Bhinmal

Bhinmal (old names:Srimala[1]) is a town in the Jalore District of Rajasthan, India. It is 72 kilometres (45 mi) south of Jalore town. Bhinmal was the capital of Gurjaradesa, comprising southern Rajasthan and northern Gujarat of modern times.

The town is the birthplace of the Sanskrit poet Magha and mathematician-astronomer Brahmagupta.

Bhinmal

भीनमाल
city
Bhinmal is located in Rajasthan
Bhinmal
Bhinmal
Coordinates: 25°00′N 72°15′E / 25.0°N 72.25°ECoordinates: 25°00′N 72°15′E / 25.0°N 72.25°E
CountryIndia
StateRajasthan
DistrictJalore
Government
 • MP (Member of Parliament)Devji M Patel
 • MLA (Member of Legislative Assembly)Pura Ram Choudhary
Elevation
155.33 m (509.61 ft)
Population
(2011)
 • Total302,553
Languages
 • OfficialHindi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
343029
Telephone code02969
Vehicle registrationRJ-16 and RJ-46 (New)

History

The original name of Bhinmal was bhillamala, the plateau of Bhils.[2] It was the early capital of the kingdom of Gurjaradesa, a name derived from the Gurjara people. The kingdom is first attested in Bana's Harshacharita (7th century AD). Its king is said to have been subdued by Harsha's father Prabhakaravardhana (died c. 605 AD).[3] The surrounding kingdoms were mentioned as Sindha (Sindh), Lāta (southern Gujarat) and Malava (western Malwa), indicating that the region included northern Gujarat and southern Rajasthan.[4]

Xuanzang, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who visited India between 631-645 AD during Harsha's reign, mentioned the Gurjara country (Kiu-che-lo) with its capital at Bhillamala (Pi-lo-mo-lo) as the second largest kingdom of Western India. He distinguished it from the neighbouring kingdoms of Bharukaccha (Bharuch), Ujjayini (Ujjain), Malava (Malwa), Valabhi and Surashtra.[3] The Gurjara kingdom was said to have measured 833 miles in circuit and its ruler was a 20-year old kshatriya, who was distinguished for his wisdom and courage.[5] It is believed that the king must have been the immediate successor of the Chapa dynasty ruler Vyāgrahamukha, under whose reign the mathematician-astronomer Brahmagupta wrote his famous treatise in 628 AD.[6]

The Arab chroniclers of Sindh (an Arab province from 712 CE onward), narrated the campaigns of Arab governors on Jurz, the Arabic term for Gurjara. They mentioned it jointly with Mermad (Marumāda, in Western Rajasthan) and Al Baylaman (Bhinmal).[7] The country was first conquered by Mohammad bin Qasim (712-715) and, for a second time, by Junayd (723-726).[8] Upon bin Qasim's victory, Al-Baladhuri mentioned that the Indian rulers, including that of Bhinmal, accepted Islam and paid tribute.[9] They presumably recanted after bin Qasim's departure, which made Junayd's attack necessary. After Junayd's reconquest, the kingdom at Bhinmal appears to have been annexed by the Arabs.[8]

A new dynasty was founded by Nagabhata I at Jalore, in the vicinity of Bhinmal, in about 730 CE, soon after Junayd's end of term in Sindh. Nagabhata is said to have defeated the "invincible Gurjaras," presumably those of Bhinmal.[10] Another account credits him for having defeated a "Muslim ruler."[11] Nagabhata is also known to have repelled the Arabs during a later raid.[12] His dynasty later expanded to Ujjain and called itself Pratihara. Nagabhata's successor Vatsaraja lost Ujjain to the Rashtrakuta prince Dhruva, who claimed to have driven him into "trackless desert", which might mean that Vatsaraja withdrew to Bhinmal. An inscription in Daulatpura from 843 AD mentions Vatsaraja having made grants near Didwana. In due course, the Pratiharas became the dominant force of the entire Rajasthan and Gujarat regions, establishing a powerful empire centered at Kannauj, the former capital of Harshavardhana.[13][14]

Ala ud din Khilji as the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty also destroyed and looted Srimala (ancient Bhinmal) when he conquered Jalore in 1310 AD. Prior to that, Srimala was a premier city of northwestern India. The city was laid out in the shape of a square. It has 84 gates. The mid-15th-century chronicle Kanhadade Prabandha provides descriptions of indiscriminate attacks by Muslims on Bhinmal.[15]

The city of Bhinmal had four gates. At a distance of 8 kilometres in the north there was the Jalori gate, in the south Laxmi gate, in the east the Sun gate and in the west Sanchori gate.

