Bernardo Bellotto

Bernardo Bellotto, (c. 1721/2[1][2] or 30 January 1721[3] – 17 November 1780)[3], was an Italian[4] urban landscape painter or vedutista, and printmaker in etching famous for his vedute of European cities (Dresden, Vienna, Turin and Warsaw). He was the pupil and nephew of the famous Giovanni Antonio Canal Canaletto and sometimes used the latter's illustrious name, signing himself as Bernardo Canaletto.[3] In Germany and Poland, Bellotto called himself by his uncle's name, Canaletto.

Bellotto's style was characterized by elaborate representation of architectural and natural vistas, and by the specific quality of each place's lighting. It is plausible that Bellotto, and other Venetian masters of vedute, may have used the camera obscura in order to achieve superior precision of urban views.[2]

Bernardo Bellotto
Bernardo Bellotto
Detail of Self-portrait as Venetian ambassador (c. 1765)
Born30 January 1721
Died17 November 1780
NationalityVenetian
Known forLandscape painting
Notable work
View of Warsaw from Praga, Dresden From the Right Bank of the Elbe Above the Augustus Bridge
Patron(s)Stanislaus II Augustus

Life

Capricho arquitectónico con un palacio - Bernardo Bellotto
Capricho arquitectónico, Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao

Bellotto was born in Venice, the son of Lorenzo Antonio Bellotto and Fiorenza Canal, sister of the famous Canaletto, and studied in his uncle's workshop.[1]

In 1742 he moved to Rome, where he produced vedute of that city. In 1744 and 1745 he traveled northern Italy, again depicting vedute of each city. Among others, he worked for Charles Emmanuel III of Savoy.[1]

From 1747 to 1758 he moved to Dresden,[3] following an invitation from King August III of Poland. He created paintings of the cities Dresden and Pirna and their surroundings.[1] Today these paintings preserve a memory of Dresden's former beauty, which was destroyed by bombing during World War II.

His international reputation grew, and in 1758 he accepted an invitation from Empress Maria Theresa to come to Vienna,[1] where he painted views of the city's monuments.

In 1761 Bellotto left Vienna for Munich, where he spent almost a year. In a letter to her cousin Maria Antonia of Bavaria, Empress Maria Theresia had praised Bellotto's artistic achievements at the Viennese court. Logically, he was commissioned works by the ruling family of Bavaria. He painted a panoramic view of Munich and two vedute of Nymphenburg Palace for the elector of Bavaria.[5] At the end of 1761, Bellotto returned to Dresden.

Capriccio of the Capital by Bernardo Bellotto.jpeg
"Bellotto's urban scenes have the same carefully drawn realism as his uncle's Venetian views but are marked by heavy shadows and are darker and colder in tone and colour."

When King August III of Poland, also an Elector of Saxony, who usually lived in Dresden, died in 1763, Bellotto's work became less important in Dresden. As a consequence, he left Dresden to seek employment in Saint Petersburg at the court of Catherine II of Russia. On his way to Saint Petersburg, however, Bellotto accepted an invitation in 1764 from Poland's newly elected King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski to become his court painter in Warsaw from 1768.[6]

Bellotto Election of Stanislas Augustus (detail)
Detail of Election of Stanislaus Augustus with a study of figures.

Here he remained some 16 years, for the rest of his life, as court painter to the King, for whom he painted numerous views of the Polish capital and its environs for the Royal Castle in Warsaw, complement of the great historical paintings commissioned by Poniatowski from Marcello Bacciarelli. His initial commissions included painted decoration of the Ujazdów Castle between 1767-1770, of which a study of illusionistic vault is the only preserved example of profuse decoration lost in 1784 during the reconstruction of the castle into military barracks.[6]

