Bern

Bern or Berne (German: Bern [bɛrn] (listen), Alemannic German: Bärn [b̥æːrn], French: Berne [bɛʁn], Italian: Berna [ˈbɛrna], Romansh: Berna [ˈbɛrnɐ] (listen)) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".[3][note 1] With a population of 142,493 (January 2019), Bern is the fifth-most populous city in Switzerland.[4] The Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014.[5] The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000.[6] Bern is also the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerland's cantons.

The official language in Bern is (the Swiss variety of Standard) German, but the most-spoken language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Bernese German.

In 1983, the historic old town (in German: Altstadt) in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[7]

Bern
Berne
Aerial view of the Old City
Aerial view of the Old City
Coat of arms of Bern Berne

Coat of arms
Location of Bern
Berne
Bern Berne is located in Switzerland
Bern Berne
Bern
Berne
Bern Berne is located in Canton of Bern
Bern Berne
Bern
Berne
Coordinates: 46°57′N 7°27′E / 46.950°N 7.450°ECoordinates: 46°57′N 7°27′E / 46.950°N 7.450°E
CountrySwitzerland
CantonBern
DistrictBern-Mittelland administrative district
Government
 • ExecutiveGemeinderat
with 5 members
 • MayorStadtpräsident (list)
Alec von Graffenried GFL
(as of January 2017)
 • ParliamentStadtrat
with 80 members
Area
 • Total51.62 km2 (19.93 sq mi)
Elevation
(Bahnhofplatz)
540 m (1,770 ft)
Highest elevation
(Könizberg)
674 m (2,211 ft)
Lowest elevation
(Aare near to Eymatt)
481 m (1,578 ft)
Population
(2017-12-31)[2]
 • Total133,798
 • Density2,600/km2 (6,700/sq mi)
Demonym(s)English: Bernese, German: Berner(in), French: Bernois(e)
Postal code
3000–3030
SFOS number0351
LocalitiesAltenberg, Aaregg, Bümpliz, Bethlehem, Beundenfeld, Bottigen, Breitenrain, Breitfeld, Brunnadern, Dählhölzli, Engeried, Gäbelbach, Grosser Bremgartenwald, Gryphenhübeli, Felsenau, Holligen, Innere Stadt, Kirchenfeld, Könizbergwald, Länggasse, Lorraine, Muesmatt, Murifeld, Neufeld, Sandrain, Schosshalde, Spitalacker, Stöckacker, Tiefenau, Wankdorf, Weissenbühl, Weissenstein
Surrounded byBremgarten bei Bern, Frauenkappelen, Ittigen, Kirchlindach, Köniz, Mühleberg, Muri bei Bern, Neuenegg, Ostermundigen, Wohlen bei Bern, Zollikofen
Websitewww.bern.ch
SFSO statistics

Etymology

The etymology of the name "Bern" is uncertain. According to the local legend, based on folk etymology, Berchtold V, Duke of Zähringen, the founder of the city of Bern, vowed to name the city after the first animal he met on the hunt, and this turned out to be a bear. It has long been considered likely that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German. As a result of the finding of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now more common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin, possibly *berna "cleft".[8] The bear was the heraldic animal of the seal and coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s. The earliest reference to the keeping of live bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s.

History

Early history

Untertorbrücke Tschachtlanchronik
Construction of the Untertorbrücke (Lower Gate Bridge) in Bern, Tschachtlanchronik, late 15th century

No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of today′s city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel (peninsula) north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC (late La Tène period), thought to be one of the 12 oppida of the Helvetii mentioned by Caesar. During the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site. The Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor ("dwelling of Breno"). In the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km (2 mi) from the medieval city.

The medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, which rose to power in Upper Burgundy in the 12th century. According to 14th-century historiography (Cronica de Berno, 1309), Bern was founded in 1191 by Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen.

In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made a free imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.

Old Swiss Confederacy

MerianBern
Bern in 1638

In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the formative period of 1353 to 1481.

Bern invaded and conquered Aargau in 1415 and Vaud in 1536, as well as other smaller territories, thereby becoming the largest city-state north of the Alps; by the 18th century, it comprised most of what is today the canton of Bern and the canton of Vaud.

The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare. The Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345. It was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm (formerly located close to the site of the modern-day railway station) until 1622. During the time of the Thirty Years' War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze (entrenchment) – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula.

