Bernard Diederich (born 1926), is a New Zealand-born author, journalist, and historian.
Diederich studied in England in the early postwar years after having participated in World War II in the Pacific. In 1949, Diederich started a sailing trip with two friends that brought him to Haiti, a country that since stayed close to his heart. He stayed and settled down, while his partners continued their trip. In Port-au-Prince, he founded and edited the Haiti Sun, a weekly English newspaper about Haitian events. As a journalist he also became a non-staff correspondent for a number of news media including the Associated Press, the New York Times, and the Daily Telegraph. In 1961 he covered the assassination of Rafael Trujillo in the neighboring Dominican Republic. Two years later, after having displeased Haiti’s dictator Papa Doc Duvalier, he was imprisoned and expelled. In the Dominican Republic he established himself as a foreign staff correspondent for Time-Life News. In 1966 Diederich moved to Mexico working for Time Magazine covering Caribbean affairs. In 1981 the office was moved to Miami, and he worked there until his retirement in 1989. The author continued to publish after retirement with the focus on the political and historical developments in the Caribbean, notably in Haiti.
In 1954 Diederich met Graham Greene and the two became friends; later, as a result of their travel along the Haitian border Diederich wrote The Seeds of Fiction: Graham Greene's Adventures in Haiti and Central America 1954–1983, while Greene published The Comedians.
Diederich published a detailed account of Trujillo’s assassination in Trujillo: Death of the Goat in 1978. After Mario Vargas Llosa published The Feast of the Goat, a fictionalized novel about Trujillo’s death, in 2000, Diederich accused Vargas Llosa of plagiarism.
The following lists events that happened during 1926 in New Zealand.Alix Pasquet
Alix Pasquet (unknown–1958) was a World War II fighter pilot, one of only five Haitian members of the Tuskegee Airmen, a soccer star, and a political revolutionary. He was killed while leading a coup attempt against Haitian President François Duvalier in 1958.Amado García Guerrero
Amado García Guerrero (June 2, 1931 – June 2, 1961) was one of the conspirators against, and killers of, Dominican Dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina.
He was a soldier in the Dominican Republic. A member of the Military Aides-de-Camp of Rafael Leonidas Trujillo, he was the person who informed the other conspirators that Trujillo would later leave that night for San Cristóbal. He also was one of the assassins in the ambush on the highway. The story of the revolutionaries and their personal motivations for participating in the assassination of Trujillo, serves to writers as Mario Vargas Llosa, as an excellent example of the experiences with atrocities of the general population suffered during the Trujillo's regime.
The reasons for Amado García's actions against Trujillo were:
Trujillo officially denied García permission to marry the girl he loved, Luisa, because she happened to be sister of René Gil a “ dangerous communist rebel” (who really just happened to search for refuge in a foreign embassy in Santo Domingo).
Military police forced García to kill a young prisoner, who he later discovered was the brother of his fiancée.As is described by Vargas Llosa in La Fiesta del Chivo Amado García Guerrero was a soldier who, due to a capricious test of his loyalty, executed a man with the bandaged eyes. Soon, he was told that the man he just executed was the brother of his ex-fiancée. Later, Salvador Sadhalá tried to console him by saying, “It's a lie, Amadito... It could be any other [man]. He deceived you... Forget about what was said to you. Forget about what you did."
According to Bernard Diederich, the reason for Trujillo's refusal of García's marriage request was that his fiancé's brother had looked for asylum in a foreign embassy in the capital. Later, Amadito received the order to shoot (some say to merely watch the execution of) a victim seated in the jail of the SIM. García followed orders, hoping that it would save himself and the man further torture. Later, García recounted his troubles to Estrella Sadhalá and swore to assassinate Trujillo (Diederich 74).
Following this oath, Amado, youngest of the conspirators, joined his new comrades in a plan to kill Trujillo.
On May 30, 1961, the men regrouped and awaited Trujillo on the side of a highway, where they knew from inside intelligence that the dictator would be passing by on his way to visit his family and he wouldn't have many security surrounding him.
