Berthe Morisot

Berthe Marie Pauline Morisot (French: [mɔʁizo]; January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) was a painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists. She was described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Marie Bracquemond and Mary Cassatt.[1]

In 1864, Morisot exhibited for the first time in the highly esteemed Salon de Paris. Sponsored by the government and judged by Academicians, the Salon was the official, annual exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris. Her work was selected for exhibition in six subsequent Salons[2] until, in 1874, she joined the "rejected" Impressionists in the first of their own exhibitions, which included Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley. It was held at the studio of the photographer Nadar.

Morisot was married to Eugène Manet, the brother of her friend and colleague Édouard Manet.

Berthe Morisot
Madame Eugène Manet
Morisot berthe photo
Berthe Morisot
Born
Berthe Marie Pauline Morisot

January 14, 1841
Bourges, Cher, France
DiedMarch 2, 1895 (aged 54)
Paris, France
Resting placeCimetière de Passy
NationalityFrench
Known forPainting
Notable work
The Cradle, View of Paris from the Trocadero, After Lunch, Summer's Day
MovementImpressionism
Spouse(s)
Eugène Manet
(m. 1874; died 1892)

Early life and education

Berthe Morisot 006
Berthe Morisot, Portrait de Mme Morisot et de sa fille Mme Pontillon ou La lecture (The Mother and Sister of the Artist – Marie-Joséphine & Edma) 1869/70

Morisot was born in Bourges, France, into an affluent bourgeois family. Her father, Edmé Tiburce Morisot, was the prefect (senior administrator) of the department of Cher. He also studied architecture at École des Beaux Arts.[3] Her mother, Marie-Joséphine-Cornélie Thomas, was the great-niece of Jean-Honoré Fragonard, one of the most prolific Rococo painters of the ancien régime.[4] She had two older sisters, Yves (1838–1893) and Edma (1839–1921), plus a younger brother, Tiburce, born in 1848. The family moved to Paris in 1852, when Morisot was a child.

It was commonplace for daughters of bourgeois families to receive art education, so Berthe and her sisters Yves and Edma were taught privately by Geoffroy-Alphonse Chocarne and Joseph Guichard. Morisot and her sisters initially started taking lessons so that they could each make a drawing for their father for his birthday.[3] In 1857 Guichard, who ran a school for girls in Rue des Moulins, introduced Berthe and Edma to the Louvre gallery where they could learn by looking and from 1858 they learned by copying paintings. The Morisots were not only forbidden to work at the museum unchaperoned, but they were also totally barred from formal training.[5] However, the museum served another key purpose, because it enabled them to get acquainted with young male artists, such as Manet and Monet.[5]

He also introduced them to the works of Gavarni.[6] Guichard later became the director of École des Beaux Arts where Morisot's father earned his degree.[3] In 1861 Guichard introduced Berthe to Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, a French painter, who influenced her early landscapes.[7][8]

As art students, Berthe and Edma worked closely together until 1869, when Edma married Adolphe Pontillon, a naval officer, moved to Cherbourg and had less time to paint. Letters between the sisters show a loving relationship, underscored by Berthe's regret at the distance between them and Edma's withdrawal from painting. Edma wholeheartedly supported Berthe's continued work and their families always remained close. Edma wrote "… I am often with you in thought, dear Berthe. I’m in your studio and I like to slip away, if only for a quarter of an hour, to breathe that atmosphere that we shared for many years…".[9][10][11]

Her sister Yves married Theodore Gobillard, a tax inspector, in 1866 and was painted by Edgar Degas as Mrs Theodore Gobillard (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).[9][10][12]

Morisot registered as a copyist at the Louvre where she befriended other artists and teachers including Camille Corot, the pivotal landscape painter of the Barbizon school who also excelled in figure painting. In 1860, under Corot's influence she took up the plein air (outdoors) method of working. By 1863 she was studying under Achille Oudinot, another Barbizon painter. In the winter of 1863–64 she studied sculpture under Aimé Millet, but none of her sculpture is known to survive.[6]

Main periods of Morisot's work

Training, 1857–1870

It is hard to trace the stages of Morisot's training and to tell the exact influence of her teachers because she was never pleased with her work and she destroyed nearly all of the artworks she produced before 1869. Her first teacher, Geoffroy-Alphonse Chocarne, taught her the basics of drawing. After several months, Morisot began to take classes taught by Joseph Guichard. During this period, she found her talents in drawing and drew mostly ancient classical figures. When Morisot expressed her interests in plein-air painting, Guichard sent her to follow Camille Corot and Achille Oudinot. Painting outdoor, she played with the light and time with the use of watercolors which are easy to carry. At that time, Morisot also became interested in pastel.[13]

Watercolorist, 1870–1874

During this period, Morisot practiced watercolors for most of the time. Her choice of colors is rather restrained; however, the delicate repetition of hues renders a balanced effect. Due to specific characteristics of watercolors as a medium, Morisot was able to create a translucent atmosphere and feathery touch, which contribute to the freshness in her paintings. In fact, between 1870 and 1873, Morisot still found oil painting difficult and she could only apply her watercolor works to the oil paintings.[14]

Impressionism, 1875–1885

During this time, Morisot felt more confident about oil painting, and she would paint in oil, watercolor and pastel at the same time, as Degas did. Morisot painted very quickly but she also prepared a lot in advance. Firstly, she made countless studies of her subject matter. Her subjects were repeatedly drawn from her life so she became quite familiar with them. Morisot did much sketching as preparation, so she could paint "a mouth, eyes, and a nose with a single brushstroke." Secondly, when it became inconvenient to paint outdoors, the highly finished watercolors done in the preparatory stages allowed her to continue painting indoors later.[15]

Turning, 1885–1887

Since 1885, drawing began to dominate in Morisot's works. Morisot actively experimented with charcoals and color pencils. What seems paradoxical is that her reviving interest in drawing was motivated by her Impressionist friends, who are known for blurring forms. Morisot put her emphasis on the clarification of the form and lines during this period. In addition, she was under the influence of developing technology of photography and Japonisme, shown in her composition without a clear center.[16]

