Bernard Bailyn

Bernard Bailyn (born September 9, 1922) is an American historian, author, and academic specializing in U.S. Colonial and Revolutionary-era History. He has been a professor at Harvard University since 1953. Bailyn has won the Pulitzer Prize for History twice (in 1968 and 1987).[1] In 1998 the National Endowment for the Humanities selected him for the Jefferson Lecture.[2] He was a recipient of the 2010 National Humanities Medal. He is married to MIT Professor of Management Lotte Bailyn (née Lotte Lazarsfeld) and is the father of Yale astrophysicist Charles Bailyn[3] and Stony Brook Linguist John Bailyn.

He has specialized in American colonial and revolutionary-era history, looking at merchants, demographic trends, Loyalists, international links across the Atlantic, and especially the political ideas that motivated the Patriots. He is best known for studies of republicanism and Atlantic history that transformed the scholarship in those fields.[4] He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1963.[5]

Bernard Bailyn
BornSeptember 9, 1922 (age 96)
Alma materWilliams College
Harvard University
AwardsPulitzer Prize for History (1968, 1987)
Bancroft Prize (1968)
Scientific career
FieldsAmerican history
InstitutionsHarvard University
Doctoral students65, including Gordon S. Wood, Pauline Maier


Born in Hartford, Connecticut to a Jewish family, Bailyn earned his bachelor's degree from Williams College in 1945 and in 1953 earned his Ph.D from Harvard University. He has been associated with Harvard ever since. As a graduate student at Harvard, Bailyn studied under Perry Miller, Samuel Eliot Morison, and Oscar Handlin. He was made a full professor in 1961, and professor emeritus in 1993. In 1979, he received an honorary doctorate from Grinnell College in Grinnell, IA.[6]

History books

Bernard Bailyn is the editor of Pamphlets of the American Revolution, the first volume of which, published in 1965, was awarded the Faculty Prize of the Harvard University Press for that year, and editor of The Apologia of Robert Keayne (1965) and the two-volume Debate on the Constitution (1993).

He co-authored The Great Republic (1977), an American history textbook; and was co-editor of The Intellectual Migration, Europe and America, 1930-1960 (1969), Law in American History (1972), The Press and the American Revolution (1980), and Strangers within the Realm: Cultural Margins of the First British Empire.

Major themes and ideas

Bailyn's dissertation and first publications dealt with New England merchants. He argued that international commerce was an uncertain business, given the high risk of losses at sea in the very long turnaround times meant that information was often too old to be useful. Merchants reduced the uncertainty by pooling their resources, especially with marriages to other merchant families, and placing their kinfolk as trusted agents in London and other foreign ports.

International commerce became a chief means of growing rich in colonial Massachusetts. However, there was an ongoing tension between the entrepreneurial spirit on the one hand and traditional Puritan culture on the other. The world of merchants became an engine of social change, undermining the isolationism, scholasticism, and religious zeal of the Puritan leadership. Bailyn pointed the younger generation of historians away from Puritan theology and toward broader social and economic forces. Bailyn expanded his research to the social structure of Virginia, showing how its leadership class was transformed in the 1660s. Like Edmund Morgan at Brown University and Yale, Bailyn emphasized the multiple roles of the family in the colonial social system.[7]

Bailyn is known for meticulous research and for interpretations that sometimes challenge the conventional wisdom, especially those dealing with the causes and effects of the American Revolution. In his most influential work, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution, Bailyn analyzed pre-Revolutionary political pamphlets to show that colonists believed the British intended to establish a tyrannical state that would abridge the historical British rights. He thus argued that the Revolutionary rhetoric of liberty and freedom was not simply propagandistic but rather central to their understanding of the situation. This evidence was used to displace Charles A. Beard's theory, then the dominant understanding of the American Revolution, that the American Revolution was primarily a matter of class warfare and that the rhetoric of liberty was meaningless. Bailyn maintained that ideology was ingrained in the revolutionaries, an attitude he said exemplified the "transforming radicalism of the American Revolution."[8]

Bailyn argued that republicanism was at the core of the values French radical thinkers had striven to affirm. He located the intellectual sources of the American Revolution within a broader British political framework, explaining how English country Whig ideas about civic virtue, corruption, ancient rights, and fear of autocracy were, in the colonies, transformed into the ideology of republicanism.