The men were:
Modesto Díaz Quezada,
Luis Manuel Cáceres Michel,
Juan Tomás Diaz,
Manuel de Ovín Filpo (Spaniard immigrant and agronomist technician),
Salvador Estrella Sadhalá (a.k.a. "El Turco"),
Huáscar Antonio Tejeda Pimentel,
Luis Amiama Tió,
Antonio Imbert Barrera,
Antonio de la Maza,
Roberto Pastoriza Neret,
Pedro Livio Cedeño Herrera,
and Amado García Guerrero.
There, on San Cristóbal Highway in Santo Domingo, the men ambushed Trujillo's car and successfully assassinated the dictator of over 30 years.
On June 2, agents of the Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (SIM; the secret police) entered house #59 of Avenue San Martín, (a residence owned by García's relatives) and found Lieutenant Amado García Guerrero in hiding, where he was discovered by a female supporter of Trujillo. After bravely responding to the attacks of the SIM agents, García finally was mortally wounded and died at the age of 30.Antonio de la Maza
Antonio de la Maza (May 24, 1912 – June 4, 1961) was a Dominican businessman based in Santo Domingo. He was an opponent of Rafael Trujillo, and was one of the principal conspirators in the assassination of the aforementioned dictator which took place on May 30, 1961.De la Maza was born in Moca, Espaillat. His family had ties to Horacio Vásquez who was ousted by Trujillo when he started his reign in 1930. After attending the Corps of Military Aides, De la Maza became manager of a Trujillo-owned sawmill near Restauracion. In the context of the 1956 Galindez case his brother Octavio was used as a scapegoat by Trujillo's henchmen; he was presented to the American Government as the murderer of Gerry Murphy and killed.During the assassination De la Maza left Juan Tomás Díaz's .45 automatic pistol at the scene, a complication that facilitated the Servicio de Inteligencia Militar's work as they could identify the owner. A few days later De la Maza and Tomas Díaz were killed by the SIM when coming out of hiding.Daniel Ortega
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (Spanish pronunciation: [daˈnjel oɾˈteɣa]; born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990). A leader in the Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN), his policies in government have seen the implementation of leftist reforms across Nicaragua.
Born into a working-class family, from an early age Ortega opposed ruling President Anastasio Somoza Debayle, widely recognized as a dictator, and became involved in the underground movement against his regime. Joining the Sandinistas as a student in 1963, Ortega's urban resistance activities led to his arrest in 1967. After his release in 1974, he also travelled to Cuba to receive training in guerilla warfare from Fidel Castro's Marxist–Leninist government. He played a crucial role in forming the Insurrectionist faction, which united the FSLN and sparked the mass uprisings of 1978-1979. After the Nicaraguan Revolution resulted in the overthrow and exile of Somoza's government, Ortega became leader of the ruling multipartisan Junta of National Reconstruction. In 1984, Ortega, the FSLN candidate, won Nicaragua's free presidential election with over 60 percent of the vote. A Marxist–Leninist, his first period in office was characterized by a controversial program of nationalization, land reform, wealth redistribution and literacy programs.
Ortega's relationship with the United States was never very cordial, due to U.S. support for Somoza prior to the revolution. Although the U.S. supplied post-revolution Nicaragua with tens of millions of dollars in economic aid, relations broke down when the Sandinistas supplied weapons to leftist Salvadoran rebels (something which Ortega later admitted occurred). His government was opposed by the Contras in a vicious civil war; the Contras were funded by the Reagan administration of the United States. A joint peace proposal by the Democratic Speaker of the House Jim Wright and Ronald Reagan helped precipitate a peace agreement at a meeting of five Central American chiefs of state in July 1987, which won Costa Rican President Óscar Arias the Nobel Peace Prize. This led to free elections in which Ortega was defeated by Violeta Chamorro in the 1990 presidential election, but he remained an important figure in Nicaraguan opposition politics, gradually moderating in his political position from Marxism–Leninism to democratic socialism. Also, he restored relations with the Catholic Church, with adoption of anti-abortion policies.
Ortega was an unsuccessful candidate for president in 1996 and 2001, before winning the 2006 presidential election. In office, he made alliances with fellow Latin American socialists, such as Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, and under his leadership, Nicaragua joined the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas.
