, Bhubaneswar
Aerial view of a flyover, Bhubaneswar.

Bhubaneswar has roads in grid form in the central city. Bhubaneswar has approximately 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) of roads, with average road density of 11.82 square kilometres (4.56 sq mi).[15] Baramunda Inter State Bus Terminus (ISBT) is the major bus terminus in the city from where buses ply to all the districts in Odisha as well as to neighbouring state's cities like Hyderabad, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Raipur and Ranchi. City bus service (Mo Bus) runs across Bhubaneswar by Capital Region Urban Transport Authority run by Bhubaneswar Development Authority .[66] A fleet of 300+ buses cover all major destinations including Cuttack, Puri and Khordha.[66] Auto rickshaws are available for hire and on a share basis throughout the city.[67][68] In parts of the city, cycle rickshaws offer short trips.[69] Also CRUT recently has launched Mo Cycle , a public bicycle Sharing platform to curb traffic, reducing pollution in city and providing last mile connectivity in city. To ease traffic jams, over-bridges at major road junctions and expansion of roads are under construction.[70][71] In a study of six cities in India, Bhubaneswar was ranked third concerning pedestrian infrastructure. The city scored 50 points out of maximum 100.

Dustbins in Bhubaneswar
Dustbins in Bhubaneswar near a bus stop, which has separate wet and dry waste compound

Rail

BBSrailwaystation
Bhubaneswar railway station
Bbrailhq
East Coast Railway Headquarters in Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar has the following stations :

Station Name Station Code Railway Zone Number of Platforms
Bhubaneswar BBS East Coast Railway 6
Mancheswar MCS East Coast Railway 4
Lingaraj Temple Road LGTR East Coast Railway 3
Vani Vihar BNBH East Coast Railway 2
Patia PTAB East Coast Railway 2
New Bhubaneswar BBSN East Coast Railway 7

The East Coast Railway has its headquarters in Bhubaneswar. Bhubaneswar railway station is one of the main stations of the Indian railway network. It is connected to major cities by daily express and passenger trains and daily service to all metro cities is available from here. However, the station is overloaded by existing traffic. Currently, the station has six platforms. There are plans to add two more platforms.[72]

A satellite station New Bhubaneswar railway station is opened near Barang in July 2018 to decongest the existing installation.[73]

Currently, there are also plans for a metro system of 30 km, which will serve the twin cities of Bhubaneswar and Cuttack.

Air

Biju Patnaik Airport Bhubaneswar
Biju Patnaik International Airport

Biju Patnaik International Airport (IATABBIICAOVEBS) also known as Bhubaneswar Airport, 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) south of the city centre, is the major and sole international airport in Odisha. There are daily domestic flights from Bhubaneswar to Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Vishakhapatnam, Chennai and Bangalore. There are international flights from Bhubaneswar to Bangkok, Kualalumpur and Dubai thrice a week. The major carriers from Bhubaneswar are Indigo, Vistara, GoAir, AirAsia, AirAsia India and Air India. In March 2013, a new domestic terminal with a capacity of handling 30 million passengers per year was inaugurated to handle increased air traffic.[74] On 10 July 2015, the first international flight took off from terminal 2 of Biju Patnaik International Airport.

Culture

Muktesvara deula
Muktesvara deula, covered with erotic ancient carvings, known for its quality of sculptures
Bindu Sagar, Old Town, Bhubaneswar
Bindusagara water tank on a winter morning
Ravindra Mandap, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
Ravindra Mandapa, an auditorium in Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar is supposed to have had over one thousand temples, earning the tag of the 'Temple City of India'. Temples are made in the Kalinga architectural style with a pine spire that curves up to a point over the sanctum housing the presiding deity and a pyramid-covered hall where people sit and pray.