In 1769 the painter and his son Lorenzo (1744-1770) accomplished another large royal commission - fourteen views of Rome, ancient and papal, based on the collection of etchings by Giovanni Battista Piranesi entitled Vedute di Roma.[6] The collection was dispersed in the early nineteenth century and today various paintings can be admired in different museums in Russia - The Roman Forum as seen from the Capitol to the south-east and Piazza della Rotonda with Pantheon (Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow), View of the Piazza Navona (State Museum in Gorky), View of S. Maria Maggiore (Museum of Art in Khabarovsk) and in private collections.[6]

His paintings of Warsaw, 26 vedute painted between 1770-80 to embellish the so-called Panorama Room (later Canaletto Room) at the Royal Castle in Warsaw and later relocated to Russia, were restored to the Polish Government in 1921[7] and were used in rebuilding the city after its near-complete destruction by German troops during World War II.[3]

Bernardo Bellotto (Italian - View of the Grand Canal and the Dogana - Google Art Project
View of the Grand Canal and the Dogana

Bellotto's early work bears strong features of his uncle's style, becoming more individual and distinguished in later years with clear inspiration of Dutch landscape painting with massed clouds, cast shadows and rich foliage.[3] His colouring is colder and characterized by a steely grey.[3]

The last period of the artist's work is assessed as distinct from the earlier stages with emphasis on the immediacy of observation, striving for a generic treatment of staffage,[6] ability to capture the atmosphere of the place[1] and visible transformation of his painting which become more colorful with warmer tones.[6] For the first time he also undertook historical subjects including Election of Stanislaus Augustus (1778) for the King and Entry of Jerzy Ossoliński into Rome in 1633 (1779) commissioned by Józef Maksymilian Ossoliński.[6] Bellotto created a school of painting which was later continued and developed by Zygmunt Vogel and Marcin Zaleski.[6]

Bernardo Bellotto died in Warsaw in 1780 and was buried in Capuchin Church at Miodowa Street.[6]

His younger brother was named Pietro Bellotto (1725 -c. 1805) and after collaborating with Canaletto and his brother, moved to France, where he was known as le Sieur Canalety and Pietro Bellotti di Caneletty. The brother was also referred to as Belloti, Belloty, Beloty, or Bellottit.

Works

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Bernardo Bellotto 1722 - 1780". Museo Correr exposition information (in Italian). Fondazione Musei Civici Venezia. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Bernardo Bellotto". National Gallery collection catalogue. National Gallery of Britain. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Paintings by or after Bernardo Bellotto at the Art UK site: see extended Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists biography, under "artist profile". Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  4. ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Bernardo-Bellotto
  5. ^ Canaletto: Bernardo Bellotto paints Europe, Catalogue and exhibition at Alte Pinakothek in Munich
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ochnio, Monika (2002). "Bernardo Bellotto zwany Canaletto". culture.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  7. ^ "Seria dwudziestu dwóch widoków Warszawy". www.zamek-krolewski.pl. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.

References

  • Beddington, Charles. Bernardo Bellotto and His Circle in Italy. Part I: Not Canaletto but Bellotto. Burlington Magazine 146, no. 1216 (Cct. 2004): 665–674.
  • "Belotto [sic] Bernardo, zwany [known as] Canaletto", Encyklopedia Polski, p. 42.
  • STEPHANE LOIRE, HANNA MALACHOWICZ, KRZYSTOF POMIAN, ANDRZEJ ROTTERMUND. "Bernardo Bellotto, Un pittore veneziano a Varsavia" . Book edited by Andrzej Rottermund, Director of the Royal Castle at Warszawa and Henry Loirette, Director of the Louvre Museum (Paris), from the Louvre Museum Exhibition of Bernardo Bellotto at the Warszawa Royal Castle from 7 October 2004 to 10 January 2005. 5 Continents Editions srl, Milano, (2004). ISBN 88-7439-139-0. 134 pages with over 65 big size color photographs within.