Hinduism and Jainism

According to the Chinese traveller Xuanzang, the King of Bhinmal was a believer in Buddhism and Jainism and a man of exceptional abilities. Brahmanism and Jainism dominated the city. There was only one Buddhist monastery with 100 monks in 'Buddha Vaas' neighbourhood.

There were several temples of Jain Tirthankar and Hindu gods such as Ganapati, Kshetrapala, Chandikadevi, and Shiva. The Sun temple of Bhinmal known as Jagatsvami was one of the earliest and most famous temples of Rajasthan. The temple had beautiful torana (archway). The temple was perhaps built during the reign of Gurjara Pratiharas who were sun worshippers. In ancient time, the festival was held at temple in the Hindu calendar month of Asvin.

There were also a number of Jain temples, the one of Mahavira (Mhaveerji) being the most famous. This temple was built by king Kumarapala and established by Acharya Hemachandra, dedicated to 1st Jain Tirthankar Rishabha. Currently, the temple is dedicated to the 24th Jain Tirthankar Mahavira, re-established by Vidhyachandra Suri of Tapagachha, belonging to the Tristutik sect.

Stone inscriptions of the year 1333 of the Vikrama Samvat (1277 AD) are found among ruins of some ancient temples across the town. There are signs that Lord Mahavira Swami, the 24th Jain Tirthankar, wandered here, known as 'jeevit swami'.

This city has witnessed many rises and falls. Stone inscriptions of the year 1333 of the Vikrama Samvat (1277 AD) are found among ruins of temples. There are signs here and there showing that Lord Mahavira Swami, the 24th Jain Tirthankar wandered about here. They can provide historical evidence to researchers.

There was a time when this city had a circumference of 64 kilometres and the fort had 84 gates. This city looked beautiful with hundreds of pinnacled temples. From the 7th to the 10th century, talented Jain monk/writer Acharya Haribhadra, Mundas Gani, Udayprabhsuri, Mahnedrsuri, Rajendrasuri and many more created here valuable Jain literature and sanctified and beautified this place. The temple of the 23rd Jain Tirthankar Parshvanatha in Hathi pole area is regarded to be very ancient. This temple has great archaeological importance. A golden idol of Shri Parshvanatha in Padmasana posture is the presiding deity.

Apart from the many ancient Jain temples across the town, there is a temple of Jains called 72 Jinalayas - the 72 temple complex with the 72 Tirthakar (24 past + 24 future + 24 current) as per Jainism. It is the largest Jain temple which conclude 19 years of its making.It was made by a family of builders loonkars the owners of a modern leading company Sumer. Another significant temple complex dedicated to Mahavir Swami and Osia Mataji called as Bafna Waddi Tirth is there just outside the town.

Out of 108 Parshvanatha, "Shri Bhaya-Bhanjan Parshvanatha" is also located in the town where thousands of Jain and other pilgrims come to the town and offer their prayer here.

Culture and science

Bhinmal was a great centre of learning. Brahmagupta, the well-known mathematicians astronomer, born in 598 AD is often referred to as Bhillamalacharya, the teacher from Bhillamala. He may have been born in this city, or may have taught there. He is known for the composition of two texts on mathematics and astronomy: The Brahmasphutasiddhanta in 628, and the Khandakhadyaka in 665. The Sanskrit poet Magha, the author of Sisupalavadha, lived here in 680 AD. The Jain scholar Siddharshi Gani, a resident of Bhinmal wrote Upmitibahava prapancha katha in 905 AD. The Jain Ramayana was written by Jain monk Vijayagani in 1595 AD. Jain scholar Udyotan Suri wrote kuvalayamala here.

Shrimala

Bhinmala was also called Shrimala, recorded in a thirteenth century text Shramali Purana. The Brahmins and merchants originating from Bhinmal were called Shrimali Brahmanas and Shrimali Vaniyas respectively. After Vanaraja Chavda established a new capital at Patan, the symbolic centre of these communities shifted to Patan. The main image of Mahalakshmi was shifted from Bhinmal to Patan in 1147 AD.[16]

Geography

Bhinmal is located at 25°00′N 72°15′E / 25.0°N 72.25°E.[17] It has an average elevation of 155.33 metres (479 feet).

Economy

The economy of the town and surrounding area is mainly based on agriculture and animal husbandry. Oilseeds (especially mustard oilseeds) are the predominant crop. Jeera, wheat, bajra, kharif pulses, barley, jowar and seasmum are also produced.