Famous temples include Lingaraja Temple, Muktesvara Temple, Rajarani Temple, Ananta Vasudeva Temple.[75]

The twin hills of Khandagiri & Udayagiri, served as the site of an ancient Jaina monastery which was carved into cave-like chambers in the face of the hill. These caves, with artistic carvings, date back to the 2nd century BCE. Dhauli hills has major edicts of Ashoka engraved on a mass of rock and a white Peace Pagoda was built by the Japan Buddha Sangha and the Kalinga Nippon Buddha Sangha in the 1970s. Apart from the ancient temples, other important temples were built in recent times include Ram Mandir and ISKCON.

Bhubaneswar along with Cuttack is the home of the Odia cinema industry, dubbed "Ollywood", where most of the state's film studios are situated.

Odia culture survives in the form of Classical Odissi dance, handicrafts, sand artistry and sculpturing as well as theatre and music. Boundary walls and gardens are increasingly being redone to depict the folk art of the state.[76][77] Odissi, the oldest of the eight surviving classical dance forms of India can be traced from archaeological evidence from the temples in Bhubaneswar.[78][79][80]

Odissi dance

Odissi dance is generally accompanied by Odissi music. Srjan, the Odissi dance academy founded by Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra, the legendary Odissi dancer is found here.[81][82] The Rabindra Mandapa in central Bhubaneswar plays host to cultural engagements, theatre and private functions.[83]

Dress and attire

Though Odia women traditionally wear the sari, shalwar kameez and, of late, Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women.[84] Western-style dress has greater acceptance among men, although the traditional dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals.[85]

The Odisha State Museum offers archaeological artefacts, weapons, local arts and crafts as well as insights into Odisha's natural and indigenous history.[86] The Tribal Research Institute Museum hosts authentic tribal dwellings created by tribal craftsmen.[87] Nandankanan Zoological Park, located on the northern outskirt of the city, is India's first zoo to join World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.[88][89] The State Botanical Garden (Odisha) and Regional Plant Resource Center, popularly known as Ekamra Kanan, a park and botanical garden, has a large collection of exotic and regional fauna. The Ekamra Haat is a hand-loom and handicrafts market. Nicco Park and Ocean World are amusement parks. Other museums include Pathani Samanta Planetarium, Regional Museum of Natural History, Regional Science Center and State Handicrafts Museum.

Lingaraj

Lingaraj Temple

Siddeshvara Temple, Bhubaneswar

Sideshvara temple

Festivals

On the day of Ashokashtami in the month of March or April, the image of Lingaraja (Shiva) and other deities are taken in a procession from Lingaraja Temple to the Mausima Temple, where the deities remain for four days.[90] Hundreds of devotees participate in pulling the temple car that carries the deities, known as Rukuna Ratha.[91] Ratha-Yatra, "Temple Car Festival," is the most important festival in Odisha and Bhubaneswar.[92] The festival commemorates Jagannatha, who is said to have been the incarnation of India's revered deities, Vishnu and Krishna. Durga Puja, held in September–October, is an occasion for glamorous celebrations.[93][94]

As a part of the Ekamra Festival, many cultural sub-festivals takes place in January in Bhubaneswar which includes Kalinga Mahotsaba (for traditional martial arts), Dhauli-Kalinga Mahotsaba (for classical dance forms), Rajarani Music Festival (for classical music) and Mukteswara Dance Festival (for Odishi dance).[95] Residents engage in khattis, or leisurely chats, that often take the form of freestyle intellectual conversation.[96]

Other festivals celebrated include Shivaratri, Diwali, Ganesha Chaturthi, Nuakhai and Saraswati Puja. Eid and Christmas are celebrated by the religious minorities in the city.[97][98][99]

Adibasi Mela is a fair that displays art, artefacts, tradition, culture, and music of the tribal inhabitants of Odisha is held in January.[100] Toshali National Crafts Mela, held in December, showcases handicrafts from all over India and from foreign countries.[101] Other important fairs in the city include the Rajdhani Book Fair and Khandagiri Utsav.[102][103] Two international literary festival held in the city, they are namely Kalinga Literary Festival[104][105] and Mystic Kalinga Festival[106][107]

