Bernissart

Bernissart is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. On January 1, 2006, Bernissart had a total population of 11,458. The total area is 43.42 km², which gives a population density of 264 inhabitants per km². The municipality includes the village of Blaton, formerly an independent municipality.

Bernissart
Bernissart JPG01
Flag of Bernissart

Flag
Coat of arms of Bernissart

Coat of arms
Bernissart is located in Belgium
Bernissart
Bernissart
Location in Belgium
Location of Bernissart in Hainaut
Bernissart Hainaut Belgium Map
Coordinates: 50°29′N 03°39′E / 50.483°N 3.650°ECoordinates: 50°29′N 03°39′E / 50.483°N 3.650°E
CountryBelgium
CommunityFrench Community
RegionWallonia
ProvinceHainaut
ArrondissementAth
Government
 • MayorRoger Vanderstraeten
 • Governing party/iesPS
Area
 • Total43.42 km2 (16.76 sq mi)
Population
 (2018-01-01)[1]
 • Total11,868
 • Density270/km2 (710/sq mi)
Postal codes
7320-7322
Area codes069
Websitewww.bernissart.be

The Iguanodon mine

In 1878, dozens of Iguanodon skeletons were discovered in a coal mine, at a depth of 322 m (1,056 ft).[2] At the time, their proximity was considered proof that some dinosaurs were herd animals. They were mounted by Louis Dollo and set the standard that was followed for over a century. Nine of the twenty-nine skeletons are currently on display at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, and one at the Bernissart Museum. The two museums even made an error they acknowledge with humour: they displayed the skeletons "standing", suggesting that the dinosaurs were bipedal, which is not the case. Found alongside the Iguanodon skeletons were the remains of plants, fish, and other reptiles,[2] including the crocodyliform Bernissartia.[3]

Iguanodon3 28-12-2007 14-20-18

One of the Bernissart Iguanodons on display at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences.

References

  1. ^ "Wettelijke Bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2018". Statbel. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. ^ a b Norman, David B. (1985). "To Study a Dinosaur". The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs: An Original and Compelling Insight into Life in the Dinosaur Kingdom. New York: Crescent Books. pp. 24–33. ISBN 0-517-46890-5.
  3. ^ Palmer, D. ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 100. ISBN 1-84028-152-9.

External links

Anteophthalmosuchus

Anteophthalmosuchus (meaning "forward-pointing eye crocodile") is an extinct genus of goniopholidid mesoeucrocodylian from the Early Cretaceous of southern England, eastern Spain, and western Belgium.

Arnager

Arnager is a small fishing village in Rønne parish, Bornholm island, Denmark. It is approximately 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) southwest of Nylars, about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) southeast of Rønne, and approximately 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) southeast of Bornholm Airport. Its population in 2010 was 151 residents. Arnager Bay is east of Arnager.

According to Bornholm Place Names, Arnager was first mentioned in 1552 as "Arenack" in one of the Chancery letter books. The harbor was built in 1883 by H. Zahrtmann. For some time, the village was one of the main resting places for the island's missionaries. The city is notable for having Scandinavia's longest wooden bridge. The 200 metres (660 ft) structure links the port with the city. In the mid 1990s, dinosaur footprints were identified on a cliff approximately 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) east of the village.

Arrondissement of Ath

The Arrondissement of Ath (French: Arrondissement d'Ath; Dutch: Arrondissement Aat) is one of the seven administrative arrondissements in the Province of Hainaut, Belgium. It is not a judicial arrondissement. Two of its municipalities, Brugelette and Chièvres, are part of the Judicial Arrondissement of Mons, while the others are part of the Judicial Arrondissement of Tournai.

Arstanosaurus

Arstanosaurus (meaning "Arstan lizard" after the Arstan well) is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Santonian-Campanian-age Upper Cretaceous Bostobe Formation, Kazakhstan. It has had a confusing history, being considered both a hadrosaurid and a ceratopsid, or both at the same time (chimeric).

Bernissartia

Bernissartia ('of Bernissart') is an extinct genus of neosuchian crocodyliform that lived in the Early Cretaceous, around 130 million years ago.

At only 60 centimetres (2.0 ft) in length, Bernissartia is one of the smallest crocodyliforms that ever lived. It resembled modern species in many respects, and was probably semi-aquatic. It had long, pointed teeth at the front of the jaws that would have been of use in catching fish, but broad and flat teeth at the back of its jaws that were suited for crushing hard food, such as shellfish, and possibly bones.It is known primarily from skulls and skeletons found in modern-day Belgium and Spain. Less complete material has been referred to Bernissartia from the United Kingdom and North America.