According to Bailyn,

The modernization of American Politics and government during and after the Revolution took the form of a sudden, radical realization of the program that had first been fully set forth by the opposition intelligentsia ... in the reign of George the First. Where the English opposition, forcing its way against a complacent social and political order, had only striven and dreamed, Americans driven by the same aspirations but living in a society in many ways modern, and now released politically, could suddenly act. Where the French opposition had vainly agitated for partial reforms ... American leaders moved swiftly and with little social disruption to implement systematically the outermost possibilities of the whole range of radically libertarian ideas.

In the process they ... infused into American political culture ... the major themes of eighteenth-century radical libertarianism brought to realization here. The first is the belief that power is evil, a necessity perhaps but an evil necessity; that it is infinitely corrupting; and that it must be controlled, limited, restricted in every way compatible with a minimum of civil order. Written constitutions; the separation of powers; bill of rights; limitations on executives, on legislatures, and courts; restrictions on the right to coerce and wage war—all express the profound distrust of power that lies at the ideological heart of the American Revolution and that has remained with us as a permanent legacy ever after.[9]

Bailyn's approach to the constellation of Whig ideas is artfully diachronic rather than structural; that is, contested libertarian meanings change through time as "the colonists" struggle to define, and to pursue, the property of independence. Recent historians, such as Tufts University wiki-skeptic and CUNY professor Benjamin Carp, hold that more than any other "colonist," Boston waterfront rebels channeled their "cosmopolitanism into a belief that 'the cause of America' was a libertarian 'cause for all mankind'" (Carp, Rebels Rising, 61).

Social history

In the 1980s, Bailyn turned from political and intellectual history to social and demographic history. His histories of the peopling of colonial North America explored questions of immigration, cultural contact, and settlement that his mentor Handlin had pioneered decades earlier.

Bailyn has been a major innovator in new research techniques, such as quantification, collective biography, and kinship analysis.[7]

Bailyn is representative of those scholars who believe in the concept of American exceptionalism but avoid the terminology, and thereby avoid getting entangled in rhetorical debates. According to Michael Kammen and Stanley N. Katz, Bailyn:

is very clearly a believer in the distinctiveness of American civilization. Although he rarely, if ever, uses the phrase "American exceptionalism," he repeatedly insists upon the "distinctive characteristics of British North American life." He has argued...that the process of social and cultural transmission resulted in peculiarly American patterns of education (in the broadest sense of the word); and he believes in the unique character of the American Revolution.[10]

Atlantic history

Since the mid-1980s, Bailyn's Harvard seminar on the "History of the Atlantic World" promoted social and demographic studies, and especially regarding demographic flows of population into colonial America. As a leading advocate of the Atlantic history, Bailyn has organized an annual international seminar at Harvard designed to promote scholarship in this field.[11] Bailyn's Atlantic History: Concepts and Contours (2005) explores the borders and contents of the emerging field, which emphasizes cosmopolitan and multicultural elements that have tended to be neglected or considered in isolation by traditional historiography dealing with the Americas.

Bailyn's Students

Former students of Bailyn include Pulitzer Prize winners Michael Kammen, Jack N. Rakove and Gordon S. Wood as well as Pulitzer Prize finalist Mary Beth Norton. Other notable Bailyn students include:

  • Fred Anderson (Crucible of War and A People's Army);
  • Virginia DeJohn Anderson (Creatures of Empire);
  • Richard L. Bushman (From Puritan to Yankee);
  • Philip J. Greven (The Protestant Temperament, Spare the Child);
  • Richard D. Brown (Revolutionary Politics in Massachusetts: The Boston Committee of Correspondence and the Towns, 1772-1774 and Knowledge Is Power: The Diffusion of Information in Early America, 1700-1865);
  • Sally E. Hadden (Slave Patrols);
  • David Hancock (historian) ("Oceans of Wine: Madeira and the Emergence of American Trade and Taste," "Citizens of the World: London Merchants and the Integration of the British Atlantic Community, 1735-1785)
  • James Henretta (Families and farms: Mentalite in Pre-Industrial America);
  • Peter Charles Hoffer (Law and People in Colonial America, among others);
  • Stanley N. Katz (Newcastle's New York);
  • Pauline Maier (American Scripture on the Declaration and Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution, 1787-1788, winner of the 2011 George Washington Book Prize and the Fraunces Tavern Book Prize);
  • William E. Nelson, legal and constitutional historian and Edward Weinfeld Professor of Law at New York University School of Law, author of The Fourteenth Amendment: From Political Principle to Judicial Doctrine (1988), winner of the Littleton-Griswold Prize of the American Historical Association, and many other books;
  • Jeffrey Pasley (The First Presidential Contest, The Tyranny of Printers, Beyond the Founders
  • George David Smith (practitioner of applied economic and business history and founding partner of The Winthrop Group, Inc. Anatomy of a Business Strategy; From Monopoly to Competition; The New Financial Capitalists, with G. Baker; History of The Firm [McKinsey & Co.], lead author,
  • Peter H. Wood (Black Majority);
  • Michael Zuckerman (Peaceable Kingdoms)

Many of these historians have gone on to train a new generation of American historians; others have branched out into fields as diverse as law and the history of science.


  • Bailyn, Bernard (1955). The New England merchants in the Seventeenth Century. Harvard University Press.
  • Massachusetts Shipping, 1697-1714: A Statistical Study. (with Lotte Bailyn) Harvard University Press, 1959.
  • Education in the Forming of American Society: Needs and Opportunities for Study. University of North Carolina Press, 1960.
  • Bailyn, Bernard, ed. Pamphlets of the American Revolution, 1750-1776. Harvard University Press, 1965.
  • The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Harvard University Press, 1967; awarded the Pulitzer Prize and the Bancroft Prize in 1968.
  • The Origins of American Politics. Knopf, 1968.
  • The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson. Harvard University Press, 1974; winner of the 1975 National Book Award in History.[12]
  • The Great Republic: A History of the American People. Little, Brown, 1977; coauthored college textbook; several editions.
  • The Peopling of British North America: An Introduction. Knopf, 1986.
  • Voyagers to the West: A Passage in the Peopling of America on the Eve of the Revolution. Knopf, 1986; won the Pulitzer Prize in History, the Saloutos Award of the Immigration History Society, and distinguished book awards from the Society of Colonial Wars and the Society of the Cincinnati.
  • Faces of Revolution: Personalities and Themes in the Struggle for American Independence. Knopf, 1990.
  • Bailyn, Bernard, ed. The Debate on the Constitution: Federalist and Antifederalist Speeches, Articles, and Letters During the Struggle for Ratification. Part One: September 1787 to February 1788. Library of America, 1993. ISBN 0-940450-42-9
  • Bailyn, Bernard, ed. The Debate on the Constitution: Federalist and Antifederalist Speeches, Articles, and Letters During the Struggle for Ratification. Part Two: January to August 1788. Library of America, 1993. ISBN 0-940450-64-X
  • On the Teaching and Writing of History. 1994.
  • — (Mar 1996). "Context in history". History. Quadrant. 40 (3): 9–15.[13]
  • To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities of the American Founders. Knopf, 2003.
  • Atlantic History: Concept and Contours. Harvard University Press, 2005.
  • The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600-1675, Alfred A. Knopf, 2012, ISBN 978-0394515700.