Synthesis, 1887–1895

Morisot started to use the technique of squaring and the medium of tracing paper to transcribe her drawing to the canvas exactly. By employing this new method, Morisot was able to create brand-new types of compositions where more complicated interaction between figures in the paintings and the numerous adjustments emerged. She stressed the composition and the forms while her impressionist brushstrokes still remained. Her original synthesis of the impressionist touch with broad strokes and light reflections and the graphic approach featured by clear lines made her late works distinctive.[17]

Style and technique

Being a female artist, Morisot's paintings were often labelled as being full of "feminine charm" by male critics, for their elegance and lightness. In 1890, Morisot wrote in a notebook about her struggles to be taken seriously as an artist: "I don't think there has ever been a man who treated a woman as an equal and that's all I would have asked for, for I know I'm worth as much as they." Her light brushstrokes often led to critics using the verb "effleurer" (to touch lightly, brush against) to describe her technique. In her early life, Morisot painted in open air as other Impressionists to look for truths in observation.[18] Around 1880 she began painting on unprimed canvases—a technique Manet and Eva Gonzalès also experimented with at the time[19]—and her brushwork became looser. In 1888–89, her brushstrokes transitioned from short, rapid strokes to long, sinuous ones that define form.[20] The outer edges of her paintings were often left unfinished, allowing the canvas to show through and increasing the sense of spontaneity. After 1885, she worked mostly from preliminary drawings before beginning her oil paintings.[21] She also worked in oil paint, watercolors, and pastel simultaneously, and sketched using various drawing media. Morisot's works are almost always small in scale.

Morisot creates a sense of space and depth through the use of color. Although her color palette was somehow limited, her fellow impressionists regarded her as a "virtuoso colorist".[21] She typically made expansive use of white to create a sense of transparency, whether used as a pure white or mixed with other colors. In her large painting, The Cherry Tree, colors are more vivid but are still used to emphasize form.[21]

Furthermore, it is no wonder that the style and techniques that Morisot applied were greatly inspired by her Impressionist friends. Inspired by Manet's drawings, she kept the use of color to the minimum when constructing a motif. Responding to the experiments conducted by Édouard Manet and Edgar Degas, Morisot used barely tinted whites to harmonize the paintings. Like Degas, she played with three media simultaneously in one painting: watercolor, pastel, and oil paints. In the second half of her career, she learned from Renoir by mimicking his motifs.[18] She also shared an interest in keeping a balance between the density of figures and the atmospheric traits of light with Renoir in her later works.[22]

Subjects

Morisot painted what she experienced on a daily basis. Most of her paintings include domestic scenes about family, children, ladies, and flowers, depicting what women's life was like in the late nineteenth century. Instead of portraying the public space and the society, Morisot preferred private, intimate scenes.[18] It somehow reflects the cultural restrictions of her class and gender at that time. Like her fellow Impressionist Mary Cassatt, she focused on domestic life and portraits in which she could use family and personal friends as models, including her daughter Julie and sister Edma. The stenographic presentation of her daily life conveys a strong hope to stop the fleeting passage of time.[18] By portraying flowers, she used metaphors to celebrate womanhood.[23] Prior to the 1860s, Morisot painted subjects in line with the Barbizon school before turning to scenes of contemporary femininity.[24] Paintings like The Cradle (1872), in which she depicted current trends for nursery furniture, reflect her sensitivity to fashion and advertising, both of which would have been apparent to her female audience. Her works also include landscapes, garden settings, boating scenes, and theme of boredom or ennui.[18] Later in her career Morisot worked with more ambitious themes, such as nudes.[25] In her late works, she often referred to the past to recall the memory of her earlier life and youth, and her departed companions.[18]

Impressionism

Berthe Morisot 005
Berthe Morisot, Grain field, c. 1875, Musée d'Orsay

Morisot's first appearance in the Salon de Paris came at the age of twenty-three in 1864, with the acceptance of two landscape paintings. She continued to show regularly in the Salon, to generally favorable reviews, until 1873, the year before the first Impressionist exhibition. She exhibited with the Impressionists from 1874 onwards, only missing the exhibition in 1878 when her daughter was born.[26]

Impressionism's alleged attachment to brilliant color, sensual surface effects, and fleeting sensory perceptions led a number of critics to assert in retrospect that this style, once primarily the battlefield of insouciant, combative males, was inherently feminine and best suited to women's weaker temperaments, lesser intellectual capabilities, and greater sensibility.[27]

During Morisot's 1874 exhibition with the Impressionists, such as Monet and Manet, Le Figaro critic Albert Wolff noted that the Impressionists consisted of "five or six lunatics of which one is a woman...[whose] feminine grace is maintained amid the outpourings of a delirious mind."[5]

Morisot's mature career began in 1872. She found an audience for her work with Durand-Ruel, the private dealer, who bought twenty-two paintings. In 1877, she was described by the critic for Le Temps as the "one real Impressionist in this group."[28] She chose to exhibit under her full maiden name instead of using a pseudonym or her married name.[29] As her skill and style improved, many began to rethink their opinion toward Morisot. In the 1880 exhibition, many reviews judged Morisot among the best, even including Le Figaro critic Albert Wolff.[30]

Jeune Fille au Manteau Vert by Berthe Morisot
Jeune Fille au Manteau Vert by Berthe Morisot. Oil on canvas, c. 1894

Personal life

Morisot came from an eminent family, the daughter of a government official and the granddaughter of a famous Rococo artist Jean-Honoré Fragonard.[31] She met her longtime friend and colleague, Édouard Manet, in 1868. By the introduction of Manet, Morisot was married to Édouard's brother, Eugène Manet in 1874. On 14 November 1878, she gave birth to her only child, Julie, who posed frequently for her mother and other Impressionist artists, including Renoir and her uncle Édouard. Morisot had a close relationship with Édouard Manet who exerted a tremendous influence on her. Correspondence between them shows warm affection, and Manet gave her an easel as a Christmas present. Morisot often posed for Manet and there are several portrait painting of Morisot such as Repose (Portrait of Berthe Morisot) and Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet.[32] Morisot died on March 2, 1895, in Paris, of pneumonia contracted while attending to her daughter Julie's similar illness, and thus making her an orphan at the age of 16. She was interred in the Cimetière de Passy.

