Bhitarkanika Mangroves

Bhitarkanika Mangroves is a mangrove wetland in Odisha, India, covering an area of 650 km (400 mi) in the Brahmani and Baitarani river deltas.

Designated19 August 2002
Reference no.1205[1]
Bhitarkanika lakeride sunset
Bhitarkanika Mangroves at sunset


The Bhitarkanika Mangroves were zamindari forests until 1952, when the government of Odisha abolished the zamindari system, and put the zamindari forests in the control of the state forest department. In 1975, an area of 672 km2 was declared the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary. The core area of the sanctuary, with an area of 145 km2, was declared Bhitarkanika National Park in September 1998. The Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary, which bounds the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary to the east, was created in September 1997, and encompasses Gahirmatha Beach and an adjacent portion of the Bay of Bengal. Bhitarkanika Mangroves were designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance in 2002.[2]

Flora and fauna

Bhitarkanika Mangroves Flora and Fauna 03
Saltwater crocodile in Bhitarkanika Mangroves

About 62 mangrove species occur in the Bhitarkanika Mangroves, including Avicenna, Bruguiera, Heritiera and Rhizophora. Reptiles present in the mangroves include saltwater crocodile, king cobra, Indian python and water monitor. Between August 2004 and December 2006, 263 bird species were recorded, encompassing 147 resident and 99 migrant species. A heronry encloses about 4 ha (9.9 acres), where 11,287 nests were counted in 2006.[3]

Olive ridley turtles arrive in January to March for nesting at Gahirmatha Beach. An average of 240,000 nests per season was estimated between 1976 and 1996. Up to 80,000 individuals were captured every year until 1982. Since 1983, collecting and marketing turtles and their eggs is banned.[4]


  1. ^ "Bhitarkanika Mangroves". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  2. ^ "Ramsar Convention Official site". Archived from the original on 2013-12-12.
  3. ^ Gopi, G. V.; Pandav, B. (2007). "Avifauna of Bhitarkanika mangroves, India" (PDF). Zoos’ Print Journal. 22 (10): 2839–2847.
  4. ^ Rajagopalan, M.; Vivekanandan, E.; Pillai, S. K.; Srinath, M.; Bastian, F. (1996). "Incidential catch of sea turtles in India" (PDF). Marine Fisheries Information Service. Technical and Extension Series (143): 8–17.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

External links

Balimela Wildlife Sanctuary

Balimela Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary in Malkangiri district, Odisha, India.

It covers an area of 160 km². The terrain is hilly, and covered with mixed deciduous forests. It is in the Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests ecoregion.

Brahmani River

The Brahmani is a major seasonal river in the Odisha state of Eastern India. The Brahmani is formed by the confluence of the Sankh and South Koel rivers, and flows through the districts of Sundargarh, Deogarh, Angul, Dhenkanal, Cuttack, Jajapur and Kendrapara. Together with the riversBaitarani, it forms a large delta before emptying into the Bay of Bengal at Dhamra.

Gahirmatha Beach

Gahirmatha Beach is a beach in the Indian state of Odisha. The beach separates the Bhitarkanika mangroves from the Bay of Bengal and is the world's most important nesting beach for Olive Ridley Sea Turtles. The beach is part of Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary, which also includes the adjacent portion of the Bay of Bengal.

Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary

Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary is a marine wildlife sanctuary located in Odisha and is a very popular tourist attraction of Odisha in India. It is the world's largest nesting beach for Olive Ridley Turtles. It extends from Dhamra River mouth in the north to Brahmani river mouth in the south.

It is very famous for its nesting beach for olive ridley sea turtles. It is the one of world's most important nesting beach for turtles.

Hasdeo Bango Dam

Hasdeo Bango Dam is a dam constructed in 1961-62 across the Hasdeo river in Chhattisgarh, India. It is longest,widest dam in Chhattisgarh.It is first multi purpose water project in chhattisgarh.It is located 70 km from Korba, Korba district. It has a catchment area of 6,730 km2.

Jhilimili Coalfield

Jhilimili Coalfield is located in Surguja district in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh.

Jonk River

Jonk River is a tributary of Mahanadi River that flows for approximately 210 kilometers through the Nuapada District and Bargarh District in the state of Odisha; and the Mahasamund District and Raipur District in the state of Chhattisgarh in India. The river starts from the Sundabeda plateau and enters Maraguda valley where it is joined by a stream called Gaidhas-nala near Patora village. The river forms Beniadhas fall (80 feet) and Kharaldhas fall (150 feet) before entering the valley. It joins Mahanadi at Sheorinarayan.

