Betta

Betta, /ˈbɛtə/ is a large genus of small, often colorful, freshwater ray-finned fishes, known as "bettas", in the gourami family (Osphronemidae).[1] The best known Betta species is B. splendens, commonly known as the Siamese fighting fish.

Betta
Betta albimarginata 060311 8
Betta albimarginata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Anabantiformes
Family: Osphronemidae
Subfamily: Macropodusinae
Genus: Betta
Bleeker, 1850
Type species
Betta trifasciata
Bleeker, 1850
Synonyms
  • Anostoma van Hasselt, 1859
  • Micracanthus Sauvage, 1879
  • Parophiocephalus Popta, 1905
  • Oshimia D. S. Jordan, 1919
  • Pseudobetta Richter, 1981

Characteristics

All the Betta species are small fishes, but they vary considerably in size, ranging from under 2.5 cm (1 in) total length in B. chanoides to 12.5 cm (5 in) in the Akar betta (B. akarensis).[1]

Bettas are anabantoids, which means they can breathe atmospheric air using a unique organ called the labyrinth. This accounts for their ability to thrive in low-oxygen water conditions that would kill most other fish, such as rice paddies, slow-moving streams, drainage ditches, and large puddles.[2]

The bettas exhibit two kinds of spawning behaviour: some build bubble nests, such as B. splendens, while others are mouthbrooders, such as B. picta. The mouthbrooding species are sometimes called "pseudo bettas", and are sometimes speculated to have evolved from the nest-builders in an adaptation to their fast-moving stream habitats.[3]

A phylogenetic study published in 2004 concluded tentatively that bubble-nesting was the ancestral condition in Betta, and that mouthbrooding has evolved on more than one occasion in the history of the genus. However it was unable to establish a correlation with any of three habitat variables studied: whether a species was found in lowland or highland streams, whether it was found in peat swamp forests, and whether it was found in water with fast or slow currents.[4] Mouthbrooding species tend to exhibit less sexual dimorphism, perhaps because they do not need to defend a territory as the bubble-nesters do.[4]

Name

Siamese fighting fish (B. splendens) are frequently sold in the United States simply as "bettas". In fact, as of 2017, around 73 species are classified within the genus Betta.[1] A useful distinction is that while the generic name Betta is italicized and capitalized, when used as a common name it is usually neither italicized nor capitalized.[5] The common name of B. pugnax, for example, is thus Penang betta.

Kampffisch betta splendenscele4
Betta splendens, the Siamese fighting fish, is often referred to simply as a "betta" in the U.S.

The name Betta (or betta) is pronounced /ˈbɛtə/;[5] the first part is the same as the English word bet. The name is often pronounced /ˈbeɪtə/ in American English, and may be spelled with one 't'. The name of the genus is derived from the Malay word ikan betah ("persistent fish").[6]

The vernacular name "plakat", often applied to the short-finned ornamental strains, derived from pla kad which means "fighting fish", is the Thai name for all members of the B. splendens species complex (All have aggressive tendencies in the wild and all are extensively line-bred for aggression in eastern Thailand). The Thai phrase is not restricted to one specific strain. The term "fighting fish" is generalized to all members of the B. splendens species complex, including the Siamese fighting fish.[7][8]

Diet

Wild Betta fish are hardy and eat almost any animal small enough for these small fish to consume, including worms, larvae of mosquitoes or other insects, and smaller fish. Their natural environment is often resource-limited, so many Betta species have little choice of food.

Conservation

While many Betta species are common and B. splendens is ubiquitous in the aquarium trade, other bettas are threatened. The IUCN Red List classifies several Betta species as Vulnerable. In addition, B. livida is Endangered, and B. miniopinna, B. persephone, and B. spilotogena are Critically Endangered.[9]

The United Nations Environment Programme lists an unconfirmed species, Betta cf. tomi, as having become extinct in Singapore between 1970 and 1994.[10] This likely refers to the extirpated Singaporean population of B. tomi, which continues to exist in the wild in Indonesia and Malaysia, as well as in captivity; the Red List classifies it as Vulnerable.[11][12]