Bhinmal is the main mandi (market) for agricultural produce of the area. The town has the Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti (Agricultural Produce Market Committee). Food Corporation of India has its warehouses here. The town is the main supply point for various agricultural inputs like fertilisers, seeds and pesticides and for agricultural implements, motors, tractors and spare parts.

Bhinmal is known for fine quality of mojari (embroidered leather shoes). The small towns nearby also had fine workers of mojari. There are many types of mojari like badagaun, panjabi, tarawali, jariwali, left-right and goal ru jodu are made by the workers called jeenagar.

There are no large- or medium-size industries in the Bhinmal RICO industrial area. The predominant small scale industries are granite slabs and tiles, marble cutting and polishing, mustard seed crushing, skimmed milk powder, butter and ghee, handloom cloth, and leather shoes.

Infrastructure

Transport

Bhinmal Railway Station
Bhinmal Railway Station

Bhinmal is connected to Rajasthan state and other major cities of India by road as well as rail. The local transportation system within the city includes Auto-Riksha only.

Bhinmal is on the Samadari-Bhildi section of the North Western Railway. The name of the railway station is Marwar Bhinmal. The railway tracks are broad gauge.

Bhinmal is connected to all major cities by all weather roads.

Electricity

There is one sub grid station of 400/220 KV at Bhinmal. The town receives power from Power Grid Corporation of India limited's grid station in bhinmal [Jalore District].Almost all villages of the Bhinmal subdivision are electrified.

The city electricity board is operated by Jodhpur Vidhut Vitran Nigam Limited and its office is located at Station Road Bhinmal for O&M and its transmission system is operated from Raniwara road, through 220 kv GSS under RVVNL

Water

The town gets drinking water from nimbawas, and Rajpura. The drinking water supply is managed by PHED (water dept. of Govt. of Rajasthan), while the main source of irrigation for farmers continues to be from wells.

Accommodation

There are many hotels in the town. Some well known hotels are Hotel Samarat, Hotel Gokul Palace, Hotel Gurudev, Hotel Neelkamal, Hotel Rajdeep and Hotel Sagar. The heritage hotel known as Castle Durjan Niwas is at village Daspan 25 km from Bhinmal. There is a Government rest house run by the Public Works Department (PWD).

Education

The town has a graduate/degree college called G K Gowani Govt. College affiliated to Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur and accredited by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC). On 23 August 2013 Bhinmal College was upgraded to post-graduate by the Department of College Education,[18] Govt of Rajasthan. Now GK Gowani Govt College, Bhinmal will act as the post-graduate extension centre (Hindi) to cater to the higher educational needs of rural and semi urban students of town and this region.

There are three higher secondary and about 45 primary and middle schools in Bhinmal. This city also has a Govt. Girls School (Govt.G.Sec.Sr.Sch.) up to senior secondary level.

Bhinmal has more than 160 primary and middle schools run by the education department of Rajasthan government as well as the private sector. Adrash Vidhya Mandir Sr. Sec., Madhav International School English and Hindi medium, Vidya Bhawan English Medium School, and New Sacred Heart English School are private schools in Bhinmal.

Communication

  • Telecommunications: All the basic phone and cellphone service provider companies have their network in Bhinmal. Broadband and dial-up Internet and fax services are available at the main tel.exchange building of BSNL. Apart from BSNL, all private mobile service operators like airtel, Idea Cellular, MTS, Vodafone, Reliance, aircel and Tata Indicom provide cellphone services.
  • Post: The Bhinmal Post Office has broadband and leased line connectivity to provide web-enabled services like e-post, instant money order, electronic money order, Internet-based customer care services and cyber cafe.

Medical facility

Bhinmal town has good medical facilities. The town has a government referral hospital near Gandhi Maidaan and many private hospitals. There is an Aryuvedic hospital as well. In the government hospital there are good facilities. There are about 13 private hospitals in Bhinmal city.

Sports

Shivaraj Stadium was inaugurated by staging the Ranji trophy match in December 1985 between Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. It has indoor and outdoor games facilities. The yearly state level badminton tournament is held here.

Banking

Four nationalised banks, State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur, Punjab National Bank, Bank of Baroda, yes bank, Kotak Mahindra bank, Bank of India, HDFC Bank, Axis bank and State Bank of India have their branches here.

Some co-operative and local banks also have their branches in the town. They are Jalore Nagrik Sahakari Bank ltd., Adrash cooperative bank, Madhav Nagrik Sahakari Bank Ltd., Marwar Gramin Bank, Jalore Central Cooperative Bank, Bhumi Vikas Bank and N.P credit co-op society ltd.