After a major blaze in 1405, the city's original wooden buildings were gradually replaced by half-timbered houses and subsequently the sandstone buildings which came to be characteristic for the Old Town. Despite the waves of pestilence that hit Europe in the 14th century, the city continued to grow, mainly due to immigration from the surrounding countryside.[9]

Modern history

Bern was occupied by French troops in 1798 during the French Revolutionary Wars, when it was stripped of parts of its territories. It regained control of the Bernese Oberland in 1802, and following the Congress of Vienna of 1814, it newly acquired the Bernese Jura. At this time, it once again became the largest canton of the Confederacy as it stood during the Restoration and until the secession of the canton of Jura in 1979. Bern was made the Federal City (seat of the Federal Assembly) within the new Swiss federal state in 1848.

A number of congresses of the socialist First and Second Internationals were held in Bern, particularly during World War I when Switzerland was neutral; see Bern International.

The city's population rose from about 5,000 in the 15th century to about 12,000 by 1800 and to above 60,000 by 1900, passing the 100,000 mark during the 1920s. Population peaked during the 1960s at 165,000 and has since decreased slightly, to below 130,000 by 2000. As of September 2017, the resident population stood at 142,349, of which 100,000 were Swiss citizens and 42,349 (31%) resident foreigners. A further estimated 350,000 people live in the immediate urban agglomeration.[10]

Geography and climate

Topography

Bern 2
The Old City of Bern with the Minster and its platform above the lower Matte quarter and the Aare
Aareschlaufe Bern-East
The Aare flows in a wide loop around the Old City of Bern
Bern, Switzerland
View of Bern from the ISS; The Old City is in the lower right-hand side.

Bern lies on the Swiss plateau in the canton of Bern, slightly west of the centre of Switzerland and 20 km (12 mi) north of the Bernese Alps. The countryside around Bern was formed by glaciers during the most recent ice age. The two mountains closest to Bern are Gurten with a height of 864 m (2,835 ft) and Bantiger with a height of 947 m (3,107 ft). The site of the old observatory in Bern is the point of origin of the CH1903 coordinate system at 46°57′08.66″N 7°26′22.50″E / 46.9524056°N 7.4395833°E.

The city was originally built on a hilly peninsula surrounded by the river Aare, but outgrew natural boundaries by the 19th century. A number of bridges have been built to allow the city to expand beyond the Aare.

Bern is built on very uneven ground. An elevation difference of several metres exists between the inner city districts on the Aare (Matte, Marzili) and the higher ones (Kirchenfeld, Länggasse).

Bern has an area, as of 2009, of 51.62 km2 (19.93 sq mi). Of this area, 9.79 km2 (3.78 sq mi) or 19.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 17.33 km2 (6.69 sq mi) or 33.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 23.25 km2 (8.98 sq mi) or 45.0% is settled (buildings or roads), 1.06 km2 (0.41 sq mi) or 2.1% is either rivers or lakes, and 0.16 km2 (0.062 sq mi) or 0.3% is unproductive land.[11]

Of the developed area of Bern, 3.6% consists of industrial buildings, 21.7% housing and other buildings, and 12.6% is devoted to transport infrastructure. Power and water infrastructure, as well as other special developed areas, made up 1.1% of the city, while another 6.0% consists of parks, green belts, and sports fields.

Of Bern's total land area, 32.8% is heavily forested. Of the agricultural land, 14.3% is used for growing crops and 4.0% is designated to be used as pasture. Local rivers and streams provide all the water in the municipality.[11]

Climate

According to the Köppen Climate Classification, Bern has a humid continental climate (Dfb).[12]

The closest weather station near Bern is located in the municipality of Zollikofen, about 5 kilometres (3 mi) north of the city centre. The warmest month for Bern is July, with a daily mean temperature of 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), and a daily maximum temperature of 24.3 °C (75.7 °F).[13] The highest temperature recorded at Bern / Zollikofen is 37.0 °C (98.6 °F),[14] recorded in August 2003. On average, a temperature of 25 °C (77 °F) or above is recorded 40.7 days per year, and 6 days per year with a temperature of 30 °C (86 °F) or above at Zollikofen,[15] and the warmest day reaches an average of 32.1 °C (89.8 °F).[16]

There are 103.7 days of air frost, and 22.3 ice days per year at Bern (Zollikofen) for the period of 1981–2010, as well as 14.1 days of snowfall, 36.7 days of snow cover per year and the average amount of snow measured per year is 52.6 centimetres (20.7 in).[17] On average, January is the coldest month, with a daily mean temperature of −0.4 °C (31.3 °F), and a daily minimum temperature of −3.6 °C (25.5 °F).[18] The lowest temperature ever recorded at Bern (Zollikofen) was −23.0 °C (−9.4 °F),[19] recorded in February 1929, and typically the coldest temperature of the year reaches an average of −12.8 °C (9.0 °F)[20] for the period of 1981–2010.