In modern times Bhubaneswar hosts a literary festival the "Odisha Literary Fest".[108]

Cuisine

Rasagola
Pahala Rasagola, famous sweet originated in Odisha
Chenagaja
Chhena Gaja, one more famous sweet of Odisha

Key elements of the city's cuisine include rice and a fish curry known as Machha Jhola, which can be accompanied by desserts such as Rasagola, Rasabali, Chhena Gaja, Chhena Jhilli and Chhena Poda.[109] Odisha's large repertoire of seafood dishes includes various preparations of lobsters and crabs brought in from Chilika Lake.[110]

Street foods such as Gupchup (a deep-fried crêpe, stuffed with a mix of mashed potatoes and boiled yellow peas, and dipped in tamarind-infused water), Cuttack-chaat, Dahi bara-Aloo dum (a deep-fried doughnut-shaped lentil dumpling marinated in yogurt-infused water, and served alongside potato curry) and Bara-ghuguni are sold all over the city.[111] Traditional Oriya food such as Dahi-Pakhala (rice soaked in water with yogurt and seasonings) which is considered as a body coolant, accompanied by Badi chura or saga are consumed during months of April–June.[112]

The Abadha of Lingaraja Temple and Ananta Vasudeva Temple served for devotees is considered a vegetarian culinary delight. Other vegetarian dishes are Dalma (made of lentils and vegetables boiled together and then fried with other spices) and Santula (lightly spiced steamed vegetables).[110] Sweets play a large part in the diet of Bhubaneswarites—especially at their social ceremonies. Bhubaneswar is known for its kora-khhaii which are made up of paddy, jaggery and coconut pieces. Pitha, a kind of sweet cake, bread or dim sum are winter specialties.

To enjoy delicious cuisine, there is lots of Modern and Luxurious restaurant as well as hotels. The worldwide foods are served by some renowned Hotels like MAYFAIR Lagoon, Swoti Premium, Trident Hotel, Hotel Grand Central, Sandy Tower and so on.

Sports

Kalinga Stadium
Kalinga Stadium, Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar Golf Club
Bhubaneswar Golf Club

Bhubaneswar's major sporting arena is the Kalinga Stadium, having facilities for athletics, football, hockey, basketball, tennis, table tennis and swimming.[113][114][115] It is known for hosting the Odisha Hockey World Cup in November–December 2018. Kalinga Lancers, the sixth franchise of Hockey India League and Samaleswari S.C., a franchise of I-League 2nd Division, are based in Bhubaneswar with Kalinga Stadium as their home ground. East Coast Railway Stadium, a prominent cricket stadium hosts Ranji Trophy and other matches.[116]

Construction of gallery and stadium renovation is in process. An air-conditioned indoor stadium with a capacity of 2000 spectators for badminton, volleyball, basketball and table tennis games is under construction.[113] Barabati Stadium in Cuttack, Odisha's only venue for international cricket matches, is located around 25 kilometres (16 mi) away.[117] Bhubaneswar has a franchise of Odisha Premier League, Bhubaneswar Jaguars, which started in 2010. Bhubaneswar Golf Club, a nine-hole golf course is situated in Infocity.[118]

Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology Stadium commonly KIIT Stadium is a new multipurpose stadium located as a part of Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology University Campus or KIIT University in Bhubaneswar with a capacity of 40,000 currently.