Further reading

  • Boyd, Kelly, ed. Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writers (Rutledge, 1999) 1:66-68.
  • Coclanis, Peter A. "Drang Nach Osten: Bernard Bailyn, the World-Island, and the Idea of Atlantic History." Journal of World History 13.1 (2002): 169-182.
  • Ekirch, A. Roger "Bernard Bailyn," in Clyde N. Wilson, ed. Twentieth-century American Historians (Gale Research Company, 1983) pp 19–26
  • Kammen, Michael and Stanley N. Katz, "Bernard Bailyn, Historian, and Teacher: An Appreciation." in James A. Henretta, Michael Kämmen, and Stanley N. Katz, eds. The Transformation of Early American History: Society, Authority, and Ideology (1991) pp 3–15
  • Rakove, Jack N. "'How Else Could It End?' Bernard Bailyn and the Problem of Authority and Early America." in James A. Henretta, Michael Kämmen, and Stanley N. Katz, eds. The Transformation of Early American History: Society, Authority, and Ideology (1991) pp 51–69
  • Rakove, Jack N. "Bernard Bailyn" in Robert Allen Rutland, ed. "Clio's Favorites: Leading Historians of the United States, 1945-2000" (U of Missouri Press. 2000) pp 5–22.
  • Wood, Gordon. "The creative imagination of Bernard Bailyn," in James A. Henretta, Michael Kämmen, and Stanley N. Katz, eds. The Transformation of Early American History: Society, Authority, and Ideology (1991) pp 16–50.


  1. ^ "History". Past winners & finalists by category. The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
  2. ^ Jefferson Lecturers at NEH Website (retrieved January 22, 2009).
  3. ^ "Heads of the Two New Residential Colleges Are Named" (July 6, 2016). YaleNews ( Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  4. ^ Jack N. Rakove, "Bernard Bailyn" in Robert Allen Rutland, ed. "Clio's Favorites: Leading Historians of the United States, 1945-2000" (2000) pp 5-22
  5. ^ "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  6. ^ "Past Honorary Degrees Grinnell College".
  7. ^ a b A. Roger Ekirch, "Bernard Bailyn," in Clyde N. Wilson, ed. Twentieth-century American Historians (Gale Research Company, 1983) pp 19-26
  8. ^ Bailyn, The ideological origins of the American Revolution (1992 edition) Page v
  9. ^ Bernard Bailyn, "The Central Themes of the American Revolution: An Interpretation," in S. Kurtz and J. Hutson, eds., Essays on the American Revolution (1960), pp. 26–27.
  10. ^ Michael Kammen and Stanley N. Katz, "Bernard Bailyn, Historian, and Teacher: An Appreciation." in James A. Henretta, Michael Kämmen, and Stanley N. Katz, eds. The Transformation of Early American History: Society, Authority, and Ideology (1991) p 10.
  11. ^ See See course details
  12. ^ "National Book Awards – 1975". National Book Foundation. Archived from the original on 2011-09-09. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
  13. ^ Edited version of the 1995 Charles La Trobe Lecture.

External links

Art and Life in America

Art and Life in America is a book by Oliver W. Larkin published in 1949 by Rinehart & Company which won the 1950 Pulitzer Prize for History. It is a book which comprehensively deals about Art and artists in the United States .

Atlantic history

Atlantic history is a specialty field in history that studies the Atlantic World in the early modern period. The Atlantic World was created by the discovery of a new land by Europeans, and Atlantic History is the study of that world. It is premised on the idea that, following the rise of sustained European contact with the New World in the 16th century, the continents that bordered the Atlantic Ocean—the Americas, Europe, and Africa—constituted a regional system or common sphere of economic and cultural exchange that can be studied as a totality..

Its theme is the complex interaction between Europe (especially Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal) and the New World colonies. It encompasses a wide range of demographic, social, economic, political, legal, military, intellectual and religious topics treated in comparative fashion by looking at both sides of the Atlantic. Religious revivals characterized Britain and Germany, as well as the First Great Awakening in the American colonies. Migration and race/slavery have been important topics.Researchers of Atlantic history typically focus on the interconnections and exchanges between these regions and the civilizations they harbored. In particular, they argue that the boundaries between nation states which traditionally determined the limits of older historiography should not be applied to such transnational phenomena as slavery, colonialism, missionary activity and economic expansion. Environmental history and the study of historical demography also play an important role, as many key questions in the field revolve around the ecological and epidemiological impact of the Columbian Exchange.