Politics

Subdivisions

The municipality is administratively subdivided into six districts (Stadtteile), each of which consists of several quarters (Quartiere).

Government

Erlacherhof
Erlacherhof
Rathaus (Bern)
Rathaus

The Municipal Council (Gemeinderat) constitutes the executive government of the City of Bern and operates as a collegiate authority. It is composed of five councillors (German: Gemeinderat/-rätin), each presiding over a directorate (Direktion) comprising several departments and bureaus. The president of the executive department acts as mayor (Stadtpräsident). In the mandate period 2017–2020 (Legislatur) the Municipal Council is presided by Stadtpräsident Alec von Graffenried. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the City Council are carried by the Municipal Council. The regular election of the Municipal Council by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every four years. Any resident of Bern allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Municipal Council. Contrary to most other municipalities, the executive government in Berne is selected by means of a system of Proporz. The mayor is elected as such as well by public election while the heads of the other directorates are assigned by the collegiate. The executive body holds its meetings in the Erlacherhof, built by architect Albrecht Stürler after 1747.[23]

As of 2017, Bern's Municipal Council is made up of two representatives of the SP (Social Democratic Party), and one each of CVP (Christian Democratic Party), GFL (Grüne Freie Liste a.k.a. Green Free List, who is the newly elected mayor since 2017), and GB (Green Alliance of Berne), giving the left parties a very strong majority of four out of five seats. The last regular election was held on 27 November 2016/15 January 2017.[23]

The Municipal Council (Gemeinderat) of Bern[23]
Municipal Councillor
(Gemeinderat/-rätin)
Party Head of Directorate (Direktion, since) of elected since
Alec von Graffenried[GR 1]      GFL Mayor's Office (Präsidialdirektion (PRD), 2017) 2017
Reto Nause[GR 2]      CVP Security, the Environment and Energy (Direktion für Sicherheit, Umwelt und Energie (SUE), 2009) 2009
Franziska Teuscher      GB Education, Social Welfare and Sport (Direktion für Bildung, Soziales und Sport (BSS), 2013) 2013
Ursula Wyss      SP Civil Engineering, Transport and Green Spaces (Direktion für Tiefbau, Verkehr und Stadtgrün (TVS), 2013) 2013
Michael Aebersold      SP Finances, Personnel and IT (Direktion für Finanzen, Personal und Informatik (FPI), 2017) 2016
  1. ^ Mayor (Stadtpräsident)
  2. ^ Vice-Mayor (Vizepräsident)

Dr. Jürg Wichtermann is State Chronicler (Staatsschreiber) since 2008. He has been elected by the collegiate.

Parliament

The Stadtrat of Bern for the mandate period of 2017–2020

  PdA (1.25%)
  AL (2.5%)
  GPB-DA (1.25%)
  JUSO (2.5%)
  SP/PS (27.5%)
  JA! (2.5%)
  GB (11.25%)
  GFL (10%)
  EVP/PEV (2.5%)
  jglp (1.25%)
  glp/pvl (8.75%)
  CVP/PDC (2.5%)
  BDP/PBD (3.75%)
  FDP/PLR (11.25%)
  SVP/UDC (11.25%)

The City Council (de: Stadtrat, fr: Conseil de ville) holds legislative power. It is made up of 80 members, with elections held every four years. The City Council decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed by the Municipal Council and the administration. The delegates are selected by means of a system of proportional representation.

The sessions of the City Council are public. Unlike members of the Municipal Council, members of the City Council are not politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Bern allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the City Council. The parliament holds its meetings in the Stadthaus (Town Hall).[24]

The last regular election of the City Council was held on 27 November 2016 for the mandate period (German: Legislatur, French: la législature) from 2017 to 2020. Currently the City Council consist of 24 members of the Social Democratic Party (SP/PS) including 2 members of the junior party JUSO, 9 Green Alliance of Berne (GB), 9 The Liberals (FDP/PLR), 9 Swiss People's Party (SVP/UDC), 8 Grüne Freie Liste (GFL) (Green Free List), 8 Green Liberal Party (glp/pvl) including one member of its junior party jglp, 3 Conservative Democratic Party (BDP/PBD), 2 Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP/PDC), 2 Evangelical People's Party (EVP/PEV), 2 Junge Alternative (JA!) (or Young Alternatives), 2 Alternative Linke Bern (AL), 1 Grüne Partei Bern – Demokratische Alternative (GPB-DA) (or Green Party Bern – Democratic Alternative), and 1 Swiss Party of Labour (PdA).