External links

Media related to Bernardo Bellotto at Wikimedia Commons

1760 in Austria

Events from the year 1760 in Austria

Bellotto

Bellotto is a surname, which may refer to:

Antonio "Tony" (Carlos Liberalli) Bellotto (born 1960), a Brazilian musician (guitarist) and writer

Bernardo Bellotto (1720 - 1780), a Venetian landscape painter or vedutista, and printmaker

Ettore Bellotto (1895 - 1966), an Italian gymnast

Niko Bellotto, an Argentine solo electronic musician

Pietro Bellotto can refer to one of two painters

Pietro Bellotti (1625–1700) Baroque portrait painter from Venice and Bolzano.

younger brother of Bernardo Bellotto, a second Pietro Bellotto (1725-c. 1805) was a Venetian vedute painter, active for years in France

Branicki Palace, Warsaw

The Branicki Palace (Polish: Pałac Branickich) is an 18th-century magnate's mansion in Warsaw, Poland. It is located at the junction of Podwale and Miodowa Streets.

Canaletto (disambiguation)

Canaletto may refer to the following painter:

Giovanni Antonio Canal (1697–1768), Venetian painter famous for his landscapes

Bernardo Bellotto (1721–1780), Venetian urban landscape painter, nephew and pupil of Canal, famous for his vedutes of Warsaw and DresdenCanaletto may also refer to:

8123 Canaletto, a main belt asteroid

Juglans nigra, the American (Black) Walnut

Cityscape

In the visual arts a cityscape (urban landscape) is an artistic representation, such as a painting, drawing, print or photograph, of the physical aspects of a city or urban area. It is the urban equivalent of a landscape. Townscape is roughly synonymous with cityscape, though it implies the same difference in urban size and density (and even modernity) implicit in the difference between the words city and town. In urban design the terms refer to the configuration of built forms and interstitial space.

Dagobert Frey

Dagobert Frey (Vienna, 23 April 1883 – 13 May 1962, Stuttgart) was an Austrian art historian, a criminal responsible for the theft of the most valuable European and Polish collections from the Warsaw and Kraków museums and national art galleries during the Nazi German occupation of Poland.As professor in European art history from the Osteuropa-Institut, Frey was wined and dined by the Polish art experts numerous times in late 1930s. He prepared a meticulous list of the most valuable paintings at the National Museum, Warsaw among other locations across Poland. He showed up at the Museum again in October 1939 with the Gestapo, after the capitulation of the Polish capital, and directed the SS-Untersturmführer Theo Daeisel to art pieces that needed to be seized and shipped to Germany first, including the Portrait of a Young Man by Rembrandt from the collections of the Łazienki Palace (Pałac Łazienkowski), and numerous other masterpieces including paintings by Bernardo Bellotto called Canaletto. The items stolen from the National Museum included 99% of all coins, 100% of historic clocks, 80% jewellery, 63% fabrics, 60% furniture, and 70% ancient manuscripts. The Gestapo headquarters in Warsaw presented the Rembrandt as a gift to Hans Frank in occupied Kraków. Frey moved to Kraków the same month, along with his colleague from the SS, dr Joseph Mühlmann. Together, they pinpointed all sorts of treasures at Wawel (architectural detail notwithstanding), directing Frank in a mass looting campaign. On Frey's advice, even the fireplaces were ripped out from the walls.

Dresden From the Right Bank of the Elbe Above the Augustus Bridge

Dresden From the Right Bank of the Elbe Above the Augustus Bridge is an oil on canvas by the Italian urban landscape painter Bernardo Bellotto. Painted in 1747, it depicts the view of Dresden from the right bank of the River Elbe, including the Dresden Frauenkirche, the Dresden Cathedral, and the Augustus Bridge. One year later, he painted another piece titled Dresden From the Right Bank of the Elbe Below the Augustus Bridge, looking in the other direction from below the Augustus Bridge. Both of the paintings are in the permanent collection of the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister. The paintings have proved invaluable in rebuilding parts of the city that were destroyed during World War II.