The 2017 Asian Athletics Championships was the 22nd edition of the Asian Athletics Championships. It was held from 6 to 9 July 2017 at the Kalinga Stadium. Bhubaneswar is the third Indian-city to host the Asian Athletics Championship with Delhi in 1989 being the first and Pune in the year 2013 to be the second Indian cities.[119]

Bhubaneswar is emerging as the new sports capital of India, like FIH and IOA president Narindar Batra recently said in an ceremony while unveiling the new logo for Indian hockey team Jersey, which is sponsored by the government of odisha, as it is giving equal importance and opportunity for all types of sports like cricket, football, field hockey, tennis, badminton, chess and many more.[120]

Media

The city's widely circulated Odia-language newspapers are Sambad, Dharitri, Pragatibadi, Samaja, Khabara, Orissa Bhaskara, Prameya and Samaya.[121] Odia Post and Odia Age are the English-language newspaper that is produced and published from Bhubaneswar. Other popular English-language newspapers published and sold in Bhubaneswar include The Times of India, The Telegraph, The Statesman, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express, and the Asian Age.[121] Bhubaneswar has substantial circulation of financial dailies, including The Economic Times, The Financial Express, Business Line, and Business Standard.[121] Vernacular newspapers, such as those in the Hindi, Bengali and Telugu, are read by minorities.[121] Major periodicals based in Bhubaneswar include Saptahika Samaya, Saptahika Samaja, and Kadambini.

All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs several AM channels from the radio station located in Cuttack.[122] Bhubaneswar has five local radio stations broadcasting on FM, including two from AIR.[122][123] India's state-owned television broadcaster Doordarshan Odia provides two free-to-air terrestrial channels,[124] while a mix of Odia, Hindi, English, and other regional channels are accessible via cable subscription and direct-broadcast satellite services. Some of the Odia language television channels are Colors Odia, Sarthak TV and Tarang TV. Odia-language 24-hour television news channels include News 7, Odisha TV, Kanak TV, ETV News Odia, MBC TV and Naxatra News.[125]

Notable people

The following are some of the notable people associated with Bhubaneswar:

Sister cities

See also

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External links

2017 Asian Athletics Championships

The 2017 Asian Athletics Championships was the 22nd edition of the Asian Athletics Championships. It was held from 6 to 9 July 2017 at the Kalinga Stadium in Bhubaneswar, India. Bhubaneswar was the third Indian city to host Asian Championships. Around 560 athletes from 41 countries attended the event.The Championships were originally scheduled to be held at Ranchi, Jharkhand. After Ranchi's inability to host this event, Bhubaneswar was selected as the venue for this event. On 30 March 2017 post a detailed presentation by Adille Sumariwalla, President AFI, Bhubaneswar was selected for hosting the Asian Athletics Championship by the Asian Athletics Association Council. The previous edition of the championship was held in Wuhan, China from 3–7 June 2015.

The Asian Athletics Championships are organized by Asian Athletics Association every two years. Bhubaneswar is the third Indian-city to host the Asian Athletics Championship with Delhi in 1989 being the first and Pune in the year 2013 to be the second Indian cities.

The winners of the Championships got a direct berth for the 2017 World Championships in London to be held in August. As host, India was eligible to field three athletes in each discipline, instead of the usual two.

2018 Indian Super Cup

The 2018 Hero Super Cup was the inaugural edition of the Super Cup, the main club knockout football competition in India. The competition is sponsored by Hero MotoCorp and is officially known as the Hero Super Cup. The competition began with the qualifiers on 15 March 2018 and concluded with the final on 20 April 2018. The entire tournament is taking place in one stadium, the Kalinga Stadium in Bhubaneswar.The competition features teams from both the I-League and Indian Super League, both considered the joint top divisions for professional football in India. Both leagues containing 10 teams each, the top six teams from both qualified for the tournament automatically while the bottom four sides contested in the qualifiers. The Super Cup replaces the Federation Cup, which was considered the top knockout competition before this tournament.

Bhubaneswar Monorail

The Bhubaneswar Monorail is a monorail system proposed for the cities Bhubaneswar and Cuttack, Odisha, India.

Bhubaneswar railway station

Bhubaneswar Railway Station (BBS) serves Bhubaneswar, the capital of the Indian state of Odisha and it is the headquarters of the East Coast Railway zone of the Indian Railways.