Works

La Coiffure - Berthe Morisot
La Coiffure, 1894

Selection of works

This list is incomplete, you can help by expanding it with certified entries.

This limited selection is based in part on the book Berthe Morisot by Charles F. Stuckey, William P. Scott and Susan G. Lindsay, which is in turn drawn from the 1961 catalogue by Marie-Louise Bataille, Rouaart Denis and Georges Wildenstein. There are variations between the dates of execution, first showing and purchase. Titles may vary between sources.

1864–1874

  • Étude, 1864, oil on canvas, 60.3 × 73 cm, private collection[33]
  • Chaumière en Normandie, 1865, oil on canvas, 46 × 55 cm, private collection[34]
  • La Seine en aval du pont d'Iéna, 1866, oil on canvas, 51 × 73 cm, private collection[35]
  • La Rivière de Pont Aven à Roz-Bras, 1867, oil on canvas, 55 × 73 cm, private collection – Chicago[36]
  • Bateaux à l'aurore, 1869, pastel on paper, 19.7 × 26.7 cm, private collection[37]
  • Jeune fille à sa fenêtre, 1869, oil on canvas, 36.8 × 45.4 cm, private collection
  • Madame Morisot et sa fille Madame Pontillon (La Lecture), 1869–1870, oil on canvas, 101 × 81.8 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.[38]
  • Le Port de Cherbourg, 1871, crayon and watercolour on paper, 15.6 × 20.3 cm, private collection of Paul Mellon, Upperville, Virginia[39]
  • Le Port de Cherbourg, 1871, oil on canvas, 41.9 × 55.9 cm, private collection of Paul Mellon, Upperville, Virginia[40]
  • Vue de paris de hauteurs du Trocadéro, 1871, oil on canvas, 46.1 × 81.5 cm, Santa Barbara Museum of Art, California[41]
  • Femme et enfant au balcon, 1871–72, watercolor, 20.6 × 17.3 cm, Art Institute of Chicago[42][43][44]
  • Intérieur, 1871, oil on canvas, 60 × 73 cm, private collection[45]
  • Portrait de Madame Pontillon, 1871, pastel on paper, 85.5 × 65.8 cm, Louvre – drawings cabinet[46] gift of Madame Edma Pontillon to the Louvre in 1921, in the collection of the Musée d'Orsay[47]
  • L'Entrée du port, 1871,[Note 1] watercolour on paper, 24.9 × 15.1 cm, Musée Léon-Alègre, Bagnols-sur-Cèze – drawings cabinet[48]
  • Madame Pontillon et sa fille Jeanne sur un canapé, 1871, watercolour on paper, 25.1 × 25.9 cm, National Gallery of Art,[49]
  • Jeune fille sur un banc (Edma Pontillon), 1872, oil on canvas, 33 × 41 cm,[50]
  • Cache-cache, 1872, oil on canvas, 33 × 41 cm, Private collection[51]
  • Le Berceau, 1872, oil on canvas, 56 × 46 cm Musée d'Orsay, Paris
  • La Lecture (Edma lisant), also titled L'Ombrelle verte, 1873, oil on canvas, 45.1 × 72.4 cm, Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio[51]
  • Sur la plage des Petites-Dalles, 1873, oil on canvas, 24.1 × 50.2 cm, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia[52]
  • Madame Boursier et sa fille, 1873, oil on canvas, 74 × 52 cm, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts[53]
  • Le Village de Maurecourt, 1873, pastel on paper, 47 × 71.8 cm, private collection[54]
  • Coin de Paris vu de Passy, 1873, pastel on paper, 27 × 34.9 cm, private collection[55]
  • Sur la terrasse, 1874, oil on canvas, 45 × 54 cm, Musée du Petit Palais, Paris[56]
  • Portrait de Madame Hubbard, 1874, oil on canvas, 50.5 × 81 cm, Ordrupgaard museum de Copenhagen[57]
  • Femme et enfant au bord de la mer , 1874, watercolor on paper, 16 × 21.3 cm, private collection[58]

