Bernard Bergonzi

Bernard Bergonzi FRSL (13 April 1929 – 20 September 2016) was a British literary scholar, critic, and poet. He was Emeritus Professor of English at the University of Warwick and an expert on T. S. Eliot.

He was born in London and studied at the Wadham College, Oxford. He had an academic position in Manchester before moving to Warwick, and has held visiting professorships at American universities.[1]


  • Godolphin and Other Poems (Latin Press, 1952)
  • Descartes and the Animals - Poems 1948-54 (1954)
  • The Fantasy Poets: Number 34 (Fantasy Press 1957) with Dennis Keene and Oscar Mellor
  • The Early H. G. Wells: A Study of The Scientific Romances (1961)
  • L.P.Hartley and Anthony Powell (1962) with Paul Bloomfield, British Council, Writers and Their Work #144, revised 1971 as Bergonzi on Powell
  • Heroes' Twilight. A Study of the Literature of the Great War (1965) revised 1980
  • An English Sequence (1966) poems
  • Innovations: Where is our Culture Going? (1968) editor, with Marshall Mcluhan, Frank Kermode, Leslie Fiedler
  • Great Short Works of Aldous Huxley (1969) editor
  • T.S.Eliot: Four Quartets (1969) editor, essays
  • The Situation of the Novel (1970)
  • "The Twentieth Century" (1970) editor, Volume 7 of the Sphere History of Literature in the English Language
  • Memorials (1970) poems
  • T. S. Eliot (1972)
  • The Turn of a Century - Essays on Victorian and Modern English Literature (1973)
  • H. G. Wells - A Collection of Critical Essays (1976) editor
  • Gerard Manley Hopkins (1977)
  • Reading the Thirties (1978)
  • Years (Mandeville Press 1979) poems
  • The Roman Persuasion (1981) novel
  • The Myth of Modernism and Twentieth Century Literature (1986)
  • A Short History of English Literature (1990) revision of Ifor Evans
  • Exploding English: Criticism, Theory, Culture (OUP, 1991)
  • Wartime and Aftermath : English Literature and Its Background, 1939-60 (OUP, 1993)
  • David Lodge (1995)
  • War Poets and Other Subjects (1999)
  • A Victorian Wanderer. The Life of Thomas Arnold the Younger (OUP, 2003)
  • A Study in Greene (OUP, 2006)


  1. ^ Homberger, Eric; Lodge, David (27 September 2016). "Bernard Bergonzi obituary". Retrieved 27 September 2016 – via The Guardian.
A Handful of Dust

A Handful of Dust is a novel by the British writer Evelyn Waugh. First published in 1934, it is often grouped with the author's early, satirical comic novels for which he became famous in the pre-World War II years. Commentators have, however, drawn attention to its serious undertones, and have regarded it as a transitional work pointing towards Waugh's Catholic postwar fiction.

The protagonist is Tony Last, a contented but shallow English country squire, who, having been betrayed by his wife and seen his illusions shattered one by one, joins an expedition to the Brazilian jungle, only to find himself trapped in a remote outpost as the prisoner of a maniac. Waugh incorporated several autobiographical elements into the plot, including his own recent desertion by his wife. In 1933–34 he travelled into the South American interior, and a number of incidents from the voyage are incorporated into the novel. Tony's singular fate in the jungle was first used by Waugh as the subject of an independent short story, published in 1933 under the title "The Man Who Liked Dickens".

The book's initial critical reception was modest, but it was popular with the public and has never been out of print. In the years since publication the book's reputation has grown; it is generally considered one of Waugh's best works, and has more than once figured on unofficial lists of the 20th century's best novels.

Waugh had converted to Roman Catholicism in 1930, after which his satirical, secular writings drew hostility from some Catholic quarters. He did not introduce overtly religious themes into A Handful of Dust, but later explained that he intended the book to demonstrate the futility of humanist, as distinct from religious, especially Catholic, values. The book has been dramatised for radio, stage and screen.

Ada Elizabeth Chesterton

Ada Chesterton or Mrs Cecil Chesterton [née Jones] (30 June 1869 – 20 January 1962) was a British socialist journalist and philanthropist. Her best known work was In Darkest London.