Biju Patnaik Airport

Biju Patnaik International Airport (IATA: BBI, ICAO: VEBS), also known as the Bhubaneswar Airport, is the primary international airport serving Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Odisha. It is situated around 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) south-west from Bhubaneswar railway station and 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) away from the city center. Named after the former chief minister of Odisha, Biju Patnaik, a famed aviator and freedom fighter, it is the 15th busiest airport in India & 11th busiest among the airports maintained by Airports Authority of India, registering a 27.9% growth in traffic over the previous year.

East Coast Railway zone

The East Coast Railway (abbreviated ECoR and पूतरे) is one of the 18 railway zones of Indian Railways. It came into existence on 1 April 2003. As the name suggests, most of the railway routes of the zone are near the east coast of India. The headquarters of the zone are at Bhubaneswar.

Education in Odisha

Previously a neglected aspect of the Indian Central government, Education in Odisha is witnessing a rapid transformation. Its capital city, Bhubaneswar, is emerging as a knowledge hub in India with several new public and private universities, including the establishment of an Indian Institute of Technology after five decades of demand.

Odisha has fared reasonably well in terms of literacy rates. The overall literacy rate according to Census 2011 is 73.5%, which is marginally behind of the national average of 74.04%. In Odisha there are also many schools and colleges, maintained by government.

Forum Mart

Forum Mart is a shopping mall located at Janpath, Bhubaneswar in the state of Odisha, India. The shopping destination is spread over a floor area of two hundred thousand square feet. Publicly opened in 2004, the mall is one of the largest and oldest malls in Odisha. The mall has a total commercial space of 200,000 sq ft spread over four floors designed by the Forum Group. The Forum Group is famous for establishing commercial complexes in India and abroad. It contains approximately 50 outlets, including cafeterias, food courts, restaurants, parking space and a hypermarket.

Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar (IIT Bhubaneswar or IIT BBS) is a public engineering institution established by the government of India in 2008, located at Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. It is one of the eight new Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India under The Institutes of Technology (Amendment) Act, 2011 which establishes the eight new IITs as well as declares IT-BHU as Indian Institute of Technology. The Act was passed in the Lok Sabha on 24 March 2011 and by the Rajya Sabha on 30 April 2012. It started functioning from the campus of IIT Kharagpur on 23 July 2008 and shifted its operation to the city of Bhubaneswar on 22 July 2009.The institute admits students into B. Tech, M. Tech and Ph.D. programs. It started operating from current campus at Arugul from academic session 2015-16. The new and permanent campus was inaugurated by Narendra Modi on 24 December 2018. Admissions are done as per the All India Rank of JEE Advanced. The academic session begins in July each year. Currently, Prof. R.V. Rajakumar is the director of the institute.

International Institute of Information Technology, Bhubaneswar

The "International Institute of Information Technology, Bhubaneswar" (IIIT-BH or IIIT-BBSR) (Odia: ଅନ୍ତର୍ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରୀୟ ସୂଚନା ପ୍ରଯୁକ୍ତିବିଦ୍ୟା ପ୍ରତିଷ୍ଠାନ ଭୁବନେଶ୍ୱରHindi: अन्तराष्ट्रीय सूचना एवम प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान )information technology higher education and a unitary university institute located in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. It is a University Grants Commission (India) (UGC) recognised Unitary Technical University.

The campus is located in Gothapatna, Bhubaneswar. The campus houses classrooms, laboratories, library, hostel, faculty living quarters, sports facilities, and auditorium.

Khordha district

Khordha is an administrative division of the state of Odisha, India. It was formed on April 1, 1993, by the division of former Puri District into Puri, Khordha and Nayagarh districts. In the year 2000 the district name was changed to Khordha. The district headquarters is Khordha Town. The capital city of Bhubaneswar is located in this district. Khordha is the most urbanized of all the districts of Odisha. Khordha Road, the railway station that serves the town is also the divisional headquarters of the East Coast Railway of the Indian Railways. Khordha is known for its brass utensils, cottage industries, railway coach manufacturing, and cable manufacturing unit.