1875–1884

  • Percher de blanchisseuses , 1875, Oil on canvas 33 × 40.8 cm, National Gallery of Art[55]
  • Jeune fille au miroir, 1875, oil on canvas, 54 × 45 cm, private collection[59]
  • Scène de port dans l'île de Wight, 1875, oil on canvas, 48 × 36 cm private collection[60]
  • Scène de port dans l'île de Wight, 1875, oil on canvas, 43 × 64 cm, Newark Museum, Newark, New Jersey[61]
  • Eugène Manet à l'île de Wight, 1875, oil on canvas, 38 × 46 cm private collection[62]
  • Avant d'un yacht, 1875, watercolour on paper, 20.6 × 26.7 cm, Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts[63]
  • Femme à sa toilette, 1875, oil on canvas, 46 × 38 cm private collection[64]
  • Femme à sa toilette , 1875–1880, hst, dim; 60.3 × 80.4 cm, Coll. Art Institute of Chicago
  • Portrait de femme (Avant le théâtre), 1875, oil on canvas, 57 × 31 cm, Galerie Schröder & Leisewitz, Bremen[63]
  • Jeune femme au bal encore intitulé Jeune femme en toilette de bal, 1876, oil on canvas, 86 × 53 cm Musée d'Orsay[65]
  • Au Bal ou Jeune fille au bal, 1875, oil on canvas, 62 × 52 cm, Musée Marmottan-Monet, Paris
  • Le Corsage noir , 1876, oil on canvas, 73 × 59.8 cm National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin[66]
  • Le Psyché, 1876, oil on canvas, 65 × 54 cm, Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid[67]
  • Rêveuse, 1877, pastel on canvas, 50.2 × 61 cm, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri[68]
  • L'Été, encore intitulé Jeune femme près d'une fenêtre 1878, oil on canvas, 76 × 61 cm, Musée Fabre, Montpellier[69]
  • Jeune feme assise, 1878–1879, oil on canvas, 80 × 100 cm, private collection New York[70]
  • Jeune fille de dos à sa toilette, encore intitulé Femme à sa toilette 1879, oil on canvas, 60.3 × 80.4 cm Art Institute of Chicago[71]
  • Le Lac du Bois de Boulogne (Jour d'été), 1879, 45.7 × 75.3 cm, National Gallery, London[72]
  • Dans le jardin (Dames cueillant des fleurs), 1879, oil on canvas, 61 × 73.5 cm, Nationalmuseum Stockholm[73]
  • Jeune femme en toilette de bal (Young Woman in Evening Dress), 1879, oil on canvas, 71 x 54 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris[74]
  • Hiver, 1880, oil on canvas, 73.5 × 58.5 cm, Dallas Museum of Art[75]
  • Deux filles assises près d'une table, 1880, crayon and watercolour on paper 19,6 × 26.6 cm private collection Germany
  • Plage à Nice 1881–1882, watercolour on paper 42 × 55 cm, Nationalmuseum Stockholm[76]
  • Le Port de Nice, 1881–1882, oil on canvas, 53 × 43 cm private collection[77]
  • Le Port de Nice, 1881–1882, oil on canvas, 41 × 55 cm private collection[78]
  • Le Port de Nice 1881 (?)third version format 38 × 46 cm conserved at Dallas Museum of Art
  • Le Thé, 1882, oil on canvas, 57.5 × 71.5 cm, Fondation Madelon Vaduz, Liechtenstein[79]
  • Le Port de Nice, 1881–1882, oil on canvas, 53 × 43 cm private collection[77]
  • La Fable, 1883, oil on canvas, 65 × 81 cm private collection[80][81]
  • Le Jardin (Femmes dans le jardin) (1882–1883) oil on canvas, 99.1 × 127 cm, Sara Lee Corporation, Chicago[82]
  • Eugène Manet et sa fille au jardin 1883, oil on canvas, 60 × 73, private collection[83]
  • Dans le jardin à Maurecourt, 1883, oil on canvas, 54 × 65 cm, Toledo Museum of Art[84]
  • Le Quai de Bougival, 1883, oil on canvas, 55.5 × 46 cm, Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo[85]
  • Julie et son bateau (Enfant jouant), 1883, watercolour on paper, 25 × 16 cm, private collection[86]
  • La Meule de foin 1883, oil on canvas, 55.3 × 45.7 cm, private collection, New York[87][88]
  • Dans la véranda, 1884, oil on canvas, 81 × 10 cm, private collection[89]
  • Julie avec sa poupée, 1884, oil on canvas, 82 × 10 cm, private collection[90]
  • Petite fille avec sa poupée (Julie Manet), 1884, pastel on paper, 60 × 46 cm, private collection[91]
  • Sur le lac, 1884, oil on canvas, 65 × 54 cm, private collection[92]
  • The Artist's Daughter, Julie, with her Nanny, c. 1884, oil on canvas, Minneapolis Institute of Art[93][94]

1885–1894

Gallery

Berthe Morisot, The Sisters, 1869, NGA 42285

The Sisters, 1869, National Gallery of Art

The Artist's Sister at a Window A16570

The Artist's Sister at a Window, 1869, National Gallery of Art

Berthe Morisot The Harbor at Lorient

The Harbor at Lorient, 1869, National Gallery of Art

Berthe Morisot 001

On the Balcony, 1872, New York

Berthe Morisot Reading

Reading, 1873, Cleveland Museum of Art

Berthe Morisot - Le Berceau

Le Berceau (The Cradle), 1872, Musée d'Orsay

Brooklyn Museum - Portrait of Mme Boursier and Her Daughter (Portrait de Mme Boursier et de sa fille) - Berthe Morisot

Portrait of Mme Boursier and Her Daughter, c. 1873, Brooklyn Museum

1875 Morisot Laundry

Hanging the Laundry out to Dry, 1875, National Gallery of Art

Morisot Lady at her Toilette

Lady at her Toilette, 1875 The Art Institute of Chicago

Berthe Morisot 002

Eugène Manet on the Isle of Wight, 1875, Musée Marmottan Monet

Berthe Morisot 003

The Dining Room, c. 1875 National Gallery of Art

Berthe Morisot Winter aka Woman with a Muff

Winter aka Woman with a Muff, 1880, Dallas Museum of Arts

Berthe Morisot Kind zwischen Stockrosen

Child among the Hollyhocks, 1881, Wallraf-Richartz Museum

Morisot TheArtistsDaughterJulieWithHerNanny MIA 9640

The Artists' Daughter Julie With Her Nanny, c.1884, Minneapolis Institute of Art

Berthe Morisot The Bath

The Bath (Girl Arranging Her Hair), 1885–86, Clark Art Institute

Berthe Morisot - Girl with Greyhound - 1893

Julie Manet et son Lévrier Laerte, 1893, Musée Marmottan Monet

Portraits of Morisot

Édouard Manet - Le Balcon

Detail from The Balcony by Édouard Manet, with the portrait of Berthe in the foreground, 1868

Édouard Manet - Le repos

Berthe Morisot posing for The Rest, 1870, By Édouard Manet

Édouard Manet - Berthe Morisot on a divan

Berthe Morisot on a divan couch, 1872, by Édouard Manet

Berthe Morisot Manet Lille 2918

Portrait of Berthe Morisot with a Fan, 1874 by Édouard Manet

Marcellin Desboutin - Portrait Berthe Morisot

Portrait of Berthe Morisot, 1876, by Marcellin Desboutin

Manet - Berthe Morisot ruhend

Portrait of Berthe Morisot, 1882, By Édouard Manet

Édouard Manet - Berthe Morisot au soulier rose

Berthe Morisot au soulier rose, 1872 By Édouard Manet. Hiroshima Museum of Art

Pierre Auguste Renoir - Portrait Berthe Morisot and daughter Julie

Berthe Morisot and her daughter Julie Manet, 1894, by Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Renoir Berthe Morisot