Dresden From the Right Bank of the Elbe Below the Augustus Bridge

Dresden From the Right Bank of the Elbe Below the Augustus Bridge is an oil on canvas by the Italian urban landscape painter Bernardo Bellotto. Painted in 1748, it depicts the view of Dresden from the right bank of the River Elbe, including the Dresden Frauenkirche, the Dresden Cathedral, and the Augustus Bridge. One year earlier, he painted another piece titled Dresden From the Right Bank of the Elbe Above the Augustus Bridge, looking in the other direction from above the Augustus Bridge. Both of the paintings are in the permanent collection of the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister. The paintings have proved invaluable in rebuilding parts of the city that were destroyed during the World War II.

El Paso Museum of Art

Founded in 1959, The El Paso Museum of Art (EPMA) is located in downtown El Paso, Texas. First accredited in 1972, it is the only accredited art museum within a 250-mile radius and serves approximately 100,000 visitors per year. A new building was completed in 1998. In addition to its permanent collections and special exhibitions, the museum also offers art classes, film series, lectures, concerts, storytelling sessions and other educational programs to the West Texas, Southern New Mexico and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico community. EPMA's Algur H. Meadows Art Library houses a special collection of art and art history reference books.

It is best known for its 57-piece Samuel H. Kress collection of 12th–18th-century European Art including works by Bernardo Bellotto, Benedetto Bonfigli, Canaletto, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, Vincenzo Catena, Giuseppe Maria Crespi, Carlo Crivelli, Vittore Crivelli, Macrino d'Alba, Jacopo da Sellaio, Nicolò da Voltri, Juan de Borgoña, Jacopo del Sellaio, Martino di Bartolomeo, Giovanni di Paolo, Giovanni Andrea de Ferrari, Sano di Pietro, Battista Dossi, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Juan de Valdés Leal, Benvenuto Tisi (called il Garofalo), Filippino Lippi, Lorenzo Lotto, Alessandro Magnasco, the Master of the Bambino Vispo, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Giacomo Pacchiarotti, Andrea Previtali, Hyacinthe Rigaud, Pietro Rotari, Bernardo Strozzi, Anthony van Dyck, and Francisco Zurbarán. The permanent collection includes North American works of art by Manuel Gregorio Acosta, Frank Duveneck, Childe Hassam, George Inness, Manuel Neri, Rembrandt Peale, Frederic Remington, and Gilbert Stuart, among others.

The museum has developed a major collection of contemporary Southwestern United States and Mexican artists with an emphasis on Texas, New Mexico, and the border region including works by Ho Baron, Julie Bozzi, Carlos Callejo, Susan Davidoff, James Drake, Gaspar Enríquez, Vernon Fisher, Carmen Lomas Garza, Harry Geffert, Sam Gilliam, Gronk, Becky Hendrick, Anna Jaquez, Luis Jiménez, Donald Judd, Ida Lansky, Jim Love, Gilbert Lujan, James Magee, Melissa Miller, Jesús Moroles, Celia Muñoz, Kermit Oliver, Ray Parish, Nadezda Prvulovic, Linda Ridgway, María Sada, Fritz Scholder, James Surls, Willie Varela, and Shane Wiggs. Other special collections include Pre-Columbian and Mexican colonial art, early 19th-century through the mid 20th-century American art, and a collection of works on paper including Old Master, 19th-century, and American Scene prints, reproductive engravings, and photographs.

Francesco Zuccarelli

Giacomo Francesco Zuccarelli (commonly known as Francesco Zuccarelli, Italian pronunciation: [franˈtʃesko ddzukkaˈrɛlli; ttsuk-]; 15 August 1702 – 30 December 1788) RA, was an Italian artist of the late Baroque or Rococo period. He is considered to be the most important landscape painter to have emerged from his adopted city of Venice during the mid-eighteenth century, and his Arcadian views became popular throughout Europe and especially in England where he resided for two extended periods. His patronage extended to the nobility, and he often collaborated with other artists such as Antonio Visentini and Bernardo Bellotto. In 1768, Zuccarelli became a founding member of the Royal Academy of Arts, and upon his final return to Italy, he was elected president of the Venetian Academy. In addition to his rural landscapes which frequently incorporated religious and classical themes, Zuccarelli created devotional pieces and on occasion did portraiture. Beside paintings, his varied output included etchings, drawings, and designs for tapestries as well as a set of Old Testament playing cards.