Blaton

Blaton is a section of the Belgian municipality of Bernissart. It is located in Wallonia in the province of Hainaut. It was formerly a separate municipality until it merged in 1977.

Castellar Formation

The Castellar Formation is a geological formation in La Rioja and Teruel, Spain whose strata date back to the Early Cretaceous. Dinosaur remains are among the fossils that have been recovered from the formation.

European route E42

The European route E 42 is a road in Europe and a part of the United Nations International E-road network. It connects Dunkerque, a major ferry and container port at the northern end of the French coast with Aschaffenburg on the north western tip of Bavaria. Along the way it also passes through Wallonia in Belgium and the German Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate and Hessen. The full length of the route is approximately 680 kilometers (420 mi).

Hadrosauroidea

Hadrosauroidea is a clade or superfamily of ornithischian dinosaurs that includes the "duck-billed" dinosaurs, or hadrosaurids, and all dinosaurs more closely related to them than to Iguanodon.They are from Asia, Europe and Africa. Many primitive hadrosauroids, such as the Asian Probactrosaurus and Altirhinus, have traditionally been included in a paraphyletic (unnatural grouping) "Iguanodontidae". With cladistic analysis, the traditional Iguanodontidae has been largely disbanded, and probably includes only Iguanodon and perhaps its closest relatives.

Hainaut Province

Hainaut (, also US: , UK: , French: [ɛno]; Dutch: Henegouwen [ˈɦeːnəɣʌuə(n)] (listen); Walloon: Hinnot; Picard: Hénau), historically also known as Heynowes in English, is a province of Wallonia and Belgium.

To its south lies the French department of Nord, while within Belgium it borders (clockwise from the North) on the Flemish provinces of West Flanders, East Flanders, Flemish Brabant and the Walloon provinces of Walloon Brabant and Namur.

Its capital is Mons (Dutch Bergen) and the most populous city is Charleroi, the province's urban, economic and cultural hub, the financial capital of Hainaut and the fifth largest city in the country by population.

Iguanodon

Iguanodon ( i-GWAH-nə-don; meaning "iguana-tooth") is a genus of ornithopod dinosaur that existed roughly halfway between the first of the swift bipedal hypsilophodontids of the mid-Jurassic and the duck-billed dinosaurs of the late Cretaceous. While many species have been classified in the genus Iguanodon, dating from the late Jurassic Period to the early Cretaceous Period of Asia, Europe, and North America, research in the first decade of the 21st century suggests that there is only one well-substantiated species: I. bernissartensis, which lived from the late Barremian to the earliest Aptian ages (Early Cretaceous) in Belgium, Spain, England and possibly elsewhere in Europe, between about 126 and 113 million years ago. Iguanodon were large, bulky herbivores. Distinctive features include large thumb spikes, which were possibly used for defense against predators, combined with long prehensile fifth fingers able to forage for food.

The genus was named in 1825 by English geologist Gideon Mantell but discovered by William Harding Bensted, based on fossil specimens found in England, some of which were subsequently assigned to Mantellodon. Iguanodon was the second type of dinosaur formally named based on fossil specimens, after Megalosaurus. Together with Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus, it was one of the three genera originally used to define Dinosauria. The genus Iguanodon belongs to the larger group Iguanodontia, along with the duck-billed hadrosaurs. The taxonomy of this genus continues to be a topic of study as new species are named or long-standing ones reassigned to other genera.

Scientific understanding of Iguanodon has evolved over time as new information has been obtained from fossils. The numerous specimens of this genus, including nearly complete skeletons from two well-known bone beds, have allowed researchers to make informed hypotheses regarding many aspects of the living animal, including feeding, movement, and social behaviour. As one of the first scientifically well-known dinosaurs, Iguanodon has occupied a small but notable place in the public's perception of dinosaurs, its artistic representation changing significantly in response to new interpretations of its remains.

Iguanodontidae

Iguanodontidae is a family of iguanodontians belonging to Styracosterna, a derived clade within Ankylopollexia.