Berthe Morisot, 1892, by Renoir

Art market

Morisot's work sold comparatively well. She achieved the two highest prices at a Hôtel Drouot auction in 1875, the Interior (Young Woman with Mirror) sold for 480 francs, and her pastel On the Lawn sold for 320 francs.[121][122] Her works averaged 250 francs, the best relative prices at the auction.[123]

In February 2013, Morisot became the highest priced female artist, when After Lunch (1881), a portrait of a young redhead in a straw hat and purple dress, sold for $10.9 million at a Christie's auction. The painting achieved roughly three times its upper estimate,[124][125][125][126] exceeding the $10.7 million for a sculpture by Louise Bourgeois in 2012.[124]

Legacy

She was portrayed by actress Marine Delterme in a 2012 French biographical TV film directed by Caroline Champetier. The character of Beatrice de Clerval in Elizabeth Kostova's The Swan Thieves is largely based on Morisot.[127]

She was featured as the "A First Impressionist" in an article written by Anne Truitt in the New York Times on June 3, 1990.[128]

From Melissa Burdick Harmon, an editor at Biography magazine, "While some of Morisot's work may seem to us today like sweet depictions of babies in cradles, at the time these images were considered extremely intimate, as objects related to infants belonged exclusively to the world of women."[5]

Exhibitions

Selected Berthe Morisot Solo Exhibitions Date
Paris, Boussod, Valadon et Cie. Exposition de tableaux, pastels et dessins par Berthe Morisot. 1892, May 25 - June 18
Paris, Galerie Durand-Ruel. Berthe Morisot (Madame Eugene Manet): exposition de son œuvre. 1896, March 5-23
Paris: Galerie Durand-Ruel. Exposition Berthe Morisot. 1902, April 23 - May 10
Paris, Galerie E. Druet. Exposition Berthe Morisot. 1905, January-February
Paris, Galerie Manzi-Joyant. Exposition Berthe Morisot. 1912
Paris. Galerie Manzi-Joyant. Exposition Berthe Morisot. 1914, April
Paris, Galerie Bernheim-Jeune. Cent oeuvres de Berthe Morisot (1841-1895). 1919, November 7 - 22
Paris, Galerie Marcel Bernheim. Réunion d'oeuvres, par Berthe Morisot. 1922, June 20 - July 8
Chicago, Arts Club of Chicago. Exposition of Paintings by Berthe Morisot. 3 p. 1925, January 30 - March 10
London, Ernest Brown & Phillips, The Leicester Galleries. Berthe Morisot Exhibition 1930, March-April
New York, Wildenstein Galleries. Berthe Morisot Exhibition. 1936, November 24 - December 12
Paris, Musée de l'Orangerie. Berthe Morisot, 1841-1895. 1941, Summer
Paris, Galerie Weil. Berthe Morisot, retrospective. 1947
Copenhagen, NY Carlsberg Glyptotek. Berthe Morisot, 1841-1895: Mälningar: Olja och Akvarellsamt Teckningar. 1949, August 20 - October 23
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Berthe Morisot: Drawings, Pastels, Watercolors. 1960, October 10 - December 10
Paris, Musée Jacquemart-Andre, lnstitut de France. Berthe Morisot. 1961
Paris, Galerie Hopkins-Thomas. Berthe Morisot. 1987-88, April - May 9
London, JPL Fine Arts. Berthe Morisot (1841-1895). 1990-91, November 7 - January 18
Paris, Galerie Hopkins Thomas. Berthe Morisot. 1993, October 15 - November 30
Lille, the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Berthe Morisot 2002, March 10 - June 9
Washington DC, National Museum of Women in the Arts, Berthe Morisot:  An Impressionist and Her Circle 2005, January 14 - May 8
Spain, Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Berthe Morisot: The Woman impressionist 2012, November 15 - February 12
Québec, The Musée National des Beaux-arts du Québec, Berthe Morisot: Woman Impressionist 2018, June 21 - September 23

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The scene L'Entrée du port is often confused with L'Entrée du port de Cherbourg purchased in 1874 by Durand-Ruel, or confused with Le Port de Cherbourg