Library

The town has two public libraries; one is managed by the municipality and the other by Saraswati Temple Trust.

Administrative set-up

  • The town is one of two sub -divisions in Jalore district.
  • The Bhinmal sub division covers three tehsils: Bhinmal, Sanchore and Raniwara and four panchayat samitis namely Bhinmal, Sanchore, Raniwara and Jaswantpura.
  • Civic affairs are administered by the Bhinmal Municipal Council (BMC) (Nagarpalika Mandal Bhinmal), with executive power vested in the Municipal executive officer. The Council comprises 25 directly elected councillors representing the twenty five municipal wards. Three nominated Councillors and a local MLA also have a rights of councillor.
  • The Bhinmal sub-division area is under the jurisdiction of a Deputy District Collector/Sub divisionl Officer (SDO).
  • The Bhinmal got septate District Transport Office (DTO) including Vehicle Registration Code RJ-46 allotted by Transport Department of Govt of Rajasthan on 19 July 2013.[19]
  • Bhinmal Tehsildar is in charge of property records and revenue collection of Bhinmal tehsil
  • The Bhinmal Police is headed by a Deputy Superintendent of Police who is an IPS officer.
  • Bhinmal also has a Lower court, the Small Causes Court for civil matters and the Sessions Court for criminal cases.
  • Bhinmal constituency elects one member to the Vidhan Sabha (Rajasthan State Assembly)[20]
  • Hiralal Bohra is selected as chairman of Municipality Bhinmal
  • Pooraram Choudhary is elected as MLA of Bhinmal in State Legislative Assembly.
  • Channi Deram Bishnoi is elected as pradhan of p.s. Bhinmal.

Demography

As of 2011 India census,[21] Bhinmal had a population of 3,02,553. Rural population was 2,54,621, urban population was 47,932, Males constituted 50.6% of the population and females 49.4%. Bhinmal had an average literacy rate of 53.6%, lower than the national average of 74%, with male literacy of 70.2% and female literacy of 36.8%. 17% of the population were under 6 years of age.[22]

Temples in Bhinmal

Jain Temples

Hindu Temple

  • Khimat Mataji / Kshemekari Mataji Temple (Mataji ki Bhakri temple)- Kul Devi of Doshi's, Vanigota's, Solanki's, Morakhiya's and in all 84 total kul (sect)
  • Nagdevta Temple (Gogaji) at Mataji Road - Kuldevta of Jogani's
  • Varaha Shyam temple
  • Chandinath temple
  • Neel Kantha Mahadev temple
  • Mahalaxmi temple, Mahalaxmi road
  • Mahalakshmi Kamaleshwari temple, Dhora-dhal
  • Baba Ramdevji temple, mataji ki bhakri, meghwal samaj
  • Gayatri temple
  • Fafariya Hanuman temple
  • Baba Ramdevji temple Jeengar bazar
  • Vishwakarma temple
  • Kashi Vishwanath mandir Jeengar Bazar
  • Saraswati temple
  • Lord Shanidev Temple, near old police station
  • Hnauman Mandir Lakharo ka chohata
  • Charbhuja temple (main market)
  • Ardhnareshwar Mahadev mandir
  • Varunachi yogeshwari mandir
  • Priyuteshwar mahadev mandir
  • Siddhivinayak mandir
  • Guru Jambheshwar mandir Char Rasta Bhinmal
  • Dhundhleshwar Mahadev Temple, Gajipura, Bhinmal
  • Boteshwar mahadev Temple, Karlu
  • Sundha mataji temple [sundhaparvat]
  • Hanumanji mandir sawidhar
  • Vatyakshni mataji mandir[23]
  • Bindukshini Mataji Mandir
  • Lord Rajeshwar mandir bhinmal (Choudhary)
  • Varahashayamji mandir bhinmal
  • Kalka Maa Mandir (Balotiya Kuldevi) (17th century)
  • Ganga mata mandir, Jatiya Mohalla, Bhinmal
  • Raneshwar Mahadev Mandir, Jakob Talab (Mali malaram chothaji gehlot)
  • Gajanan Saidham, Bhinmal near Shivraj Stadium, Jalore
  • Pragteshwar Mahadev Temple, near Yagyi's Niwas
  • Ambe Mata Mandir, Kshemakari road near dhora dhal, Bhinmal

Monuments

  • Chandinath Baori (Bavadi) (9th century)
  • Jeevdaya Gaushala
  • Jakoba Talab (8th century)
  • Bal samundra pond
  • Trayamkeshwer pond