Alan Rook

Alan Rook (1909–1990) was a British Cairo poet and edited the 1936 issue of New Oxford Poetry.


Bergonzi is an Italian surname. It is the surname of the following:

Bernard Bergonzi (b. 1929), British literary scholar, critic and poet

Carlo Bergonzi (1924-2014), Italian singer

Carlo Bergonzi (luthier) (1683-1747), Italian violin maker

Charles Bergonzi (1910-??), Monegasque sports shooter

Jerry Bergonzi (b. 1947), American jazz saxophonist

Riccardo Bergonzi (b. 1961), luthier

Caroline Bergonzi (b. 1972), Monegasque sculptor/artist

Burnt Norton

Burnt Norton is the first poem of T. S. Eliot's Four Quartets. He created it while working on his play Murder in the Cathedral and it was first published in his Collected Poems 1909–1935 (1936). The poem's title refers to a Cotswolds manor house Eliot visited. The manor's garden served as an important image within the poem. Structurally, the poem is based on Eliot's The Waste Land with passages of the poem related to those excised from Murder in the Cathedral.

The central discussion within the poem is on the nature of time and salvation. Eliot emphasises the need of the individual to focus on the present moment and to know that there is a universal order. By understanding the nature of time and the order of the universe, mankind is able to recognise God and seek redemption. Many reviewers of Burnt Norton focused on the uniqueness and beauty of the poem. However, others complained that the poem does not reflect Eliot's earlier greatness and that the use of Christian themes harmed the poem.

Dr. No (novel)

Dr. No is the sixth novel by the English author Ian Fleming to feature his British Secret Service agent James Bond. Fleming wrote the novel in early 1957 at his Goldeneye estate in Jamaica. It was first published in the United Kingdom by Jonathan Cape on 31 March 1958. The novel centres on Bond's investigation into the disappearance in Jamaica of two fellow MI6 operatives. He establishes that they had been investigating Doctor No, a Chinese operator of a guano mine on the fictional Caribbean island of Crab Key. Bond travels to the island and meets Honeychile Rider and later Doctor No.

The novel began as a 1956 screenplay for the producer Henry Morgenthau III for a proposed television show entitled Commander Jamaica. When those plans foundered, Fleming adapted the ideas as the basis for a novel, provisionally titled The Wound Man. The book's eponymous villain was influenced by Sax Rohmer's Fu Manchu stories.

Dr. No was the first of Fleming's novels to face widespread negative criticism in Britain; Paul Johnson of the New Statesman dismissed the book as one of "Sex, Snobbery and Sadism". When released on the American market it was received more favourably. Dr. No was serialised in the Daily Express, first in an abridged story form and later as a comic strip. The story was adapted in 1962 as the first film in the Bond series, with Sean Connery in the lead role; in 2008 BBC Radio 4 broadcast a version, with Toby Stephens as Bond.

Edgell Rickword

John Edgell Rickword, MC (22 October 1898 – 15 March 1982) was an English poet, critic, journalist and literary editor. He became one of the leading communist intellectuals active in the 1930s.

Ethel Arnold

Ethel Margaret Arnold (bapt. 26 May 1865 – 5 October 1930) was an English journalist, author, and lecturer on female suffrage.

George Sutherland Fraser

George Sutherland Fraser (8 November 1915 – 3 January 1980) was a Scottish poet, literary critic and academic.


"Gerontion" is a poem by T. S. Eliot that was first published in 1920. The work relates the opinions and impressions of a gerontic, or elderly man, through a dramatic monologue which describes Europe after World War I through the eyes of a man who has lived the majority of his life in the 19th century. Eliot considered using this already published poem as a preface to The Waste Land, but decided to keep it as an independent poem. Along with "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" and The Waste Land, and other works published by Eliot in the early part of his career, '"Gerontion" discusses themes of religion, sexuality, and other general topics of modernist poetry.

J. G. Farrell

James Gordon Farrell (25 January 1935 – 11 August 1979) was an English-born novelist of Irish descent who spent much of his adult life in Ireland. He gained prominence for a series of novels known as "the Empire Trilogy" (Troubles, The Siege of Krishnapur and The Singapore Grip), which deal with the political and human consequences of British colonial rule.