Robert R. Palmer, an American historian of the French Revolution, pioneered the concept in the 1950s with a wide-ranging comparative history of how numerous nations experienced what he called The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760–1800 (1959 and 1964). Since the 1980s Atlantic history has emerged as an increasingly popular alternative to the older discipline of imperial history, although it could be argued that the field is simply a refinement and reorientation of traditional historiography dealing with the interaction between early modern Europeans and native peoples in the Atlantic sphere. The organization of Atlantic History as a recognized area of historiography began in the 1980s under the impetus of American historians Bernard Bailyn of Harvard University and Jack P. Greene of Johns Hopkins University, among others. The post-World War II integration of the European Union and the continuing importance of NATO played an indirect role in stimulating interest throughout the 1990s.

Charles Bailyn

Charles David Bailyn (born October 27, 1959) is the A. Bartlett Giamatti Professor of Astronomy and Physics at Yale University and inaugural dean of faculty at Yale-NUS College. His father is the distinguished American historian Bernard Bailyn. He earned a B.S. in astronomy and physics from Yale in 1981 and a Ph.D. in astronomy from Harvard in 1987. His Ph.D. thesis on X-ray emitting binary stars received the Robert J. Trumpler Award for best North American Ph.D. thesis in astronomy.Bailyn's research interests include high-energy astronomy and galactic astronomy and he has published over 100 referred papers.

During spring 2007, Bailyn recorded ASTR 160, Frontiers and Controversies in Astrophysics, as part of the Open Yale Courses initiative. Bailyn also recorded three updates to the course more than five years later on the subjects of extra-solar planets, black holes, and dark energy.

Bailyn was awarded the 2009 Bruno Rossi Prize for his research on the masses of black holes.On July 6, 2016, Yale announced that Bailyn would become the first head of the new Benjamin Franklin College, which opened in 2017.

David Tyack

David B. Tyack (November 17, 1930 – October 27, 2016) was the Vida Jacks Professor of Education and Professor of History, Emeritus at the Stanford Graduate School of Education. Tyack is known for his wide-ranging studies and interpretations of the history of American education.

Tyack took his undergraduate degree in 1952 and his PhD in 1958, both at Harvard University. His dissertation under Bernard Bailyn dealt with "Gentleman of letters: a study of George Ticknor". Tyack taught at Reed College from 1959 to 1966, the University of Illinois from 1967 to 1969, and since 1969 at Stanford University. He received awards from the American Council of Learned Societies, and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. Tyack served as president of the History of Education Society, 1970 to 1971.After examining late 19th century reform movements in New York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis, San Francisco and Chicago, Tyack concluded that, "What the structural reformers wanted to do, then, was to replace a rather mechanical form of public bureaucracy, which was permeated with 'illegitimate' lay influence, with a streamlined 'professional' bureaucracy in which lay control was carefully filtered through a corporate school board."Tyack died on October 27, 2016 in Palo Alto from complications of Parkinson's disease.

History of the American Frontier

History of the American Frontier is a book by Frederic L. Paxson published in 1924 by Simon Publications which won the 1925 Pulitzer Prize for History.

In the Days of McKinley

In the Days of McKinley is a book by Margaret Leech published in 1959 by Harper & Brothers Publishers which won the 1960 Pulitzer Prize for History. It is a Biography of the former American President William McKinley.


Liberty! The American Revolution is a six-hour documentary miniseries about the Revolutionary War, and the instigating factors, that brought about the United States' independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. It was first broadcast on the Public Broadcasting System in 1997.

The series consists of six hour-long episodes. Each episode is introduced by Forrest Sawyer and narrated by Edward Herrmann. Period photographs and location filming are intercut with stage and screen actors in appropriate period costume reading as figures of the time, including Campbell Scott (Thomas Jefferson), Philip Bosco (Benjamin Franklin), Victor Garber (John Dickinson), Alex Jennings (King George III), Roger Rees (Thomas Paine), Philip Seymour Hoffman (Joseph Plumb Martin), Terrence Mann (Gen. John Burgoyne), Colm Feore (Alexander Hamilton), Sebastian Roché (The Marquis de Lafayette), Donna Murphy (Abigail Adams), Austin Pendleton (Benjamin Rush) and Peter Donaldson (John Adams). Stephen Lang read the words of George Washington, but is not seen on camera.

