Bhavana

Bhāvanā (Pali;[1] Sanskrit, also bhāvana[2]) literally means "development"[3] or "cultivating"[4] or "producing"[1][2] in the sense of "calling into existence."[5] It is an important concept in Buddhist praxis (Patipatti). The word bhavana normally appears in conjunction with another word forming a compound phrase such as citta-bhavana (the development or cultivation of the heart/mind) or metta-bhavana (the development/cultivation of lovingkindness). When used on its own bhavana signifies contemplation and 'spiritual cultivation' generally.

Etymology

Bhavana derives from the word Bhava meaning becoming or the subjective process of arousing mental states.

To explain the cultural context of the historical Buddha's employment of the term, Glenn Wallis emphasizes bhavana's sense of cultivation. He writes that a farmer performs bhavana when he or she prepares soil and plants a seed. Wallis infers the Buddha's intention with this term by emphasizing the terrain and focus on farming in northern India at the time in the following passage:

I imagine that when Gotama, the Buddha, chose this word to talk about meditation, he had in mind the ubiquitous farms and fields of his native India. Unlike our words 'meditation' or 'contemplation,' Gotama’s term is musty, rich, and verdant. It smells of the earth. The commonness of his chosen term suggests naturalness, everydayness, ordinariness. The term also suggests hope: no matter how fallow it has become, or damaged it may be, a field can always be cultivated — endlessly enhanced, enriched, developed — to produce a favorable and nourishing harvest.[6]

Buddhism

In the Pali Canon bhāvanā is often found in a compound phrase indicating personal, intentional effort over time with respect to the development of that particular faculty. For instance, in the Pali Canon and post-canonical literature one can find the following compounds:

  • citta-bhāvanā, translated as "development of mind"[7][8] or "development of consciousness."
  • kāya-bhāvanā, translated as "development of body."[7]
  • mettā-bhāvanā, translated as the "cultivation"[9] or "development of benevolence."[10]
  • paññā-bhāvanā, translated as "development of wisdom"[11] or "development of understanding."
  • samādhi-bhāvanā, translated as "development of concentration."[12]

In addition, in the Canon, the development (bhāvanā) of samatha-vipassana is lauded.[13] Subsequently, Theravada teachers have made use of the following compounds:

  • samatha-bhāvanā, meaning the development of tranquility.[5]
  • vipassanā-bhāvanā, meaning the development of insight.[5]

The word bhavana is sometimes translated into English as 'meditation' so that, for example, metta-bhavana may be translated as 'the meditation on loving-kindness'. Meditation is properly called dhyana (Sanskrit; Pali: jhāna), as practiced in samādhi, the 8th limb of the eightfold path.

In Jainism

In Jainism, bhāvana refers to "right conception or notion" or "the moral of a fable."[2]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 503, entry for "Bhāvanā," retrieved 9 Dec 2008 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:3558.pali.
  2. ^ a b c Monier-Williams (1899), p. 755, see "Bhāvana" and "Bhāvanā," retrieved 9 Dec 2008 from "U. Cologne" at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/MWScanpdf/mw0755-bhAvodaya.pdf.
  3. ^ See various translations cited in the notes below.
  4. ^ Matthieu Ricard has said this in a talk.
  5. ^ a b c Nyanatiloka (1980), p. 67.
  6. ^ Glenn Wallis, Bhavana: A Guide to Classical Buddhist Meditation, 2009, draft copy, p. 7 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2011-04-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ a b See, e.g., DN 33.1.10(48), trans. by Walshe (1995), p. 486; and, MN 36, trans. by Ñāamoli & Bodhi (2001), pp. 332-343.
    Both DN 33 and MN 36 juxtapose citta-bhāvanā with kāya-bhāvanā. In DN 33, it is said that there are three types of development: of body (kāya), of mind (citta), and of wisdom (paññā). In end notes to MN 36, Bodhi (pp. 1228-29, nn. 382, 384) states that the MN commentary explains that "development of the body" refers to insight and "development of mind" refers to samādhi.
  8. ^ Also see AN 1.22 and 1.24 (a/k/a, AN I,iii,1 and 3), trans. by Thanissaro (2006); and, AN 1.51-52 (a/k/a, AN I,vi,1-2), trans. by Thanissaro (1995), as well as trans. by Nyanaponika & Bodhi (1999), p. 36.
  9. ^ See, e.g., Sn 1.8, Metta Sutta, trans. by Thanissaro (2004). The compound metta-bhāvanā does not actually exist in this sutta, but the sutta famously mentions that one should "cultivate" (bhāvaye) a limitless heart of metta.
  10. ^ See, e.g., Iti. 1.27, trans. by Ireland (1997), pp. 169-70.
  11. ^ See DN 33.1.10(48), trans. by Walshe (1995), p. 486, referenced in note above regarding citta-bhāvanā.
  12. ^ See, e.g., AN 4.41, trans. Thanissaro (1997) (cf. Template:SamadhiBhavana). In addition, see MN 44, Cūḷavedalla Sutta, trans. by Thanissaro (1998a):
    [Layperson Visākha:] "Now what is concentration, lady, what qualities are its themes, what qualities are its requisites, and what is its development [samādhibhāvanāti] ?"
    [Bhikkhuni Dhammadinnā:] "Singleness of mind is concentration, friend Visakha; the four frames of reference are its themes; the four right exertions are its requisites; and any cultivation, development, & pursuit of these qualities is its development."
  13. ^ See, e.g., in MN 151, the Buddha states that a bhikkhu who has developed samatha-vipassana (or any of the seven sets of Enlightenment-conducive qualities) "can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states" (trans., Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi, 2001, p. 1145). Additionally, AN 4.170 identifies three ways in which an arahant develops samatha-vipassana: samatha first; vipassana first; or both in tandem (Nyanaponika & Bodhi, 1999, p. 114; and, Thanissaro, 1998b). See also the paracanonical Nett 91 (Rhys Davids & Stede, 1921-25, p. 503, entry for "Bhāvanā," retrieved 9 Dec 2008 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:3558.pal).