Distances

Nearest airports:

Nearest airstrips:

By road

Bhinmal in the news

  • A 450-year-old Jain temple was unearthed in 2002 during construction work at the premises of Shri Parshwa Nath temple at Bhinmal. The temple has five images of Jain Tirthankars made in white marble.
  • A docudrama (documentary) made on Bhinmal village, My Beautiful Village Bhinmal,[24] by Azad Jain, won "Best Documentary-Writing" Award in Rolling Frames Short Film Summit, Bangalore, in 2014.[25] It was also screened at the Ekotop Junior Film Festival, Slovak Republic, Europe, Pink City Short Film Festival, Jaipur,[26] and Wanderlust Film Festival, Jaisalmer.[27] Leading newspapers from Rajasthan mentioned it as it was the only film in the festival about Rajasthani village and its people.[28]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Gopal, Lallanji (1989), The Economic Life of Northern India, C. A.D. 700-1200, Motilal Banarsidass Publishe, pp. 199–, ISBN 978-81-208-0302-2
  2. ^ Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India 1990, p. 240.
  3. ^ a b Puri, The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas 1986, p. 9.
  4. ^ Goyal, Shankar (1991), "Recent Historiography of the Age of Harṣa", Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 72/73 (1/4): 331–361, JSTOR 41694902
  5. ^ Puri, The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas 1986, p. 35.
  6. ^ Smith, Vincent A. (October 1907). "`White Hun' Coin of Vyagrahamukha of the Chapa (Gurjara) Dynasty of Bhinmal". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 923–928. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00036868. JSTOR 25210490.
  7. ^ Bhandarkar 1929, pp. 29–30; & Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World 2002, p. 208; Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State 1994, pp. 132–133
  8. ^ a b Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State 1994, p. 133.
  9. ^ Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State 1994, p. 319.
  10. ^ Shanta Rani Sharma 2012, p. 8.
  11. ^ Sanjay Sharma 2006, p. 204.
  12. ^ Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State 1994, p. 188.
  13. ^ Puri, The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas 1986, chapters 3–4.
  14. ^ Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India 1990, pp. 240–242.
  15. ^ Kanhadade Prabandha. New Delhi. 1991. p. 49. A farman (firman) was now given to Gori Malik (to sack Bhinmal)… The Turkish [Muslim] invaders entered the town making dreadful din and clamor. Orders were issued clear and terrible: ‘The soldiers shall march into the town spreading terror everywhere! Cut down the Brahmanas [Brahman priests], wherever they may be- performing homa or milking cows! Kill the cows- even those which are pregnant or with newly born calves!’ The Turks ransacked Bhinmal and captured everybody in the sleepy town. Thereafter, Gori Malik gleefully set fire to the town in a wanton display of force and meanness.
  16. ^ Cort, Jains in the World 2001, p. 35, 37.
  17. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Bhinmal
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-08-10. Retrieved 2013-08-10.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ http://www.eci.gov.in/election-analysis/AE/S20/partycomp172.htm
  21. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  22. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20140220085942/http://jalore.nic.in/cens.html
  23. ^ http://www.vatyakshnima.blogspot.com
  24. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt3659676
  25. ^ http://www.rollingframes.in/selected-movies
  26. ^ https://archive.is/20141113200351/http://www.pcisff.in/results-of-the-festival
  27. ^ http://wanderlustfestival.weebly.com/films.html
  28. ^ http://epaperbeta.timesofindia.com/Article.aspx?eid=31810&articlexml=WANDERLUST-FESTIVAL-Three-day-travel-film-fest-concludes-04112014004041 Dainik Bhaskar- http://epaper.bhaskar.com/detail/?id=631489&boxid=113045115&ch=0&map=map&currentTab=tabs-1&pagedate=11%2F03%2F2014&editioncode=147&pageno=13&view=image

Bibliography

Bafna

Bafna also spelt Bafana or Baphna or Bapna or Baphana (Hindi: बाफना / बाफणा )is an Indian Jain or Brahmin community, and also the surname used by this community. The name is derived from Bahufana and Bafanha. They were Hindu Rajput and later converted to Jainism.In some areas of Rajasthan like Udaipur and Jaipur there are also Bapna of Brahmin Caste and are known as Bapna Brahmins. However, they continue to follow their earlier Hindu traditions as were allowed by Acharya Shri. Bafnas are also known as Bapnas, Baphana.

Bhandavapur

Bhandavapur Jain Tirth is situated in the dense forest of Bhandavpur village, near Bhinmal (भीनमाल) jain tirth of the Jalore district of Rajasthan.