Lingaraja Temple

Lingaraja Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva and is one of the oldest temples in Bhubaneswar, the capital of the Indian state of Odisha. The temple is the most prominent landmark of Bhubaneswar city and one of the major tourist attractions of the state.The Lingaraja temple is the largest temple in Bhubaneswar. The central tower of the temple is 180 ft (55 m) tall. The temple represents the quintessence of the Kalinga architecture and culminating the medieval stages of the architectural tradition at Bhubaneswar. The temple is believed to be built by the kings from the Somavamsi dynasty, with later additions from the Ganga rulers. The temple is built in the Deula style that has four components namely, vimana (structure containing the sanctum), jagamohana (assembly hall), natamandira (festival hall) and bhoga-mandapa (hall of offerings), each increasing in the height to its predecessor. The temple complex has 50 other shrines and is enclosed by a large compound wall.

Bhubaneswar is called the Ekamra Kshetra as the deity of Lingaraja was originally under a mango tree (Ekamra) as noted in Ekamra Purana, a 13th-century Sanskrit treatise. The temple is active in worship practises, unlike most other temples in Bhubaneswar and Shiva is worshipped as Harihara, a combined form of Vishnu and Shiva. The temple has images of Vishnu, possibly because of the rising prominence of Jagannath sect emanating from the Ganga rulers who built the Jagannath Temple in Puri in the 12th century.

Lingaraja temple is maintained by the Temple Trust Board and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). The temple has an average of 6,000 visitors per day and receives lakhs of visitors during festivals. Shivaratri festival is the major festival celebrated in the temple and event during 2012 witnessed 200,000 visitors. The temple compound is not open to non-Hindus, but there is a viewing platform beside the wall offering a good view of the main exteriors. This was originally erected for a visit by Lord Curzon when Viceroy.

List of institutions of higher education in Odisha

A list of notable institutions of higher education in Odisha.

Mukteshvara Temple, Bhubaneswar

Mukteshvara Temple (IAST: Mukteśvara; also spelt Mukteswar) is a 10th-century Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva located in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. The temple dates back to 950–975 CE and is a monument of importance in the study of the development of Hindu temples in Odisha. The stylistic development the Mukteswar marks the culmination of all earlier developments, and initiates a period of experiment which continues for an entire century, as seen in such temples as the Rajarani Temple and Lingaraj temple, both located in Bhubaneswar. It is one of the prominent tourist attractions of the city.

National Institute of Fashion Technology

National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) is a group of fashion colleges in India. It was established in 1986 under the aegis of the Ministry of Textiles, Government of India and is an institution of design, management and technology for the international fashion business.

NIFT was granted statutory status in 2006, empowering it to award degrees and other academic distinctions.

National Institute of Science Education and Research

The National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) (Odia: ଜାତୀୟ ବିଜ୍ଞାନ ଶିକ୍ଷା ଏବଂ ଗବେଷଣା ଅନୁଷ୍ଠାନ) is a premier science education & research institution in Jatani (Khordha) Odisha, India.The institute is intended to be one of the best in the country in the field of basic science and research and is mainly known for its quality education and infrastructure.The physics department and mathematics department of NISER are one of the best in the country mainly due to its association with HBNI and BARC (under DAE). The Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh (2004-2014) laid the foundation stone on August 28, 2006, establishing the institute along the lines of the IISc in Bangalore, and its seven sister institutions, the IISERs, established at Pune, Mohali, Kolkata, Bhopal, Brahmapur, Tirupati and Thiruvananthapuram in India.Unlike the IISERs, which will be governed by the Ministry of Human Resources Development, Government of India, NISER operates under the umbrella of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). The government of India has earmarked an initial outlay of ₹823.19 crore (US$120 million) during the first seven years of this project, starting from September 2007.

The then Indian Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh has stated that NISER will compare with the best institutions in the country in terms of facilities and faculty. This move will help elevate the standard of research and education in Odisha.