Sources

Bhavana (Kannada actress)

Nandini Ramanna, better known by her stage name Bhavana Ramanna, is an Indian film actress who works predominantly in the Kannada film industry. A bharatanatyam dancer, she has received three Karnataka State Film Awards and acted in Shanti, a film that entered the Guinness Book of Records. Bhavana Ramanna is the director of HomeTown Productions, a production house that conducts dance and music shows. In the run-up to the 2014 general elections, Bhavana Ramanna was named one of the star campaigners for the Congress party in Karnataka, a role she had performed in the 2013 assembly elections in the state. Bhavana Ramanna is reported as being among the contenders for a nomination to the upper house (Vidhana parishad) of the Karnataka legislature in Karnataka, as an MLC.

Bhavana (actress)

Karthika Menon (born 6 June 1986), better known by her stage name Bhavana, is an Indian film actress, who works in South Indian film industry. She has acted in Malayalam, Tamil, Kannada, and Telugu language films, and has established herself as a bankable lead actress. Bhavana made her acting debut in the Malayalam film Nammal in 2002, for which she won the Kerala State Film Award – Special Mention. In a career spanning over a decade, she has appeared in over 80 films and has won two Kerala State Film Awards.

Bhavana Gawali

Bhavana Gawali (born 23 May 1974) is a Shiv Sena member of parliament (MP) representing Yavatmal-Washim, Maharashtra in the 17th Lok Sabha. She has served as MP for this constituency since 1999. She was also a member of the 13th Lok Sabha and 14th Lok Sabha representing the former Washim constituency.

Bhavana Upanishad

The Bhavana Upanishad (Sanskrit: भावन उपनिषद्, IAST: Bhāvana Upaniṣad) is a medieval era minor Upanishad of Hinduism. Composed in Sanskrit, the text is classified as one of the Shakta Upanishads and attached to the Atharvaveda. The Upanishad identifies the human body as Srichakra yantra and elaborates on this theme, and its worship.

Buddhist meditation

Buddhist meditation is the practice of meditation in Buddhism. The closest words for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism are bhāvanā ("mental development") and jhāna/dhyāna (mental training resulting in a calm and luminous mind).Buddhists pursue meditation as part of the path toward liberation, awakening and Nirvana, and includes a variety of meditation techniques, most notably asubha bhavana ("reflections on repulsiveness"); reflection on pratityasamutpada (dependent origination); sati (mindfulness) and anussati (recollections), including anapanasati (breath meditation); dhyana (developing an alert and luminous mind); and the Brahma-viharas (loving-kindness and compassion). These techniques aim to develop equanimity and sati (mindfulness); samadhi (concentration) c.q. samatha (tranquility) and vipassanā (insight); and are also said to lead to abhijñā (supramundane powers). These meditation techniques are preceded by and combined with practices which aid this development, such as moral restraint and right effort to develop wholesome states of mind.

While these techniques are used across Buddhist schools, there is also significant diversity. In the Theravada tradition, reflecting developments in early Buddhism, meditation techniques are classified as either samatha (calming the mind) and vipassana (gaining insight). Chinese and Japanese Buddhism preserved a wide range of meditation techniques, which go back to early Buddhism, most notably Sarvastivada. In Tibetan Buddhism, deity yoga includes visualisations, which precede the realization of sunyata ("emptiness").

Dharma (Jainism)

Jain texts assign a wide range of meaning to the Sanskrit dharma or Prakrit dhamma. It is often translated as “religion” and as such, Jainism is called Jain Dharma by its adherents.

In Jainism, the word Dharma is used to refer the following:

Religion

Dharma as a dravya (substance or a reality) (the principle of motion)

The true nature of a thing

Ten virtues like forgiveness, etc. also called ten forms of Dharma

Gopinath Kaviraj

Gopinath Kaviraj (7 September 1887 – 12 June 1976) was a Sanskrit-Tantra scholar, Indologist and philosopher. First appointed in 1914 a librarian, he was the Principal of Government Sanskrit College, Varanasi from 1923 to 1937. He was also the editor of the Sarasvati Bhavana Granthamala (Sarasvati Bhavana Texts) during that period.