British and American historians and authors, including Carol Berkin, Bernard Bailyn, Ron Hoffman, Claude-Anne Lopez, Pauline Maier, George C. Neumann, Richard Norton Smith, Gordon S. Wood (U.S.) and Jeremy Black, Colin Bonwick, John Keegan, and N.A.M. Rodger (U.K.) add historical background, explaining life and society of the time while interpreting events from the perspectives of the two sides of the conflict. Historical perspectives also include the status of black slaves and freemen, the participation of American Indians, and the strivings of American women as events progress.

List of Jewish American historians

This is a list of famous Jewish American historians. For other famous Jewish Americans, see List of Jewish Americans. See also List of Jewish historians.

Anthony Grafton

Ariel Durant

Barbara TuchmanJonathan Sarna, Brandeis University, Jewish Heritage Center,Boston.

Bernard Bailyn

Bernard Lewis

Cyrus Adler

Daniel J. Boorstin

Deborah Hertz

Deborah Lipstadt

Erwin Panofsky

Gabriel Kolko

Herbert Aptheker

Howard Zinn

Jack Wasserman

James Sloss Ackerman, architectural historian

John Lukacs, Hungarian-born historian

Joseph Jacobs, editor of the Jewish Encyclopedia

Meyer Schapiro

Norman Cantor

Norman Finkelstein, author and historian

Peter Gay

Raul Hilberg

Richard Ettinghausen, art historian

Richard Hofstadter

Richard Popkin, historian of philosophy

Robert Fogel, economist and historian

Rosa Levin Toubin, historian of Jewish Texan history

Stanley M. Wagner, rabbi and academic

Rudolf Wittkower, architectural historian

Stanley Elkins

Yosef Goldman

Maldwyn Jones

Maldwyn Allen Jones (December 18, 1922 – April 12, 2007) was an historian who specialised in American history.

Jones studied at Jesus College, Oxford from 1946 to 1949, obtaining a first-class degree in history. He was a lecturer at Manchester University before becoming chairman of the British Association for American Studies in 1968 and Commonwealth Professor of American History at University College London in 1971.His most famous work was the synthesis The Limits of Liberty: American History 1607-1980, a volume in the "Short Oxford History of the Modern World" series, published in 1983. This remains the most comprehensive single-authored book on American history.

Michael Kammen

Michael Gedaliah Kammen (October 25, 1936 – November 29, 2013) was an American professor of American cultural history in the Department of History at Cornell University. At the time of his death, he held the title "Newton C. Farr professor emeritus of American history and culture".

Kammen was born in 1936 in Rochester, New York, grew up in the Washington, DC area, and was educated at the George Washington University and Harvard University, where he received his Ph.D. in 1964 after studying under Bernard Bailyn. He began teaching at Cornell upon completion his graduate studies at Harvard and taught until retiring to emeritus status in 2008. He won his first renown as a scholar of the colonial period of American history, yet his scholarship and teaching interests eventually broadened to include legal, cultural and social issues of American history of the 19th and 20th centuries as well.

One of his first major books, People of Paradox: An Inquiry Concerning the Origins of American Civilization, won the Pulitzer Prize for History in 1973. A later work, A Machine That Would Go of Itself: The Constitution in American Culture (1986), won the Francis Parkman Prize and the Henry Adams Prize. In this work, Kammen describes the American people's evolving conceptions of the U.S. Constitution and of constitutional governance, stressing both mechanical and organic conceptions of constitutional development over time.

Kammen was active in organizations advancing the study of history, and served as president of the Organization of American Historians for the 1995-96 year.

He was the father of UC Berkeley professor Daniel Kammen.