Odisha

Odisha (, ; Odia: ଓଡ଼ିଶା, pronounced [oɽɪˈsaː] (listen); formerly known as Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the northeast, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and northwest, and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam. It is the 9th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state also has the third largest population of Scheduled Tribes in India. Odia is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 36.6 million according to the 2016 Census.The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Odisha was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. 1 April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa. The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.The economy of Odisha is the 16th-largest state economy in India with ₹4.16 lakh crore (US$60 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹81,000 (US$1,200). Odisha ranks 25th among Indian states in human development index.

Odisha Pradesh Congress Committee

The Odisha Pradesh Congress Committee (OPCC) is the unit of the Indian National Congress for the state of Odisha.

The head office of the organization is Congress Bhawan, situated in Bhubaneswar. The current President of the Odisha Congress is Shri Niranjan Patnaik.

Sambad

Sambad is a regional Odia language daily newspaper. It is one of the largest circulated Odia newspapers in Odisha. It is published from the capital city of Bhubaneswar, as well as from Cuttack, Berhampur, Rourkela, Sambalpur and Balasore.

The first edition of this newspaper was published on October 4, 1984 in Bhubaneswar. Editor since foundation is Soumya Ranjan Patnaik, a businessman-politician.

Climate data for Bhubaneswar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.8
(96.4)
42.7
(108.9)
42.0
(107.6)
45.0
(113.0)
46.5
(115.7)
46.3
(115.3)
41.3
(106.3)
37.4
(99.3)
37.9
(100.2)
36.6
(97.9)
37.6
(99.7)
33.6
(92.5)
46.5
(115.7)
Average high °C (°F) 28.7
(83.7)
31.4
(88.5)
34.9
(94.8)
36.9
(98.4)
37.2
(99.0)
35.3
(95.5)
32.2
(90.0)
31.6
(88.9)
32.1
(89.8)
32.2
(90.0)
30.4
(86.7)
28.4
(83.1)
32.6
(90.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.2
(72.0)
25.1
(77.2)
28.6
(83.5)
30.9
(87.6)
31.7
(89.1)
30.7
(87.3)
28.7
(83.7)
28.4
(83.1)
28.5
(83.3)
27.6
(81.7)
24.9
(76.8)
22.0
(71.6)
27.4
(81.3)
Average low °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
18.7
(65.7)
22.2
(72.0)
25.0
(77.0)
26.2
(79.2)
26.1
(79.0)
25.2
(77.4)
25.1
(77.2)
24.8
(76.6)
23.0
(73.4)
19.4
(66.9)
15.6
(60.1)
22.2
(72.0)
Record low °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
9.6
(49.3)
14.6
(58.3)
17.0
(62.6)
15.0
(59.0)
16.8
(62.2)
20.0
(68.0)
18.4
(65.1)
18.5
(65.3)
16.1
(61.0)
9.7
(49.5)
8.2
(46.8)
8.2
(46.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4
(0.2)
27
(1.1)
28
(1.1)
26
(1.0)
67
(2.6)
209
(8.2)
317
(12.5)
389
(15.3)
241
(9.5)
127
(5.0)
48
(1.9)
9
(0.4)
1,492
(58.8)
Average rainy days 0.4 2.3 2.8 3.1 5.1 12.0 18.0 19.1 14.6 8.8 2.1 0.7 89
Average relative humidity (%) 60 61 63 66 66 74 83 85 83 76 66 60 70
Mean monthly sunshine hours 253.4 234.0 237.8 238.8 242.9 140.7 107.2 128.6 150.8 221.8 217.5 255.0 2,428.5
Source #1: NOAA (1971–1990)[29]
Source #2: IMD[30]
Bhubaneswar population 
CensusPop.
195116,512
196138,211131.4%
1971105,491176.1%
1981227,525115.7%
1991423,46586.1%
2001647,30252.9%
2011837,73729.4%
Sources:[47][48][49]
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