References

  1. ^ Geffroy, Gustave (1894), "Histoire de l'Impressionnisme", Le Vie artistique: 268.
  2. ^ Denvir, 2000, pp. 29–79.
  3. ^ a b c Adler, Kathleen (1987). Berthe Morisot. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0801420539.
  4. ^ Higonnet, p. 5
  5. ^ a b c d Harmon, Melissa Burdick. "Monet, Renoir, Degas...Morisot the Forgotten Genius of Impressionism." Biography, vol. 5, no. 6, June 2001, p. 98. EBSCOhost,
  6. ^ a b Higonnet, Anne (1990). Berthe Morisot. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers. pp. 11–25. ISBN 0-06-016232-5.
  7. ^ "Emory Libraries Resources Terms of Use – Emory University Libraries". www.oxfordartonline.com. doi:10.1093/gao/9781884446054.001.0001/oao-9781884446054-e-7000059646.
  8. ^ "Emory Libraries Resources Terms of Use – Emory University Libraries". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. doi:10.1093/benz/9780199773787.001.0001/acref-9780199773787-e-00126011.
  9. ^ a b Yves peinte par Degas
  10. ^ a b (Stuckey et al, p. 16)
  11. ^ Women in the Act of Painting, 9 November 2012, Edma and Berthe by Nancy Bea Miller
  12. ^ Berthe Morisot by Anne Higonnet, Berthe Morisot, at Google Books. Page 32
  13. ^ Berthe Morisot : 1841–1895. Mathieu, Marianne., Musée Marmottan. Paris. ISBN 9780300182019. OCLC 830199379.CS1 maint: others (link)
  14. ^ Berthe Morisot : 1841–1895. Mathieu, Marianne., Musée Marmottan. Paris. ISBN 9780300182019. OCLC 830199379.CS1 maint: others (link)
  15. ^ Berthe Morisot : 1841–1895. Mathieu, Marianne., Musée Marmottan. Paris. ISBN 9780300182019. OCLC 830199379.CS1 maint: others (link)
  16. ^ Berthe Morisot : 1841–1895. Mathieu, Marianne., Musée Marmottan. Paris. ISBN 9780300182019. OCLC 830199379.CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. ^ Berthe Morisot : 1841–1895. Mathieu, Marianne., Musée Marmottan. Paris. ISBN 9780300182019. OCLC 830199379.CS1 maint: others (link)
  18. ^ a b c d e f Dominique., Rey, Jean (2010). Berthe Morisot. Patry, Sylvie., Morisot, Berthe, 1841–1895., Lalaurie, Louise Rogers. Paris: Flammarion. ISBN 9782080301680. OCLC 646401344.
  19. ^ National Museum of Women in the Arts: "The Cage", retrieved November 24, 2014.
  20. ^ Mongan, Elizabeth (1960). Berthe Morisot, Drawings Pastels, Watercolors. New York: Shorewood Publishing Co. p. 20.
  21. ^ a b c Stuckey, Charles F.; Scott, William P. (1987). Berthe Morisot: Impressionist. New York: Hudson Hills Press. pp. 187–207. ISBN 0-933920-03-2.
  22. ^ Berthe Morisot : 1841–1895. Mathieu, Marianne., Musée Marmottan. Paris. ISBN 9780300182019. OCLC 830199379.CS1 maint: others (link)
  23. ^ Berthe Morisot : 1841–1895. Mathieu, Marianne., Musée Marmottan. Paris. ISBN 9780300182019. OCLC 830199379.CS1 maint: others (link)
  24. ^ Higonnet, Anne (1990). Berthe Morisot. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. p. 26. ISBN 0-06-016232-5.
  25. ^ Higonnet, Anne (1990). Berthe Morisot. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. p. 102. ISBN 0-06-016232-5.
  26. ^ Chadwick, Whitney (2012). Women, Art, and Society (Fifth ed.). London: Thames & Hudson Inc. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-500-20405-4.
  27. ^ Lewis, M.T. "Book Reviews: Berthe Morisot." Art Journal, vol. 50, no. 3, Fall91, p. 92. EBSCOhost,
  28. ^ Chadwick, Whitney (2012). Women, Art, and Society (5th ed.). London: Thames & Hudson Ltd. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-500-20405-4.
  29. ^ Higonnet, Anne (1990). Berthe Morisot. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. p. 139. ISBN 0-06-016232-5.
  30. ^ Higonnet, Anne (1990). Berthe Morisot. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. p. 158. ISBN 0-06-016232-5.
  31. ^ "Berthe Morisot | French painter". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  32. ^ Valentinovna),, Brodskai︠a︡, N. V. (Natalʹi︠a︡. Impressionism. New York. ISBN 9781780428017. OCLC 778448857.
  33. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 23)
  34. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 24)
  35. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 11)
  36. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 12)
  37. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 34)
  38. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 35)
  39. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 40)
  40. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 41)
  41. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 45)
  42. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 46)
  43. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 47)
  44. ^ Berthe Morisot, Femme et enfant au balcon (On the Balcony), 1871–72, Art Institute of Chicago
  45. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 260)
  46. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 419)
  47. ^ Madame Pontillon, descriptif actuel
  48. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 42)
  49. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 53)
  50. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 51)
  51. ^ a b (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 56)
  52. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 28)
  53. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 34)
  54. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 61)
  55. ^ a b (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 63)
  56. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 427)
  57. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 64)
  58. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 65)
  59. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 61)
  60. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 52)
  61. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 69)
  62. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 51)
  63. ^ a b (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 71)
  64. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 73)
  65. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 81)
  66. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 59)
  67. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 64)
  68. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 434)
  69. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 75)
  70. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 78)
  71. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 81)
  72. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 82)
  73. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 83)
  74. ^ Robert Rosenblum, Paintings in the Musée D’Orsay, p. 305, Stewart, Tabori & Chang (1989).
  75. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 85)
  76. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 91)
  77. ^ a b (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 112)
  78. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 113)
  79. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 95)
  80. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 138)
  81. ^ voir La Fable
  82. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 96)
  83. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 97)
  84. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 154)
  85. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 101)
  86. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 98)
  87. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 103)
  88. ^ aperçu de la toile Meule de foin
  89. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 104)
  90. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 105)
  91. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 107)
  92. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 109)
  93. ^ Minneapolis Institute of Art
  94. ^ "The Artist's Daughter, Julie, with her Nanny, Berthe Morisot ^ Minneapolis Institute of Art". collections.artsmia.org. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  95. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 110)
  96. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 111)
  97. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 115)
  98. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 117)
  99. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 120)
  100. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 122)
  101. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 121)
  102. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 197)
  103. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 127)
  104. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 128)
  105. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 129)
  106. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 750)
  107. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 131)
  108. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 133)
  109. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 134)
  110. ^ "Berthe Morisot and Julie Manet, Berthe Morisot ^ Minneapolis Institute of Art". collections.artsmia.org. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  111. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 542)
  112. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 142)
  113. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 147)
  114. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 152)
  115. ^ (Bataille Wildenstein, p. 275)
  116. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 155)
  117. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 165)
  118. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 172)
  119. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 173)
  120. ^ (Stuckey, Scott Lindsay, p. 174)
  121. ^ Chadwick, Whitney (2012). Women, Art, and Society (5th ed.). London: Thames & Hudson Ltd. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-500-20405-4.
  122. ^ Higonnet, Anne (1990). Berthe Morisot. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. p. 124. ISBN 0-06-016232-5.
  123. ^ Shennan, Margaret (1996). Berthe Morisot: The First Lady of Impressionism. Stroud: Sutton Publishing Limited. p. 173. ISBN 0-7509-1226 X.
  124. ^ a b Kelly Crow and Mary M. Lane (February 6, 2013), Christie's Breaks World Record Price for Female Artist Wall Street Journal.
  125. ^ a b Ellen Gamerman and Mary M. Lane (April 18, 2013), Women on the Verge Wall Street Journal.
  126. ^ Katya Kazakina (May 14, 2014), Billionaires Help Christie’s to Record $745 Million Sale Bloomberg.
  127. ^ Trisha, Managing Editor (17 Nov 2009). "Sneak peek: Elizabeth Kostova's 'The Swan Thieves'". bookpage.com. Retrieved 17 March 2012.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  128. ^ Truitt, Anne. "A FIRST IMPRESSIONIST". Retrieved 2018-03-29.