Bhima I

Bhima I (r. c. 1022–1064 CE) was a Chaulukya king who ruled parts of present-day Gujarat, India. The early years of his reign saw an invasion from the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud, who sacked the Somnath temple. Bhima left his capital and took shelter in Kanthkot during this invasion, but after Mahmud's departure, he recovered his power and retained his ancestral territories. He crushed a rebellion by his vassals at Arbuda, and unsuccessfully tried to invade the Naddula Chahamana kingdom. Towards the end of his reign, he formed an alliance with the Kalachuri king Lakshmi-Karna, and played an important role in the downfall of the Paramara king Bhoja.

The earliest of the Dilwara Temples and the Modhera Sun Temple were built during Bhima's reign. The construction of Rani ki vav is attributed to his queen Udayamati.

Daspan

Daspan is a village in the Bhinmal tehsil of Jalore district of Rajasthan state in India. It is 24 km west of Bhinmal . The place is known for the heritage hotel Castle Durjan Niwas .

Castle Durjan Niwas is a small but beautiful fortress palace built in the early 19th century by the Rathore Champawat clan of Marwar. Many changes and additions were made into the old fortress and present structure is just a shadow of the original. The building was originally built in the Indo - European style of architecture with separate parts for ladies and gents.

Daspan thikana was founded in 1713 AD by grant of a jagir of two villages by then ruler of Marwar.

Most of the Jain people from village now reside in South India's cities and some of them in Mumbai.

Late Th Surajpal singhji son of late th Major Sambhu singhji Grandson of Lt Th Sagat singhji was thrice (1977, 1980 and 1985) elected MLA of Bhinmal constituency and also became minister in Shivcharan mathur congress govt in 1989.

Smt Jaswant Kanwar wife of Lt Surajpal Singhji was Jilla Pramukh of Jalore District. Elected on 10 February 2010.

Dr Samarjit Singh son of Lt Surajpal Singhji remained MLA from 1998 to 2008 from bhinmal constituency of Jalore district, constituency from earlier his father Surajpal singhji was also MLA.At present he is President Congress party in Jalore.He is Vice President Chopasani education

executive of jodhpur.

At present Hem Singh Chouhan is Sarpanch of Daspan Panchayat.

In the present times, the youth of this village are taking strides in the field of education. They have achieved success and brought fame to the village.

Dhaulya

Dhaulya or Dholiya is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu etc. Dhaulya literally means white. Dhaulyas were rulers in Kishangarh and Marwar much before the rule of Rathores.

Rajasthan was ruled at that time by small republic states, which were divided into castes. Tejaji’s father was Taharji who was chieftain of Khirnal. His rule spread from Khirnal to Rupnagar. Their neighbouring state was that of Nagas. Nagas had been eradicated from Nagaur. Gujars were rejected in Bhinmal. Meenas were rulers in various parts of Jaipur. Tejaji was married in village Paner, presently in Ajmer district, which was situated on the banks of Banas River in Jaipur region.

Dhumbadiya

Dhumbadiya is a major village in Jalore district of Rajasthan state. It is a major village of Bagoda Tehsil. It is located 7 km from Bagoda and 32 km from Bhinmal town. Nearest Railway station is Marwar Bhinmal which is 32 km from Dhumbadiya.

Gurjaradesa

Gurjaradesa/Gurjaradesh (Gurjara country) or Gurjaratra is a historical region in India comprising the eastern Rajasthan and northern Gujarat during the period of 6th -12th century CE. Its name is believed to derive from the dominance of the different tribes in this region. The predominant power of the region, the Gurjara-Pratiharas eventually controlled a major part of North India centered at Kannauj. The modern state of "Gujarat" derives its name from the ancient Gurjaratra.

Jalore district

Jalore District is a district of Rajasthan state in western India. The city of Jalore is the administrative headquarters of the district. The district has an area of 10,640 km2 (4,108 sq mi) (3.11 percent of Rajasthan's area), and a population of 1,448,486 (2001 census), with a population density of 136 persons per square kilometre.

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Jaswantpura

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Jaswantpura (जवाहर नवोदय विद्यालय, जसवन्तपुरा) is located near the village Jaswantpura in the Bhinmal tehsil of the Jalore district. This school is residence school and all facilities to the students is free of cost. This school established in a temporary site in 1987 under 1986 education policy. Now school have buildings for all the purposes, school building, hostels, staff quarters, multi-purpose hall where it is shifted in 1990.