Despite the fame he experienced in his lifetime, Zuccarelli's reputation declined in the early 19th century with naturalism becoming increasingly favoured in landscapes. Turner criticized him in mild terms while confessing that his figures could be beautiful, paving the way for more severe Victorian assessments. In 1959, the art historian Michael Levey offered suggestions for why Zuccarelli held such wide contemporary appeal among the English, concluding that his best work is highly decorative. More recently, since the 1990s there has been a renewed focus on Zuccarelli among Italian scholars, who have given him prominence in several books and articles, and his paintings and drawings are regularly shown in exhibitions.

Franz Hilverding

Franz Anton Christoph Hilverding (1710–1768), aka Hilferding, was an Austrian choreographer and dancer. For a time Hilverding served as the director of the Imperial Theatre in St. Petersburg, Russia. Hilverding, simultaneously as his contemporaries Jean Baptiste de Hesse, and own assistant Gaspare Angiolini, contributed to the development of the Ballet d'Action, for which Jean Georges Noverre would get lasting credit with the publication of his Letters on Dancing and Ballets. Ballets d'action emphasized a cohesive dramatic and expressive element to performances, with costumes, plot, and movement all serving the purpose of the story. Hilverding studied in Paris from 1734 and 1736, and may have been inspired by the ballerina Marie Sallé, who was one of the first to explore this notion of cohesive dramatic ballets. He started creating dramatic ballets as court choreographer in Vienna in the 1740s, many using the stories of mythological lovers. Hilverding reworked Rameau's Le Turc Généreux (1758) from Lés Indes Galantes, which is immortalized in a print by Bernardo Bellotto entitled Le Turc Généreux. Ballet Pantomime executé à Vienne sur le théâtre de la cour, le 26 Avril 1758, in the British Museum. Invited by Czarina Elizabeth in 1758, he became court choreographer in St Petersburg. He brought his dancers with him to Russia, and did much to progress the talent of the Russian dancers. He tried to use Russian themes in his ballets, and depicted Russia as the "Defender of Virtue" in his "Virtue's Refuge." Hilverding returned to Vienna in 1764 and staged "Le Triomphe de l'Amour" which starred Marie Antoinette and her brothers Ferdinand and Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria.

Henry Howard, 4th Earl of Carlisle

Henry Howard, 4th Earl of Carlisle KG (14 August 1694 – 3 September 1758), styled Viscount Morpeth until 1738 was a British Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1715 to 1738 when he succeeded to the Peerage as Earl of Carlisle.

Carlisle was the third but eldest surviving son of Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle, and his wife Lady Anne, daughter of Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex. He was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge.Carlisle was elected Member of Parliament for Morpeth in 1715, a seat he held until 1738 when he succeeded his father in the earldom and entered the House of Lords. In 1756 he was made a Knight of the Garter.

He continued the building of Castle Howard commenced by his father to the designs of his brother-in-law Sir Thomas Robinson.

Lord Carlisle married firstly Lady Frances, daughter of Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, in 1717. Lady Frances died in 1742. He had three sons and two daughters by his first marriage:

Charles Howard, Viscount Morpeth (1719–1741)

Hon. Henry Howard, died young

Robert Howard, Viscount Morpeth (1724–1743)

Lady Arabella Howard (d. 1746), married on 14 September 1741 Jonathan Cope, eldest son of Sir Jonathan Cope, 1st Baronet, without issue

Lady Diana Howard (died 18 March 1770), married Thomas DuncombeLord Carlisle married secondly the Hon. Isabella, daughter of William Byron, 4th Baron Byron, in 1743. She was a grand-aunt of Lord Byron. He had two sons and four daughters by his second marriage.