Kendrapara district

Kendrapara District is an administrative district of Odisha state in eastern India. The town of Kendrapara is the district headquarters. Kendrapara District is situated in the eastern portion of the state, and is bounded on the north by Bhadrak District, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Jagatsinghpur District, on the west by Cuttack District and on the northwest by Jajpur District.

Kushabhadra River

Kushabhadra River forms the complex of river systems which form the distributaries of the Mahanadi River. It branches off from the Kuakhai River, which is a distributary of the Mahanadi, at Balianta and flows in a south western direction towards Nimapara and Gop for 46–50 miles before sinking into the Bay of Bengal near Ramachandi Temple, 15 miles east of Puri in the Puri District of Odisha.Dhanua River is its main tributary, bringing in water to its parent body.

List of forests in India

This is an incomplete list of forests in India.

Mand River

The Mand River is a tributary of the Mahanadi in India. It joins the Mahanadi in Chandarpur, in Chhattisgarh, 28 km from the Odisha border and before the river reaches the Hirakud Dam.

The river, whose total length is 241 km, rises to an elevation of about 686 m in Surguja district in Chhattisgarh. It receives the drainage of the southern part of the Mainpat Plateau, an area of about 5200 km2.

Mandira Dam

Mandira dam is located near Kansbahal in Sundergarh district, Odisha, India. Currently closed for visitors for a few weeks .It is built across Sankh river, located 16 km upstream from Mandira. The water from the dam is used for Rourkela Steel Plant. Construction of the dam began after 1957. The dam displaced 2400 families and only 843 were resettled.

Ong River

Ong River is a tributary of Mahanadi river. It flows across Odisha and joins Mahanadi 240 km (150 mi) upstream of Sonepur where Tel merges. The river rises at an elevation of 457 m (1,499 ft) and runs 204 km (127 mi) before it meets Mahanadi. It drains an area of about 5,128 km2 (1,980 sq mi).

Nearby cities to river Ong: Bolangir (39 km or 24 mi), Sohela (40 km or 25 mi), Saraipali (45 km or 28 mi), Bargarh (59 km or 37 mi), Sonepur (70 km or 43 mi), Burla (89 km or 55 mi), Sambalpur (94 km or 58 mi) and some others cities also.

Nearby rivers to Ong river: Tel Nadi 76 km (47 mi), Gorkha Nadi 171 km (106 mi), Subarnarekha River/Swarnarekha River 431 km (268 mi), Godavari 485 km (301 mi), Manairu Vagu 508 km (316 mi).

Pairi River

Pairi River is one of the important tributaries of Mahanadi and it joins the Mahanadi near Rajim, Gariaband district in Chhattisgarh, India.

Rengali Dam

Rengali dam is located in Odisha. It is constructed across Brahmani River in Rengali village located 70 km from Angul in Angul district, Odisha in India.

Sankh River

The Sankh River flows across Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Odisha states in India. The river flows for 240 kilometres (150 mi) before it meets the Koel River in Odisha.

Sondur River

Sondur River is a tributary of Mahanadi and located in Chhattisgarh, India. Sondur dam is built across this river near Gram Machka in Dhamtari district. The river flows through Sitandi sanctuary before merging with Mahanadi.

South Karo River

South Karo River flows through Sundergarh and Keonjhar districts and West Singhbhum in the Indian states of Odisha and Jharkhand respectively. The river flows through industrial and iron ore mining areas and Saranda forest before joining the South Koel River in Goilkera block of West Singhbhum district. As a result of its passage through the industrial and mining area the river water gets polluted.

Tel River

The Tel river flows in Nabarangpur, Kalahandi, Balangir, Sonpur District of Odisha, India. Tel is an important tributary of Mahanadi. It flows just eight kilometers away from the town of Titilagarh. This significant tributary of the Mahanadi river meets the main river at Sonepur or Subarnapur. The convergence of the two rivers offers a remarkable view against a colorful landscape. Baidyanath temple, which is famous for the Kosaleshwar Shiva temple, is located on the left bank of the Tel River.

Source: The Tel river originates in plain and open country in the koraput district of Odisha, India.

Protected areas of Odisha
National parks
Wildlife sanctuaries
Ramsar Sites

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