The entrance test for admission into 6th and 9th class of Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Jaswantpura is being conducted by the Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti. The school syllabus is CBSE pattern. There are classes being conducted from 6th standard to 12th standard.

Music, Computer science and SUPW are taught as optional subjects. The school has a well-furnished computer room, A Samsung smart lab with 40 latest laptops and LCD, equipped with Internet (24-hour VSAT connectivity). The school has a music room with most of the instruments available. The school also has a rich library with thousands of books. All the exam results are displayed on the website of the school. The website is managed in the supervision of the principal.

The school is located near Aravalli mountains which beautify the school in monsoon when waterfall occur during rainy season. Locality wise, this place is very calm, clean, and peaceful due to the distant location of the school from the village.

As per Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya samiti policy, school has separate hostels for boys and girls.

Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri

Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri was the Arab governor of Sindh from 723-726 A.D.. He started invading Indian kingdoms. After subduing Sindh, Junayd sent campaigns to various parts of India. The justification was that these parts had previously paid tribute to Bin Qasim but then stopped. The first target was al-Kiraj (possibly Kangra valley), whose conquest effectively put an end to the kingdom. A large campaign was carried out in Rajasthan which included Mermad (Maru-Mala, in Jaisalmer and north Jodhpur), al-Baylaman (Bhillamala or Bhinmal) and Jurz (Gurjara country—southern Rajasthan and north Gujarat). Another force was sent against Uzayn (Ujjain), which made incursions into its country (Avanti) and some parts of it were destroyed (the city of Baharimad, unidentified). Ujjain itself may not have been conquered. A separate force was also sent against al-Malibah (Malwa, to the east of Ujjain), but the outcome is not recorded; probably successful.

Towards the North, the Arabs attempted to expand into Punjab, but they could not advance beyond Multan. While the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate was a factor in this, art historian Hermann Goetz theorizes that the resistance from Lalitaditya Muktapida, the emperor of Kashmir, may also have played a part in this. Historian Mohibbul Hasan theorizes that Junayd marched towards Kashmir, but was defeated by Lalitaditya. Another force was dispatched south. It subdued Qassa (Kutch), al-Mandal (perhaps Okha), Dahnaj (unidentified), Surast (Saurashtra) and Barus or Barwas (Broach).

The kingdoms weakened or destroyed included the Bhattis of Jaisalmer, the Gurjaras of Bhinmal, the Mauryas of Chittor, the Guhilots of Mewar, the Kacchelas of Kutch, the Maitrakas of Saurashtra and the Gurjaras of Nandipuri. Al-Junayd might be dismissed by the Umayyad Caliphate.

List of ancient Indian cities

This is a list of cities in India thought to have been founded before the 8th century (before the rise of the Pala Empire).

In alphabetical order

For Allahabad,see Prayag.

Amaravati, Andhra

Anga Now as Bhagalpur

Bharuch

Ayadhya Now as kanyakumari

Badayun

Bayana

Bhattiprolu

Bhinmal

Bhubaneswar (Sisupalgarh)

Chandraketugarh

Chunar

Chirand

Cuttack

Dhanyakataka

Dwarka

Guntur

Gwalior

Hampi

Hansi

Harappa

Jajpur

Jhansi

Kalibangan

Kalinjar

Kalpi

Kanchipuram

Kannauj

Kaveripoompattinam

Kodumanal

Kotivarsha (Devkot)

Kumbhoj

Kurukshetra

Lothal

Lashkar

Madurai

Mohenjo-Daro

Muziris

Nalanda

Osian

Paithan

Pataliputra

Pistapura

Prayag Now as Allahabad

Pundravardhana

Pudumadam புதுமடம்

Puri

Pushkar

Quilon(Coulão)

Rajagriha Now as Rajgir

Rajahmahendravaram

Rajapura

Sangrur

Saketa Now as Ayodhya

Sirkap

Sitanagaram

Somnath

Sopara

Sravasti

Tamralipta, now Tamluk

Taxila(earlier Takshashila)

Thanjavur

Tirunelveli

Udayagiri(now Bhopal)

Ujjain(earlier Ujjayini, Avanti)

Urayur

Vadodara(earlier known with following names Viravati, Chandravati, Vadpatra and Baroda)

Vaishali (ancient city)

Vallabhi

Varanasi

Vidisha

Bairat, now Viratnagar

Vijayavatika, now Vijayawada

Vrindavan

List of municipalities in Rajasthan

Rajasthan has 7Municipal Corporations, 34 Municipal Councils and 150 Municipal Boards or Nagar Pachayats. Thus Rajasthan has total 191 Municipalities or Urban Local Bodies(ULBs).