Sources

  • Denvir, B. (2000). The Chronicle of Impressionism: An Intimate Diary of the Lives and World of the Great Artists. London: Thames & Hudson. OCLC 43339405
  • Higonnet, Anne (1995). Berthe Morisot. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20156-6
  • Turner, J. (2000). From Monet to Cézanne: late 19th-century French artists. Grove Art. New York: St Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-22971-2
  • Manet, Julie, Rosalind de Boland Roberts, and Jane Roberts. Growing Up with the Impressionists: The Diary of Julie Manet. London: Sotheby's Publications, 1987
  • Shennan, Margaret (1996). Berthe Morisot: The First Lady of Impressionism. Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-2339-3

External links

External video
Morisot's The Mother and Sister of the Artist, (3:35)
Video Postcard: Woman at Her Toilette (1875/80) on YouTube, (1:58) Art Institute of Chicago
1872 in art

Events from the year 1872 in art.

A Studio at Les Batignolles

A Studio at Les Batignolles is a painting by Henri Fantin-Latour created in 1870. The work is now at the Musée d'Orsay.

Aimé Millet

Aimé Millet (September 28, 1819 – January 14, 1891) was a noted French sculptor, who was born and died in Paris.

Millet was the son of miniaturist Frederick Millet (1796–1859) and uncle to Chicago architectural decorator Julian Louis Millet (1856–1923). He studied and made first in 1836 at the École des Beaux Arts with David d'Angers and Viollet-le-Duc, who was later to design the base of Millet's statue of Vercingetorix in Alesia.

In 1840 Millet began to produce his early works, in 1859 received the Légion d'honneur, and in February 1870 was appointed professor at the École des Arts décoratifs. He was a friend of sculptor Pierre Louis Rouillard and his students included Louis Majorelle, Berthe Morisot, John Walz, and François Pompon.

Millet died in Paris on January 14, 1891, and is buried in Montmartre Cemetery.

Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Violets

Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Violets (French: Berthe Morisot au bouquet de violettes) is an 1872 oil painting by Édouard Manet. It depicts fellow painter Berthe Morisot dressed in black mourning dress, with a barely visible bouquet of violets. The painting, sometimes known as Portrait of Berthe Morisot, Berthe Morisot in a black hat or Young woman in a black hat, is in the collection of the Musée d'Orsay in Paris. Manet also created an etching and two lithographs of the same composition.

Berthe Morisot with a Fan

Berthe Morisot with a Fan is an 1874 painting by Édouard Manet. It is the last of twelve portraits Manet produced of Berthe Morisot between 1868 and 1874, painted just after her marriage to the painter's brother Eugène, after which she no longer posed for him. It shows her dressed in mourning for her father but wearing an engagement ring.

It entered Morisot's own collection, possibly directly from the artist, before being donated to the French state in 1999. It was initially allocated to the Musée d'Orsay before being moved in 2000 to the Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille, where it still hangs.

Dixon Gallery and Gardens

The Dixon Gallery and Gardens is an art museum within 17 acres of gardens, established in 1976, and located at 4339 Park Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

The museum focuses on French and American impressionism and features works by Monet, Degas, and Renoir, Pierre Bonnard, Mary Cassatt, Marc Chagall, Honoré Daumier, Henri Fantin-Latour, Paul Gauguin, Henri Matisse, Berthe Morisot, Edvard Munch, Auguste Rodin, and Alfred Sisley, as well as an extensive collection of works by French Impressionist artist Jean-Louis Forain. The museum also houses the Stout Collection of 18th-century German porcelain. With nearly 600 pieces of tableware and figures, it is one of the finest such collections in the United States.

The Dixon also features a comprehensive schedule of original and traveling exhibitions of fine art and horticulture.

The museum sits within four principal outdoor sculpture gardens with Greco-Roman sculpture. Its site was acquired by the Dixons in 1939, and landscaped in the English Garden style with open vistas adjacent to smaller, intimate formal spaces. The major areas within the gardens are the Cutting Garden, Formal Garden, South Lawn, and Woodland Gardens.

Edma Morisot

Edma Morisot (French: [mɔʁizo]; Marie Edma Caroline Morisot-Pontillon; 1839–1921) was a French artist and the older sister of the Impressionist painter Berthe Morisot.

Eugène Manet

Eugène Manet (21 November 1833 – 13 April 1892) was a French painter. He did not achieve the high reputation of his older brother Édouard Manet or his wife Berthe Morisot, and devoted much of his efforts to supporting his wife's career.

Manet was the middle of the three sons of Auguste Manet, an official at the French Ministry of Justice. He was born in Paris, 22 months after his older brother Édouard in January 1832, and 16 months before his younger brother Gustave in March 1835. He was named after his mother Eugénie-Désirée (née Fournier). The brothers Édouard and Eugène took piano lessons from Suzanne Leenhoff from 1849; she eventually married Édouard in 1863.

Eugéne served in the French Army, and then studied law, but did not follow his father into a legal career. He travelled to Italy with Édouard in 1853 to study Old Master paintings in Florence, Venice, and Rome.

Berthe Morisot developed a close relationship with Édouard Manet from 1868, but they could not be married. Instead, she married his brother Eugène in Passy on 22 December 1874 (sometimes described as a marriage of convenience). Their wedding gift from Edgar Degas was a portrait of Eugène Manet. Manet and Morisot had one daughter, Julie Manet, born on 14 November 1878.

Manet was depicted by his brother in his paintings Music in the Tuileries (1862), and was probably a model for the right male figure in Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (1863) which has been identified as either Eugène or his dark-haired younger brother Gustave Manet, and may be a composite of the two. Eugène may also be the chiffonnier (rag-picker) to the right in his brother's painting Philosophers of 1865, and was depicted with Édouard's wife Suzanne in On the Beach (1873). He was also painted several times by his wife.