Farrell's career abruptly ended when he drowned in Ireland at the age of 44, falling to his death in a storm. "Had he not sadly died so young,” Salman Rushdie said in 2008, "there is no question that he would today be one of the really major novelists of the English language. The three novels that he did leave are all in their different way extraordinary."Troubles received the 1971 Geoffrey Faber Memorial Prize and The Siege of Krishnapur received the 1973 Booker Prize. In 2010 Troubles was retrospectively awarded the Lost Man Booker Prize, created to recognise works published in 1970. Troubles and its fellow shortlisted works had not been open for consideration that year due to a change in the eligibility rules.

Mal Lewis Jones

Mal Lewis Jones is a British children's author.

Murder in the Cathedral

Murder in the Cathedral is a verse drama by T.S. Eliot, first performed in 1935, that portrays the assassination of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral during the reign of Henry II in 1170. Eliot drew heavily on the writing of Edward Grim, a clerk who was an eyewitness to the event.The play, dealing with an individual's opposition to authority, was written at the time of rising fascism in Central Europe.

Some material that the producer asked Eliot to remove or replace during the writing was transformed into the poem "Burnt Norton".

Paula Fox

Paula Fox (April 22, 1923 – March 1, 2017) was an American author of novels for adults and children and of two memoirs. For her contributions as a children's writer she won the biennial, international Hans Christian Andersen Award in 1978, the highest international recognition for a creator of children's books. She also won several awards for particular children's books including the 1974 Newbery Medal for her novel The Slave Dancer; a 1983 National Book Award in category Children's Fiction (paperback) for A Place Apart; and the 2008 Deutscher Jugendliteraturpreis for A Portrait of Ivan (1969) in its German-language edition Ein Bild von Ivan.In 2011, she was inducted into the New York State Writers Hall of Fame. The NYSW Hall of Fame is a project of the Empire State Center for the Book. Her adult novels went out of print in 1992. In the mid nineties she enjoyed a revival as her adult fiction was championed by a new generation of American writers.

Sanford Friedman

Sanford Friedman (June 11, 1928 – April 20, 2010) was an American novelist. He was gay and known for writing gay themes in his books.Friedman's Totempole (1965) features an army love affair between its protagonist and a North Korean doctor war prisoner. Some have identified the Stephen Wolfe persona in this novel as being the first instance of a main character who is both Jewish and gay in American fiction.

Sylvia Plath

Sylvia Plath (; October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short-story writer. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, she studied at Smith College and Newnham College at the University of Cambridge before receiving acclaim as a poet and writer. She married fellow poet Ted Hughes in 1956, and they lived together in the United States and then in England. They had two children, Frieda and Nicholas, before separating in 1962.

Plath was clinically depressed for most of her adult life, and was treated multiple times with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). She died by suicide in 1963.

Plath is credited with advancing the genre of confessional poetry and is best known for two of her published collections, The Colossus and Other Poems and Ariel, and The Bell Jar, a semi-autobiographical novel published shortly before her death. In 1982, she won a posthumous Pulitzer Prize for The Collected Poems.

The Dry Salvages

The Dry Salvages is the third poem of T. S. Eliot's Four Quartets and marks the beginning of when the series was consciously being formed as a set of four poems. It was written and published in 1941 during the air-raids on Great Britain, an event that threatened him while giving lectures in the area. The title comes from the name of a rock formation near a town he spent time at as a child, which reflects Eliot's references to his own past throughout the poem.

The poem discusses the nature of time and what humanity's place is within time. Life is described metaphorically as travelling in a boat and humanity's fixation on science and future gain keeping the travellers from reaching their destination. Within the poem, Eliot invokes the image of Krishna to emphasise the need to follow the divine will instead of seeking personal gain.

Tom Arnold (literary scholar)

Tom Arnold (30 November 1823 – 12 November 1900), also known as Thomas Arnold the Younger, was an English literary scholar.

War novel

A war novel (military fiction) is a novel in which the primary action takes place on a battlefield, or in a civilian setting (or home front), where the characters are either preoccupied with the preparations for, suffering the effects of, or recovering from war. Many war novels are historical novels.

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