The following parties combine their parliamentary power in parliamentary groups (German: Fraktion(en)): AL and GPB-DA and PdA (4), SP and JUSO (24), GB and JA! (11), GFL and EVP (10), glp und jglp (8), BDP and CVP (5), FDP (9), and SVP (9). This gives the left parties an absolute majority of 49 seats.[25]

National elections

National Council

In the 2015 federal election for the Swiss National Council the most popular party was the PS which received 34.3% of the vote. The next five most popular parties were the Green Party (17.4%), the UDC (12.4%), and the FDP/PLR (9.9%), glp/pvl (9.4%), and the BDP/PBD (7.0%). In the federal election, a total of 48,556 voters were cast, and the voter turnout was 56.0%.[26]

International relations

Twin and sister cities

The Municipal Council of the city of Bern decided against having twinned cities except for a temporary (during the UEFA Euro 2008) cooperation with the Austrian city Salzburg[27][28]

Demographics

Population

Largest groups of foreign residents 2012
Nationality Number % total
(foreigners)
 Germany 5,957 4.7 (20.0)
 Italy 4,113 3.2 (13.5)
 Spain 1,977 1.6 (6.5)
 Portugal 1,433 1.1 (4.7)
 Turkey 1,161 0.9 (3.8)
 Republic of Macedonia 1,120 0.9 (3.7)
 Kosovo 1,085 0.9 (3.6)
 Sri Lanka 898 0.7 (3.0)
 Serbia 898 0.7 (3.0)
 France 668 0.5 (2.2)
 Austria 629 0.5 (2.1)

Bern has a population (as of December 2017) of 133,798.[29]. About 34% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the 10 years between 2000 and 2010, the population changed at a rate of 0.6%. Migration accounted for 1.3%, while births and deaths accounted for −2.1%.[30]

Most of the population (as of 2000) speaks German (104,465 or 81.2%) as their first language, Italian is the second most common (5,062 or 3.9%) and French is the third (4,671 or 3.6%). There are 171 people who speak Romansh.[31]

As of 2008, the population was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. The population was made up of 44,032 Swiss men (35.4% of the population) and 15,092 (12.1%) non-Swiss men. There were 51,531 Swiss women (41.4%) and 13,726 (11.0%) non-Swiss women.[32] Of the population in the municipality, 39,008 or about 30.3% were born in Bern and lived there in 2000. There were 27,573 or 21.4% who were born in the same canton, while 25,818 or 20.1% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, and 27,812 or 21.6% were born outside of Switzerland.[31]

Bern Bethlehem2
Apartment blocks at Bern-Bethlehem

As of 2000, children and teenagers (0–19 years old) make up 15.1% of the population, while adults (20–64 years old) make up 65% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 19.9%.[30]

As of 2000, there were 59,948 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 49,873 married individuals, 9,345 widows or widowers and 9,468 individuals who are divorced.[31]

Houses in the Old City of Bern
Houses in the Old City of Bern

As of 2000, there were 67,115 private households in the municipality, and an average of 1.8 persons per household.[30] There were 34,981 households that consist of only one person and 1,592 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 65,538 apartments (90.6% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 5,352 apartments (7.4%) were seasonally occupied and 1,444 apartments (2.0%) were empty.[33] As of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 1.2 new units per 1000 residents.[30]

As of 2003 the average price to rent an average apartment in Bern was 1108.92 Swiss francs (CHF) per month (US$890, £500, €710 approx. exchange rate from 2003). The average rate for a one-room apartment was 619.82 CHF (US$500, £280, €400), a two-room apartment was about 879.36 CHF (US$700, £400, €560), a three-room apartment was about 1040.54 CHF (US$830, £470, €670) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 2094.80 CHF (US$1680, £940, €1340). The average apartment price in Bern was 99.4% of the national average of 1116 CHF.[34] The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.45%.[30]

Historic population

The historical population is given in the following chart:[35]

Religion

From the 2000 census, 60,455 or 47.0% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church, while 31,510 or 24.5% were Roman Catholic. Of the rest of the population, there were 1,874 members of an Orthodox church (or about 1.46% of the population), there were 229 persons (or about 0.18% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church, and there were 5,531 persons (or about 4.30% of the population) who belonged to another Christian church. There were 324 persons (or about 0.25% of the population) who were Jewish, and 4,907 (or about 3.81% of the population) who were Muslim. There were 629 persons who were Buddhist, 1,430 persons who were Hindu and 177 persons who belonged to another church. 16,363 (or about 12.72% of the population) belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 7,855 persons (or about 6.11% of the population) did not answer the question.[31] On 14 December 2014 the Haus der Religionen was inaugurated.