In 1964 he received the Sahitya Akademi Award, given by the Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters, for his research treatise on Tantra, Tantrik Vangmaya Men Shaktadrishti. In the same year he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian honour given by Government of India. In 1971 he was conferred the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship, the highest literary honour awarded by the Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters.

High View, West Virginia

High View is an unincorporated community in Hampshire County, West Virginia, United States. It is located south of Capon Bridge along West Virginia Route 259 on the Virginia line. High View is home to the Bhavana Society Forest Monastery and Retreat Center. According to the 2000 census, the High View community has a population of 791.

Kala Bhavana

Kala Bhavana (Institute of Fine Arts) is a noted institution of education and research in visual arts, founded in 1919, it is the fine arts faculty of the Visva-Bharati University, Shantiniketan, established by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore.

List of Malayalam films of 2003

The following is a list of Malayalam films released in the year 2003.

List of Malayalam films of 2005

The following is a list of Malayalam films released in the year 2005.

List of Malayalam films of 2006

The following is a list of Malayalam films released in the year 2006.

Mettā

Mettā (Pali) or maitrī (Sanskrit) means benevolence, loving-kindness, friendliness, amity, good will, and active interest in others. It is the first of the four sublime states (Brahmaviharas) and one of the ten pāramīs of the Theravāda school of Buddhism.

The cultivation of benevolence (mettā bhāvanā) is a popular form of Buddhist meditation. It is a part of the four immeasurables in Brahmavihara (divine abidings) meditation. Metta as 'compassion meditation' is often practiced in Asia by broadcast chanting, wherein monks chant for the laity.The compassion and universal loving-kindness concept of Metta is discussed in the Metta Sutta of Buddhism, and is also found in the ancient and medieval texts of Hinduism and Jainism as Metta or Maitri.Small sample studies on the potential of loving-kindness meditation approach on patients suggest potential benefits. However, peer reviews question the quality and sample size of these studies, then suggest caution.

Nammal

Nammal (English: Us) is a 2002 Indian Malayalam-language romantic comedy-drama film directed by Kamal and written by Kalavoor Ravikumar. The film features Sidharth Bharathan, Jishnu Raghavan, Renuka Menon, and Bhavana in the lead roles. It was the debut film of Sidharth, Renuka, and Bhavana. The music was composed by Mohan Sithara. The film was shot in Government Engineering College, Thrissur and Holy Trinity School, Kanjikode.Nammal was released on 20 December 2002 and was a commercial success at the box office. The film received three Kerala State Film Awards—Best Film with Popular Appeal and Aesthetic Value, Special Mention (Bhavana), and Best Art Director. It was remade in Telugu as Dost (2004).

Robin Hood (2009 film)

Robinn Hood, also known Robin Hood, is a 2009 Indian Malayalam-language crime thriller film directed by Joshiy and written by Sachi-Sethu. The film stars Prithviraj Sukumaran, Narain, Bhavana, Jayasurya, Biju Menon, and Samvrutha Sunil. It was released on 24 September 2009.

Shantiniketan

Shantiniketan or Santiniketan is a neighbourhood in Bolpur city in Bolpur subdivision of Birbhum district in West Bengal, India, approximately 165 km north of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta). It was established by Maharshi Devendranath Tagore, and later expanded by his son Rabindranath Tagore whose vision became what is now a university town with the creation of the Visva-Bharati University.

Veyil

Veyil (English: Summer) is a 2006 Indian Tamil-language drama film written and directed by Vasanthabalan. Bharath and Pasupathy are the male leads whereas Bhavana, Priyanka and Sriya Reddy plays the female leads. Upon release, the movie met with highly positive reviews and was commercially successful.

Visva-Bharati University

Visva-Bharati University (Bengali: [biʃːɔbʱaroti]) is a public central university located in Santiniketan, West Bengal, India. It was founded by Rabindranath Tagore who called it Visva-Bharati, which means the communion of the world with India. Until independence it was a college. Soon after independence, in 1951, the institution was given the status of a university and was renamed Visva-Bharati University. The English daily, The Nation, notes, "Using the money he received with his Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, the school was expanded and renamed Visva-Bharati University. It grew to become one of India's most renowned places of higher learning, with a list of alumni that includes Nobel-winning economist Amartya Sen, globally renowned filmmaker Satyajit Ray and the country's leading art historian R. Siva Kumar, to name just a few."

Yavatmal–Washim (Lok Sabha constituency)

Yavatmal–Washim Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 48 Lok Sabha (lower house of the Indian parliament) constituencies of Maharashtra state in western India. This constituency was created on 19 February 2008 as a part of the implementation of the Presidential notification based on the recommendations of the Delimitation Commission of India constituted on 12 July 2002. It held its first election in 2009 which was won by Bhavana Gawali of Shiv Sena. As of the 2014 elections, Gawali represents this constituency.

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