Lady Anne Howard (1744 – 13 October 1799)

Lady Frances Howard (1745 – 27 April 1808), married John Radcliffe

Lady Elizabeth Howard (1747 – June 1813), married Peter Delmé, then Capt. Charles Garnier

Frederick Howard, 5th Earl of Carlisle (1748–1825)

Lady Juliana Howard (6 July 1750 – 22 January 1849)Carlisle died in September 1758.

He was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son from his second marriage, Frederick. His widow Lady Carlisle married as her second husband Sir William Musgrave, 6th Baronet, in 1759 and died in 1795, aged 73.

A group of forty Venetian views by Giovanni Antonio Canal, Bernardo Bellotto, Michele Marieschi and others were commissioned or bought after his second Italian visit 1738—1739 through Antonio Maria Zanetti the Elder.

Kreuzkirche, Dresden

The Dresden Kreuzkirche (Church of the Holy Cross) is a Lutheran church in Dresden, Germany. It is the main church and seat of the Landesbischof of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Saxony, and the largest church building in the Free State of Saxony. It also is home of the Dresdner Kreuzchor boys' choir.

Lord Anthony Crichton-Stuart

Lord Anthony Crichton-Stuart (born 14 May 1961) is an art historian, and former head of old master paintings at Christie's in New York, where he worked from 1991 until 2006. He is now an independent art dealer in New York, specialising in Old Master Paintings. He, and his wife Alison, have three children; Flora Grace, Eliza Rose and Arthur Alec. He is the younger son of John Crichton-Stuart, 6th Marquess of Bute; as such, he is styled as a lord. He is a descendant of Bernard Forbes, 8th Earl of Granard and Beatrice Mills Forbes, an American socialite who was the daughter of Ogden Mills and a descendant of the Livingston family and the Schuyler family from New York.

He was educated at Ampleforth College & St Chad's College, Durham University.

His areas of specialty include Dutch and Flemish 17th-century paintings, and he has been active in the Old Master Paintings market for over twenty years, having worked first for the Brod Gallery in London from 1984–86, and then joining the Old Master Paintings department in Christie's London in 1987. He has been involved in the rediscovery and sale at auction of works by Joachim Wtewael, Bernardo Bellotto, Carlo Dolci, Lorenzo Baldissera Tiepolo and Ludovico Carracci.

Miodowa Street (painting)

Miodowa Street (Polish - Ulica Miodowa) is a 1777 oil on canvas painting by Bernardo Bellotto, then court painter to Stanisław August Poniatowski, king of Poland. Now in the Royal Castle, Warsaw, it is one of a series of twenty-two images of Warsaw by this artist and shows the junction of Miodowa Street with Senatorska Street (Ulica Senatorska). On the left is the Krakow Episcopal Palace and the now-lost 1774 Tepper Palace designed by Ephraim Schröger. On the right is the Branicki Palace and Krasiński Palace

The series was housed in the Royal Castle, Warsaw until 1822 before being taken to Russia then returned to Poland in 1922. The painting of Miodowa Street was used as evidence for the reconstruction of the Branicki Palace and the Episcopal Palace after World War Two.

Sforza Castle Pinacoteca

The Sforza Castle Pinacoteca (Pinacoteca del Castello Sforzesco in Italian) is an art gallery in the complex of the Sforza Castle Museums in Milan, northern Italy.

The Grand Canal in Venice (Bellotto)

The Grand Canal in Venice is a c.1736-1740 oil on canvas veduta by Bernardo Bellotto. It is now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon, which bought it in 1891.

The Grand Canal in Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola

The Grand Canal in Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola is a painting by Canaletto in the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, California. Painted around 1738, it may have been commissioned by the English merchant and art collector Joseph Smith (1682–1770).

Veduta

A veduta (Italian for "view"; plural vedute) is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting or, more often print, of a cityscape or some other vista. The painters of vedute are referred to as vedutisti.

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