Characterized by their elongated maxillae, they were herbivorous and typically large in size. This family exhibited locomotive dynamism; there exists evidence for both bipedalism and quadrupedalism within iguanodontid species, supporting the idea that individual organisms were capable of both locomoting exclusively with their hind limbs and locomoting quadrupedally. Iguanodontids possess hoof-like second, third, and fourth digits, and in some cases, a specialized thumb spike and an opposable fifth digit. Their skull construction allows for a strong chewing mechanism called a transverse power stroke. This, paired with their bilateral dental occlusion, made them extremely effective as herbivores. Members of Iguanodontidae are thought to have had a diet that consisted of both gymnosperms and angiosperms, the latter of which co-evolved with the iguanodontids in the Cretaceous period.There is no consensus on the phylogeny of the group. Iguanodontidae is most frequently characterized as paraphyletic with respect to Hadrosauridae, although some researchers advocate for a monophyletic view of the family.

List of protected heritage sites in Bernissart

This table shows an overview of the protected heritage sites in the Walloon town Bernissart. This list is part of Belgium's national heritage.

Lists of protected heritage sites in Hainaut (province)

This page is an overview of the list of protected heritage sites in Hainaut (province), alphabetically ordered by town name. This list is part of the protected heritage sites of Belgium.

Louis Dollo

Louis Antoine Marie Joseph Dollo (Lille, 7 December 1857 – Brussels, 19 April 1931) was a Belgian palaeontologist, known for his work on dinosaurs. He also posited that evolution is not reversible, known as Dollo's law. Together with the Austrian Othenio Abel, Dollo established the principles of paleobiology.

Mantellisaurus

Mantellisaurus is a genus of iguanodontian dinosaur that lived in the Barremian and early Aptian ages of the Early Cretaceous Period of Europe. Its remains are known from Belgium (Bernissart), England and Germany. The type and only species is M. atherfieldensis. Formerly known as Iguanodon atherfieldensis, the new genus Mantellisaurus was erected for the species by Gregory Paul in 2007. According to Paul, Mantellisaurus was more lightly built than Iguanodon and more closely related to Ouranosaurus, making Iguanodon in its traditional sense paraphyletic. It is known from many complete and almost complete skeletons. The genus name honours Gideon Mantell, the discoverer of Iguanodon.

Museum of Natural Sciences

The Museum of Natural Sciences of Belgium (French: Muséum des sciences naturelles de Belgique, Dutch: Museum voor Natuurwetenschappen van België) is a museum dedicated to natural history, located in Brussels, Belgium. The museum is a part of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Its most important pieces are 30 fossilised Iguanodon skeletons, which were discovered in 1878 in Bernissart, Belgium. The dinosaur hall of the museum is the world's largest museum hall completely dedicated to dinosaurs. Another famous piece is the Ishango bone, which was discovered in 1960 by Jean de Heinzelin de Braucourt in the Belgian Congo. The museum also houses a research department and a public exhibit department.

Otto Jaekel

Otto Max Johannes Jaekel (21 February 1863 – 6 March 1929) was a German paleontologist and geologist.

Jaekel was born in Neusalz (Nowa Sól), Prussian Silesia. He studied geology and paleontology in Liegnitz (Legnica). After graduating in 1883, he moved to Breslau (Wrocław) and studied under Ferdinand Roemer until 1885. Karl von Zittel awarded a PhD to Jaekel in Munich in 1886. Between 1887 bis 1889, Jaekel was an assistant of E.W. Benecke at the Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut in Straßburg, where he received his Habilitation. He worked at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin and at the Geologisch-Paläontologisches Museum (a combined post) from 1894. Jaekel was considered as an ordinary professor of geology at the University of Vienna in 1903, but this was blocked by intrigue. Between 1906 and 1928, Jaekel was a professor at the University of Greifswald, where he founded the German Paleontological Society in 1912. He described a second species of Plateosaurus in 1914.

During World War I, in which he served as a Hauptmann (Captain) in the 210th Prussian Infantry Regiment, he attempted to re-start excavations ast the southern Belgian town of Bernissart, where several dozen specimens of the dinosaur Iguanodon had been dug up in the 1870s. Although he eventually succeeded in persuading the German occupation authorities to support his initiative, the attempt had to be abandoned after the German army surrendered in November 1918.

After his retirement in Greifswald, Otto Jaekel accepted a position at Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou in 1928. He died after a short and unexpected illness in the German Hospital in Beijing.As a paleontologist, Jaekel specialized in the study of fossil vertebrates, particularly fishes and reptiles. However, 27 of his publications were about echinodermata. In addition, he wrote about politics, literature and art. He was an accomplished painter, and used his skills to produce landscape paintings that illustrate the geology of the Pomeranian coast.

Places adjacent to Bernissart
Ath
Charleroi
Mons
Mouscron
Soignies
Thuin
Tournai

Languages

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