Species

There are currently 73 recognized species in this genus. The currently described Betta species can be grouped into complexes for conservation purposes. (This grouping of species makes no claim at representing a phylogenetic reality.) The complexes of the associated species are:[1] [13] [14]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2014). Species of Betta in FishBase. February 2014 version.
  2. ^ Marcus Song, Caring for Betta Fish Lulu Press, 2006. ISBN 1-4116-9365-5
  3. ^ Fernando, Yohan. "Betta edithae - a Pseudo Betta?". International Betta Congress Species Maintenance Program. Retrieved 2017-01-30.
  4. ^ a b Rüber, Lukas; Britz, Ralf; Tan, Heok Hui; Ng, Peter K. L.; Zardoya, Rafael (April 2004). "Evolution of Mouthbrooding and Life-History Correlates in the Fighting Fish Genus Betta". Evolution. Society for the Study of Evolution. 53 (4): 799–813. doi:10.1554/03-364. JSTOR 3449277.
  5. ^ a b "Betta". American Heritage Dictionary (4th ed.). Archived from the original on 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2006-06-29.
  6. ^ "Common Names Summary - Betta picta". Fishbase.org. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  7. ^ "Betta splendens – Siamese Fighting Fish (Micracanthus marchei)". Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  8. ^ americanaquariumproducts.com. "Betta Fish Information; Plakats, Veiltails, Halfmoon, Crowntail". www.americanaquariumproducts.com. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  9. ^ "2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". Retrieved 2006-06-30.
  10. ^ "Extinctions since 1970". United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2006-07-01.
  11. ^ Kottelat, M. (1996). "Betta tomi". 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2006-07-01.
  12. ^ "Betta tomi". International Betta Congress Species Maintenance Program. Archived from the original on 2013-04-14. Retrieved 2006-07-01.
  13. ^ "Species Complex Management". International Betta Congress Species Maintenance Program. Retrieved 2006-07-01.
  14. ^ "Betta". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 30 June 2006.
  15. ^ Tan Heok Hui (2009). "Betta pardalotos, a new species of fighting fish (Teleostei: Osphronemidae) from Sumatra, Indonesia". The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 57 (2): 501–504.

External links

2004 Betta Electrical Sandown 500

The 2004 Betta Electrical Sandown 500 the ninth round of the Australian 2004 V8 Supercar Championship Series. It was held on the weekend of the 10 to 12 September at Sandown International Raceway in Melbourne, Victoria.

It was the 37th "Sandown 500" endurance race to be held at the Victorian circuit.

2006 Betta Electrical 500

The 2006 Betta Electrical 500 was an endurance motor race for V8 Supercars. It was held on 3 September 2006 at Sandown International Raceway in Victoria, Australia, and was the eighth round of the 2006 V8 Supercar Championship Series.

The race was the 39th in a sequence of "Sandown long distances races" which are commonly referred to under the Sandown 500 name.

Betta Kurumba language

The Betta Kurumba language (Beṭṭa Kurumba) is a Dravidian language closely related to Tamil, and is spoken by 32,000 people in the Nilgiri mountains and in adjoining areas in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.

Beṭṭa (ಬೆಟ್ಟ) means “hills” in Kannada.

Betta St. John

Betta St. John (born Betty Jean Striegler, November 26, 1929) is an American actress, singer and dancer.

Born in Hawthorne, California, St. John made her film debut at the age of ten in Destry Rides Again (1939) and as an orphan in Jane Eyre (1943). She was discovered by Rodgers and Hammerstein and played a small role in the Broadway musical Carousel in 1945. By 1949, she created the role of Liat in the musical South Pacific on Broadway and followed the production to London.

On film, St. John portrayed a princess being courted by Cary Grant in the 1953 film Dream Wife. She also had featured roles in The Robe (1953), All the Brothers Were Valiant (1953), The Student Prince (1954), and top billing in High Tide at Noon (1957). St. John appeared in two Tarzan films and ended her career as the heroine of Horror Hotel (1960). She continued to act in films and television until 1965 when she retired.

Bubble nest

Bubble nests, also called foam nests, are created by some fish and frog species as floating masses of bubbles blown with an oral secretion, saliva bubbles, and occasionally aquatic plants. Fish that build and guard bubble nests are known as aphrophils. Aphrophils include gouramis (including Betta species) and the synbranchid eel Monopterus alba in Asia, Ctenopoma (Anabantidae), Polycentropsis (Nandidae), and Hepsetus odoe (the only member of Hepsetidae) in Africa, and callichthyines and the electric eel in South America. Most, if not all, fish that construct floating bubble nests live in tropical, oxygen-depleted standing waters. Anabantidae are the most commonly recognized family of bubble nest makers. The nests are constructed as a place for fertilized eggs to be deposited while incubating and guarded by the male until the fry hatch.