As of April 19, 2018, Amnesty International and the IACHR of the Organization of American States stated that Ortega has engaged in a violent oppression campaign against protesters, while government officials and government-owned media have denied such actions.Dominican Adventist University
Dominican Adventist University (Universidad Adventista Dominicana - UNAD) is a Seventh-day Adventist co-educational university located in the Dominican Republic, and accredited by the Adventist Accrediting Association. UNAD offers undergraduate and graduate level degrees.
It is a part of the Seventh-day Adventist education system, the world's second largest Christian school system.François Duvalier
François Duvalier (French pronunciation: [fʁɑ̃swa dyvalje]; 14 April 1907 – 21 April 1971), also known as Papa Doc (Daddy Doc), was the President of Haiti from 1957 to 1971. He was elected president in 1957 on a populist and black nationalist platform. After thwarting a military coup d'état in 1958, his regime rapidly became totalitarian and despotic. An undercover government death squad, the Tonton Macoute, killed opponents indiscriminately, and was thought to be so pervasive that Haitians became highly fearful of expressing dissent, even in private. Duvalier further sought to solidify his rule by incorporating elements of Haitian mythology into a personality cult.
Prior to his rule, Duvalier was a physician by profession. His profession and expertise in the field acquired him the nickname "Papa Doc". He was unanimously "re-elected" in a 1961 election in which he was the only candidate. Afterwards, he consolidated his power step by step, culminating in 1964 when he declared himself as President for Life after another faulty election, and remained in power until he died in 1971. He was succeeded by his son, Jean‑Claude, who was nicknamed "Baby Doc".Graham Greene
Henry Graham Greene (2 October 1904 – 3 April 1991), better known by his pen name Graham Greene, was an English novelist regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. Combining literary acclaim with widespread popularity, Greene acquired a reputation early in his lifetime as a major writer, both of serious Catholic novels, and of thrillers (or "entertainments" as he termed them). He was shortlisted, in 1966 and 1967, for the Nobel Prize for Literature. Through 67 years of writings, which included over 25 novels, he explored the ambivalent moral and political issues of the modern world, often through a Catholic perspective.
Although Greene objected strongly to being described as a Roman Catholic novelist, rather than as a novelist who happened to be Catholic, Catholic religious themes are at the root of much of his writing, especially the four major Catholic novels: Brighton Rock, The Power and the Glory, The Heart of the Matter, and The End of the Affair; which have been named "the gold standard" of the Catholic novel. Several works, such as The Confidential Agent, The Quiet American, Our Man in Havana, The Human Factor, and his screenplay for The Third Man, also show Greene's avid interest in the workings and intrigues of international politics and espionage.
Greene was born in Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire into a large, influential family that included the owners of the Greene King Brewery. He boarded at Berkhamsted School in Hertfordshire, where his father taught and became headmaster. Unhappy at the school, he attempted suicide several times. He went up to Balliol College, Oxford, to study history, where, while an undergraduate, he published his first work in 1925—a poorly received volume of poetry, Babbling April. After graduating, Greene worked first as a private tutor and then as a journalist – first on the Nottingham Journal and then as a sub-editor on The Times. He converted to Catholicism in 1926 after meeting his future wife, Vivien Dayrell-Browning. Later in life he took to calling himself a "Catholic agnostic". He published his first novel, The Man Within, in 1929; its favourable reception enabled him to work full-time as a novelist. He supplemented his novelist's income with freelance journalism, and book and film reviews. His 1937 film review of Wee Willie Winkie (for the British journal Night and Day), commented on the sexuality of the nine-year-old star, Shirley Temple. This provoked Twentieth Century Fox to sue, prompting Greene to live in Mexico until after the trial was over. While in Mexico, Greene developed the ideas for The Power and the Glory. Greene originally divided his fiction into two genres (which he described as "entertainments" and "novels"): thrillers—often with notable philosophic edges—such as The Ministry of Fear; and literary works—on which he thought his literary reputation would rest—such as The Power and the Glory.