Like his brother Édouard, Eugène had Republican political sympathies. He published a semi-autobiographical novel, "Victimes!", in 1889. He suffered from ill health from 1891 and died in Paris the following year. He was survived by his wife and daughter; Morisot herself died in 1895. His older brother Édouard had died in 1883 and his younger brother Gustave in 1884.

EvaMarie Lindahl

EvaMarie Lindahl (born 1 December 1976) is a Swedish artist, who works mainly in pencil drawing.

She was born in Viken, Sweden, and studied at Gotland School of Art, Funen Art Academy, Umeå Art Academy, and completed a Master of Fine Arts at Malmö Art Academy in 2008. She lives in Malmö.

In 2014 she collaborated with Danish artist Ditte Ejlerskov on an installation artwork "About: The Blank Pages" to highlight the "missing" books on women artists in the Taschen Basic Art series, which includes 97 books of artists' biographies, but only 5 female artists among 92 men. The installation includes the 97 Taschen books, and 100 similar "books" on women artists, with covers created by Ejlerskov and Lindahl but containing only blank pages, from Artemisia Gentileschi and Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun to Berthe Morisot, Louise Bourgeois and Bridget Riley.

Impressionism

Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s.

The Impressionists faced harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari.

The development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music and impressionist literature.

Julie Manet

Julie Manet (November 14, 1878 – July 14, 1966) was a French painter, model, diarist, and art collector.

Louis Leroy

Louis Leroy (1812–1885) was a French 19th-century printmaker, painter, and successful playwright. However, he is remembered as the journalist and art critic for the French satirical newspaper Le Charivari, who coined the term "impressionists" to satirise the artists now known by the word.

Leroy's review was printed in Le Charivari on 25 April 1874 with the title The Exhibition of the Impressionists. The term was taken from Claude Monet's painting Impression: soleil levant. Leroy's article took the form of a dialogue between two sceptical viewers of the work:

"Impression I was certain of it. I was just telling myself that, since I was impressed, there had to be some impression in it — and what freedom, what ease of workmanship! A preliminary drawing for a wallpaper pattern is more finished than this seascape."

The show (Exposition des Impressionnistes) was held in the salon of the photographer Nadar and organized by the Société anonyme des peintres, sculpteurs et graveurs (Anonymous society of painters, sculptors and engravers), composed of Camille Pissarro, Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley, Edgar Degas, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Paul Cézanne, Armand Guillaumin, and Berthe Morisot.

The term was subsequently adopted by the artists themselves and has now become the name of one of the most influential art movements in history.

Marie Bracquemond

Marie Bracquemond (1 December 1840 – 17 January 1916) was a French Impressionist artist, who was described retrospectively by Henri Focillon in 1928 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt. Her frequent omission from books on artists is sometimes attributed to the efforts of her husband, Félix Bracquemond.

Musée Marmottan Monet

Musée Marmottan Monet is located at 2, rue Louis Boilly in the 16th arrondissement of Paris and features over three hundred Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings by Claude Monet. It is the largest collection of his works.

The museum also contains works by Berthe Morisot, Edgar Degas, Édouard Manet, Alfred Sisley, Camille Pissarro, Paul Gauguin, Paul Signac, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and others. It also houses the Wildenstein Collection of illuminated manuscripts and the Jules and Paul Marmottan collection of Napoleonic era art and furniture.

Marmottan Museum's fame is the result of a donation in 1966 by Michel Monet, Claude's second son and only heir.The nearest métro station is La Muette, on line 9.

Paule Gobillard

Paule Gobillard (December 3, 1867 – 1946) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter who was heavily influenced by the Impressionists. She is the niece of Berthe Morisot and Eugène Manet, the brother of Édouard Manet, who taught her lessons in painting as part of her education upon being orphaned at an early age. She was unknown in the art scene compared to her relatives. She exhibited with the Société des Indépendants in 1904 and in 1926.

Portrait of Emile Zola

Portrait of Émile Zola is a painting of Émile Zola by Édouard Manet. Manet submitted the portrait to the 1868 Salon.

At this time Zola was known for his art criticism, and perhaps particularly as the writer of the novel Thérèse Raquin. This told the story of an adulterous affair between Thérèse, the wife of a clerk in a railway company, and a would-be painter named Laurent, whose work, rather like that of Zola's friend Paul Cézanne, is denigrated by the critics. In the eleventh chapter the milieu of Manet's Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe is evoked, in the murder scene, where Camille, the husband, goes out for the day with his wife and her lover to Saint-Ouen.

On the wall is a reproduction of Manet's Olympia, a controversial painting at the 1865 Salon but which Zola considered Manet's best work. "Behind it is an engraving from Velazquez's Bacchus indicating the taste for Spanish art shared by the painter and the writer. A Japanese print of a wrestler by Utagawa Kuniaki II completes the décor." A Japanese screen on the left of the picture recalls the role that the Far East played in revolutionizing ideas on perspective and colour in European painting.

Summer's Day

Summer's Day is a painting by French Impressionist painter Berthe Morisot. The painting depicts two women seated in a row boat, and was painted in the Bois de Boulogne. It is currently held by the National Gallery, having been donated by Hugh Lane. The painting was stolen from the Tate by two Irish students while it was on display there in order to protest the Lane Bequest. It was later returned after being left anonymously at the Irish Embassy.

The Balcony (painting)

The Balcony (French: Le balcon) is an 1868-69 oil painting by the French painter Édouard Manet. It depicts four figures on a balcony, one of whom is sitting; the painter Berthe Morisot, who married Manet's brother Eugène in 1874. In the centre is the painter Jean Baptiste Antoine Guillemet. On the right is Fanny Claus, a violinist. The fourth figure, partially obscured in the interior's background, is possibly Léon Leenhoff, Manet's son. It was exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1869, and then kept by Manet until his death in 1883. It was sold to the painter Gustave Caillebotte in 1884, who left it to the French state in 1894. It is currently held at the Musée d'Orsay, in Paris.

The Swan Thieves

The Swan Thieves is a 2010 novel by American author Elizabeth Kostova. The "old painter" described in the book before the first chapter is Alfred Sisley. Beatrice de Clerval is not based on a single real artist, but Kostova was influenced in developing her life by the life of Berthe Morisot.

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