Bubble nests can also be found in the habitats of domesticated male Betta fish. Nests found in these types of habitats indicate a healthy and happy fish.

Doddabetta

Doddabetta (தொட்டபெட்டா) is the highest mountain in the Nilgiri Mountains at 2,637 metres (8,650 feet). There is a reserved forest area around the peak. It is 9 km from Ooty, on the Ooty-Kotagiri Road in the Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu, India. It is a popular tourist attraction with road access to the summit. It is the fourth highest peak in South India next to Anamudi, Mannamalai and Meesapulimala. The peaks Hecuba (2375 m), Kattadadu (2418 m) and Kulkudi (2439 m) are the three closely linked summits in the west of the Doddabetta range near to Udagamandalam.

Etta Is Betta Than Evvah!

Etta Is Betta Than Evvah! is the thirteenth studio album by Etta James, released in 1976.

Football League (Greece)

The Football League, is the second highest professional football league in Greece, being a feeder-league to the top-level Super League.

Kuruba

Kuruba (also known as Kuruba Gowda, Kuruba, Kuruma and Kurumbar) is a Hindu caste native to the Indian state of Karnataka, where it is the third largest caste group. Like Yadava and Dhangar, the community's traditional occupation was shepherding.

Male Mahadeshwara Hills

Male Mahadeshwara Betta is a pilgrim town located in the Hanur taluk of Chamarajanagara district of southern Karnataka. It is situated at about 150 km from Mysuru and about 210 km from Bengaluru. The ancient and sacred temple of Sri Male Mahadeshwara is a Shaiva pilgrim centre and one of the most powerful shiva temples. It draws lakhs of pilgrims from the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The area of the present temple surroundings is 155.57 acres (0.6296 km2). In addition, the temple has lands at Talabetta, Haleyuru and Indiganatha villages. Amidst dense forest, the temple attracts not only the pilgrims but also nature lovers. The height of the hill is about 3000 feet above sea level.

The Mahadeshwara Temple at Male Mahadeshwara Hill was built by Junje Gowda, a rich Kuruba Gowda Landlord.The Lord Sri Mahadeshwara is believed to be the incarnation of Lord Shiva. Historical evidences suggest that the Saint Mahadeshwara must have lived during the 15th century. About 600 years ago, he came here to perform penance and it is believed that he is still performing penance in the temple's garbha gudi in the form of a linga. The linga, worshipped now in the garbha gudi, is a self-manifested (swayambhu) one. Sri Male Mahadeshwara Swamy was moving on a tiger known as Huli Vahana (Tiger as a vehicle) and performed a number of miracles around the Betta to save the people and saints living there. The Lord Sri Mahadeshwara's miracles are sometimes sung by the village folk in Janapada Style.

Nandi Hills, India

Nandi Hills or Nandi betta (Anglicised forms include Nandidurg and Nandydoorg) is an ancient hill fortress in southern India, in the Chikkaballapur district of Karnataka state. It is 10 km from Chickballapur town and approximately 60 km from the city of Bengaluru. The hills are nestled near the town of Nandi. In traditional belief, the hills are the origin of the Arkavathy river,Ponnaiyar River, Palar River and Penna River.

New Electricity Trading Arrangements

New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) is the system of market trading arrangements under which electricity is traded in the United Kingdom's wholesale electricity market as of 27 March 2001. The arrangements provided that parties could trade off their imbalances close to real time.

Phi Beta Kappa

The Phi Beta Kappa Society (ΦΒΚ) is the oldest academic honor society in the United States, and is often described as its most prestigious honor society, due to its long history and academic selectivity. Phi Beta Kappa aims to promote and advocate excellence in the liberal arts and sciences, and to induct the most outstanding students of arts and sciences at American colleges and universities. It was founded at the College of William and Mary on December 5, 1776 as the first collegiate Greek-letter fraternity and was among the earliest collegiate fraternal societies.Phi Beta Kappa (ΦΒΚ) stands for Φιλοσοφία Βίου Κυβερνήτης (Philosophia Biou Kybernētēs), which means "Love of wisdom is the guide of life" or "Philosophy is the governor of one's life."

Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary

Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary is one of 21 Wildlife Sanctuaries of India's Karnataka state.

This sanctuary is located in Somwarpet taluk of the Kodagu district. It is home to rare and endangered birdlife. The Kadamakkal reserve forest is a part of the sanctuary. Pushpagiri (Kumara Parvatha) is the highest peak in it.The sanctuary adjoins Bisle reserve forest to the north and Kukke Subramanya forest range to the west.

Mandalpatti peak, Kote betta and Makkalagudi betta are mountains fall in the sanctuary. Mallalli falls and Kote abbe waterfalls (also called as Mukkodlu falls) are located inside the sanctuary. The Pushpagiri Wildlife Sancutuary has been proposed as one of the World Heritage Site.

Shiraadi

Shiradi is a village on NH-48 (NH-75 at present) which runs from Mangalore to Bangalore. The village is situated in Puttur taluk of Dakshina Kannada district. The nearest town is Nelyadi which is at a distance of approximately 15 km. The ghat section of Western ghats through which NH-48 passes is called Shiradi Ghat.

Once you reach Shiradi, you need to travel a few hundred meters where you reach a bridge taking right there you need to start trekking to reach the spot "Ombathhu Gudda". Gundya, Kempuhole, Maranahalli, Kadamane tea estate, Heggadde, Donigal and Manjarabad Fort are the places located on the Shiradi Ghat. Aramane Betta, Venkatagiri, Mugilagiri, Are Betta and Yedakumeri are the popular trekking spots.

Siamese fighting fish

The Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), commonly known as the betta, is a popular fish in the aquarium trade. Bettas are a member of the gourami family and are known to be highly territorial. Males in particular are prone to high levels of aggression and will attack each other if housed in the same tank. If there is no means of escape, this will usually result in the death of one or both of the fish. Female bettas can also become territorial towards each other if they are housed in too small an aquarium. It is typically not recommended to keep male and female bettas together, except temporarily for breeding purposes which should always be undertaken with caution.This species is native to the Mekong basin of Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and mostly found at Chao Phraya river in Thailand. The fish can be found in standing waters of canals, rice paddies and floodplains. It is listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN.

Tamil languages

The Tamil languages are the group of Dravidian languages most closely related to Tamil. In addition to Tamil itself, they are:

Irula, Betta Kurumba, Yerukala, Eravallan, Kanikkaran, Muthuvan, Sholaga, Kaikadi and some more languages.Arwi is a variety of Tamil used by Muslims. It is written in the Arabic alphabet and contains many loans from Arabic.

Tarzan and the Lost Safari

Tarzan and the Lost Safari is a 1957 action adventure film featuring Edgar Rice Burroughs' famous jungle hero Tarzan and starring Gordon Scott, Robert Beatty, Yolande Donlan and Betta St. John. Directed by H. Bruce Humberstone, it was the first Tarzan film released in color, Eastman Color. It was also MGM's first Tarzan film since 1942 and filmed in Nairobi, British East Africa. The character of Jane does not appear in this motion picture.

Ya Betta Believe It

"Ya Betta Believe It" is the third and final single from The Originators, a 2002 album by East Coast hip hop group The Beatnuts. It was released by Landspeed Records as a 12 inch with "U Crazy" as its United States b-side and "Bring the Funk Back" as its United Kingdom b-side. The song is produced by The Beatnuts and features raps by Juju and Psycho Les, as well as a chorus sung by Chris Chandler. The song's lyrics tell of The Beatnuts' rise to becoming a well-respected group. The song's beat is characterized by a slow funk loop sampled from "Family" by Hubert Laws.

The song received mixed critical attention: Kingsley Marshmallow of Allmusic considers its lyrics to be both "uninspired" and "geographically challenged" in reference to various shout-outs during the song. Low Key of MVRemix.com also critiques the song claiming it sounds "forced" and "stale." Nonetheless, Steve "Flash" Juon of RapReviews.com praises the song's "disco funk stylings" and claims that Psycho Les' verse was amongst his "best in half a decade."

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