Greene had a history of depression, which had a profound effect on his writing and personal life. In a letter to his wife, Vivien, he told her that he had "a character profoundly antagonistic to ordinary domestic life," and that "unfortunately, the disease is also one's material." William Golding praised Greene as "the ultimate chronicler of twentieth-century man's consciousness and anxiety." He died in 1991, at age 86, of leukemia, and was buried in Corseaux cemetery.Human rights violations by the CIA
This article deals with the activities of the Central Intelligence Agency, an agency of the Federal government of the United States, that violate human rights.Johnny Abbes García
Johnny Abbes García (1924, Santo Domingo – 1967, Haiti) was the chief of the governmental intelligence office – the Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (Military Intelligence Service) – during the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. He ruled under Trujillo during the end of the Third Republic, and later served the Duvalier dynasty in Haiti.July 1958 Haitian coup d'état attempt
On 28–29 July 1958, Alix "Sonson" Pasquet, accompanied by two fellow Haitian military officers and five American soldiers of fortune, attempted to overthrow Haitian President Francois Duvalier by seizing an army barracks in Port-au-Prince and rallying like-minded troops for an attack on the Presidential palace. Hoped-for support failed to materialize and all eight of the insurgents were killed by troops loyal to Duvalier.
Contemporary newspaper articles sometimes referred to the coup attempt as 'Pasquet's Invasion' or 'the Sheriffs Invasion' (as some of the Americans involved were former sheriff's deputies).Maria Moors Cabot Prizes
The Maria Moors Cabot Prizes are the oldest international awards in the field of journalism. They are presented each fall by the Trustees of Columbia University to journalists in the Western hemisphere who are viewed as having made a significant contributions to upholding freedom of the press in the Americas and Inter-American understanding. Since 2003 the prize can be awarded to an organization instead of an individual.Michael Echanis
Michael Dick Echanis (November 16, 1950 – September 8, 1978) was an American enlisted soldier and self-styled "soldier of fortune". In 1970, he served briefly in "C" Company, 75th Ranger Regiment Infantry in Vietnam. Echanis then made his living as a martial artist, writer and editor. He was the martial arts editor for the magazine Soldier of Fortune (SOF) from 1974 to 1976. He died while working as a private security contractor in Nicaragua at the behest of the Nicaraguan National Guard. This was reported by SOF in an article published after the incident.Mirabal sisters
The Mirabal sisters (Spanish pronunciation: [eɾˈmanas miɾaˈβal], Las Hermanas Mirabal) were four sisters in the Dominican Republic, known commonly as Patria, Minerva, Maria Teresa, and Dedé, who opposed the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo (El Jefe) and were involved in clandestine activities against his regime. Three of the four sisters (Patria, Minerva, Maria Teresa) were assassinated on 25 November 1960. The last sister, Dedé, died of natural causes on 1 February 2014.
The assassinations turned the Mirabal sisters into "symbols of both popular and feminist resistance".In 1999, in the sisters' honor, the United Nations General Assembly designated 25 November the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.National Unity Party (Haiti)
The National Unity Party (French: Parti de l'unité nationale, PUN) is a political party in Haiti. It was the de facto only political party in the country during the Duvalier dynasty (French: Dynastie des Duvalier), an authoritarian family dictatorship of François "Papa Doc" Duvalier and his son Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier, which lasted from 1957 to 1986.Servicio de Inteligencia Militar
The Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (SIM) (English: Military Intelligence Service) was the main instrument during the later part of the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo to keep control within the Dominican Republic.The Comedians (novel)
The Comedians (1966) is a novel by Graham Greene. Set in Haiti under the rule of François "Papa Doc" Duvalier and his secret police, the Tonton Macoute, the novel explores the political suppression and terrorism through the figure of an English hotel owner, Brown.
The story begins as three men, Brown, Smith, an "innocent" American, and Major H. O. Jones, a confidence man, meet on a ship bound for Haiti. Brown, Smith, and Jones, their names suggesting a curious facelessness, are the "comedians" of Greene's title. Complications include Brown's friendship with a rebel leader, politically charged hotel guests, the manipulations of a British arms dealer, and an affair with Martha Pineda, the wife of a South American ambassador. The setting for much of the novel, the Hotel Trianon, was inspired by the Hotel Oloffson in central Port-au-Prince.The novel was adapted as a feature film of the same name, released in 1967 and starring Richard Burton, Elizabeth Taylor, Alec Guinness, Peter Ustinov, James Earl Jones, Cicely Tyson, Paul Ford and Lillian Gish.