Pulitzer Prize for History

The Pulitzer Prize for History, administered by Columbia University, is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It has been presented since 1917 for a distinguished book about the history of the United States. Thus it is one of the original Pulitzers, for the program was inaugurated in 1917 with seven prizes, four of which were awarded that year. The Pulitzer Prize program has also recognized some historical work with its Biography prize, from 1917, and its General Non-Fiction prize, from 1952.

Finalists have been announced from 1980, ordinarily two others beside the winner.

Republicanism in the United States

Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding. It stresses liberty and unalienable individual rights as central values, making people sovereign as a whole; rejects monarchy, aristocracy and inherited political power, expects citizens to be virtuous and faithful in their performance of civic duties, and vilifies corruption. American republicanism was articulated and first practiced by the Founding Fathers in the 18th century. For them, "republicanism represented more than a particular form of government. It was a way of life, a core ideology, an uncompromising commitment to liberty, and a total rejection of aristocracy."Republicanism was based on Ancient Greco-Roman, Renaissance, and English models and ideas. It formed the basis for the American Revolution, the Declaration of Independence (1776), the Constitution (1787), and the Bill of Rights, as well as the Gettysburg Address (1863).Republicanism includes guarantees of rights that cannot be repealed by a majority vote. Alexis de Tocqueville warned about the "tyranny of the majority" in a democracy, and suggested the courts should try to reverse the efforts of the majority of terminating the rights of an unpopular minority.The term 'republicanism' is derived from the term 'republic', but the two words have different meanings. A 'republic' is a form of government (one without a hereditary ruling class); 'republicanism' refers to the values of the citizens in a republic.Two major parties have used the term in their name – the Republican Party of Thomas Jefferson (founded in 1793, and often called the 'Jeffersonian Republican Party'), and the current Republican Party, founded in 1854 and named after the Jeffersonian party.

Scientists Against Time

Scientists Against Time is a book by James Phinney Baxter III published in 1946 by Little, Brown and Company which won the 1947 Pulitzer Prize for History.

The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution

The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution is a 1968 Pulitzer Prize-winning book of history by Bernard Bailyn. It is considered one of the most influential studies of the American Revolution published during the 20th century.

The book grew out of Bailyn's introduction to the first volume of Pamphlets of the American Revolution, a series of documents of the Revolutionary era which he edited for the John Harvard Library. In the process of reading hundreds of pamphlets published between 1750 and 1776, Bailyn detected a pattern of similarities in argument, language, and invocation of certain figures including Cato the Younger and radical Whig heroes Algernon Sidney and John Wilkes. Bailyn analyzes the content of these popular pamphlets as clues to "the 'great hinterland' of belief" in the English North American colonies, "notions which men often saw little need to explain because they were so obvious." In lyrical prose that channels the radical Whig impulse, Bailyn explains the great hinterland of libertarianism for them.The book argued against the interpretation, identified with historian Charles A. Beard, that the Revolution had been primarily class warfare between competing social classes. Bailyn found that pamphlet writers sounded the same themes in their private writing as in public, and that their expressed fears of "slavery," "corruption," and a "conspiracy" against liberty were genuine.

The Uprooted

The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations That Made the American People is book about European migrations into the United States by Oscar Handlin. It won the Pulitzer Prize for History in 1952.

The War of Independence

The War of Independence is a Pulitzer Prize-winning book by American historian Claude H. Van Tyne, published in 1929. It explains the history and causes of the American Revolutionary War. Van Tyne won the Pulitzer Prize for History for this book in 1930.

The War with Mexico

The War with Mexico is a book by Justin Harvey Smith. It won the 1920 Pulitzer Prize for History.

Voyagers to the West

Voyagers to the West: A Passage in the Peopling of America on the Eve of the Revolution is a 1986 nonfiction book by American historian Bernard Bailyn, published by Knopf. The book chronicles the migration of British and Scottish farmers into colonial America in the 1770s. It won the 1987 Pulitzer Prize for History, the second time Bailyn won the award. (The first time was in 1968 for The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution.)

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