Poonam Chand Vishnoi

Poonam Chand Vishnoi is a former speaker of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly from 7 July 1980 to 20 March 1985. He is a senior leader of Indian National Congress Party in Rajasthan. He hails from Jodhpur region of Rajasthan. He was elected to Rajasthan Legislative Assembly from Bhinmal , Phalodi and Luni , They also served as deputy speaker of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly and Cabinet Minister in Rajasthan Government .

His daughter Vijay laxmi Bishnoi was Member of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly and Parliament Secretary between 1998 and 2003, She is Ex Chief of Woman Wing of Indian National Congress and Several Boards in Rajasthan Government .

Poonam Chand Vishnoi was also fight 1999 Loksabha election from Jodhpur (Lok Sabha constituency) and lost to Jaswant Singh Bishnoi by a small margin.

Poonam Chand Vishnoi was also fourth(IV) pro tem speaker of Rajasthan legislative assembly during the period 28.04.1967 and 02.05.1967.

Poora Ram Choudhary

Poora Ram Choudhary is an Indian politician from the Bharatiya Janata Party and a member of the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly representing the Bhinmal Vidhan Sabha constituency of Rajasthan.

Ramsin

Ramsin is a village in Jalore District of Rajasthan, India. There is an ancient temple called Aapeshwar Mahadeo/ Lord Shiva temple situated here. The temple is on the banks of a river flowing from the Dam Called Vitan towards Sikwara just Near to Apeshwar Temple.

The village is situated on main road network of the district and therefore is a transport hub.

The nearest villages are Sikwara ( 4 km.) Moodatara (7 km), Mandoli Nagar (8 km) and Thur (11 km). The district headquarters Jalore is about 23 km to the north. This town is around 35 km north of Bhinmal,17 km to the south of Bakra, 21 km to the north of Bagra and 21 km to the west of Siyana.

Marwar Bhinmal Railway Station is the nearest railway station, but people are normally using Bhinmal Railway Station due to frequency and convenience.

Raniwara

Raniwara is a City in Jalore District of Rajasthan state in India. Situated 35 km south of the Bhinmal on Jalore-Sanchore road,it is headquarters of the tehsil by Raniwala Kallan. Raniwara is 109 km from Mount Abu and 20 km from the town of Bhinmal.

Raniwara is Connected By Samdari-Bhildi railway line. There is a Big Dairy Plant Of Rajasthan in the town run by Jalore-Sirohi Zila Dugdh Utpadak Sahakari Sangh Ltd. Malwara, Badgaon, Ajodar, Jakhri, Dhanol, Badgaon (Jalore district), Silasan Mokhatra and Raniwara khurd are some of its nearby villages.

The famous Sundha Mata temple is located 20 km From Raniwara. The temple is situated on a hilltop called 'Sundha', at Longitude 72°-22' E and Latitude 24°-50' N.Also situated here is Hinglaj temple. It is the seat of Hinglaj goddess and worshipped by Khatri community.Famous Pipaji temple is also situated here Pipaji was a lok sant worship by Pipa Khatriya community.

References

Shrimali Brahmins

Shrimali Brahmins are believed to have originated from Srimal (the present-day Bhinmal) in Jalore district in the Indian state of Rajasthan.

Sundha Mata Temple

Sundha Mata temple is a nearly 900-year-old temple of Mother goddess situated on a hilltop called Sundha, located at Longitude 72.367°E and Latitude 24.833°N, in Jalore District of Rajasthan. It is 64 km from Mount Abu and 20 km from the town of Bhinmal.

Umayyad campaigns in India

In the first half of the 8th century CE, a series of battles took place between the Umayyad Caliphate and the Indian kingdoms to the east of the Indus river.Subsequent to the Arab conquest of Sindh in present-day Pakistan in 712 CE, Arab armies engaged kingdoms further east of the Indus. Between 724 and 810 CE, a series of battles took place between the Arabs and the north Indian Emperor Nagabhata I of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty, and other small Indian kingdoms. In the north, Nagabhata of the Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty defeated a major Arab expedition in Malwa. From the South, Vikramaditya II sent his general Pulakesi, who defeated the Arabs in Gujarat. Later in 776 CE, a naval expedition by the Arabs was defeated by the Saindhava naval fleet under Agguka I.The Arab defeats led to an end of their eastward expansion, and later manifested in the overthrow of Arab rulers in Sindh itself and the establishment of indigenous Muslim Rajput dynasties (Soomras and Sammas) there.

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