Main sights

Bundeshaus Bern 2009, Flooffy
The central building of the Federal Palace of Switzerland
4377 - Bern - Kindlifresserbrunnen am Kornhausplatz
The Ogre of the Kindlifresserbrunnen has a sack of children waiting to be devoured.

The structure of Bern's city centre is largely medieval and has been recognised by UNESCO as a Cultural World Heritage Site. Perhaps its most famous sight is the Zytglogge (Bernese German for "Time Bell"), an elaborate medieval clock tower with moving puppets. It also has an impressive 15th century Gothic cathedral, the Münster, and a 15th-century town hall. Thanks to 6 kilometres (4 miles) of arcades, the old town boasts one of the longest covered shopping promenades in Europe.

Since the 16th century, the city has had a bear pit, the Bärengraben, at the far end of the Nydeggbrücke to house its heraldic animals. The currently four bears are now kept in an open-air enclosure nearby, and two other young bears, a present by the Russian president, are kept in Dählhölzli zoo.[36]

The Federal Palace (Bundeshaus), built from 1857 to 1902, which houses the national parliament, government and part of the federal administration, can also be visited.

Albert Einstein lived in a flat at the Kramgasse 49, the site of the Einsteinhaus, from 1903 to 1905, the year in which the Annus Mirabilis papers were published.

The Rose Garden (Rosengarten), from which a scenic panoramic view of the medieval town centre can be enjoyed, is a well-kept Rosarium on a hill, converted into a park from a former cemetery in 1913.

There are eleven Renaissance allegorical statues on public fountains in the Old Town. Nearly all the 16th-century fountains, except the Zähringer fountain, which was created by Hans Hiltbrand, are the work of the Fribourg master Hans Gieng. One of the more interesting fountains is the Kindlifresserbrunnen (Bernese German: Child Eater Fountain but often translated Ogre Fountain) which is claimed to represent a Jew,[37] the Greek god Chronos or a Fastnacht figure that scares disobedient children.[38]

Bern's most recent sight is the set of fountains in front of the Federal Palace. It was inaugurated on 1 August 2004.

The Universal Postal Union is situated in Bern.

The Zytglogge clock tower
The Zytglogge clock tower and the city's medieval covered shopping promenades (Lauben)

Heritage sites of national significance

Bern is home to 114 Swiss heritage sites of national significance.[39]

It includes the entire Old Town, which is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and many sites within and around it. Some of the most notable in the Old Town include the Cathedral which was started in 1421 and is the tallest cathedral in Switzerland, the Zytglogge and Käfigturm towers, which mark two successive expansions of the Old Town, and the Holy Ghost Church, which is one of the largest Swiss Reformed churches in Switzerland. Within the Old Town, there are eleven 16th-century fountains, most attributed to Hans Gieng, that are on the list.

Outside the Old Town the heritage sites include the Bärengraben, the Gewerbeschule Bern (1937), the Eidgenössisches Archiv für Denkmalpflege, the Kirchenfeld mansion district (after 1881), the Thunplatzbrunnen, the Federal Mint building, the Federal Archives, the Swiss National Library, the Historical Museum (1894), Alpine Museum, Museum of Communication and Natural History Museum.

Culture

StadttheaterBern
Stadttheater

Theatres

Cinemas

Bern has several dozen cinemas. As is customary in German Switzerland, films are generally in German. Some films in select cinemas are shown in their original language with German and French subtitles.

Film festivals

Festivals

  • BeJazz Summer and Winter Festival
  • Buskers Bern Street Music Festival
  • Gurtenfestival
  • Internationales Jazzfestival Bern
  • Taktlos-Festival

Fairs

Sports

Bern was the site of the 1954 Football (Soccer) World Cup Final, a huge upset for the Hungarian Golden Team, who were beaten 3–2 by West Germany. The football team BSC Young Boys is based in Bern at the Stade de Suisse Wankdorf, which also was one of the venues for the European football championship 2008 in which it hosted 3 matches.

SC Bern is the major ice hockey team of Bern which plays in the PostFinance Arena. They compete in the National League (NL), the highest league in Switzerland. The team has ranked highest in attendance for a European hockey team for more than a decade.[45] The PostFinance Arena was the main host of the 2009 IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship, including the opening game and the final of the tournament.

The PostFinance Arena was also the host of the 2011 European Figure Skate Championships.

Bern Cardinals is the baseball and softball team of Bern, which plays at the Allmend

Bern Grizzlies is the American football club in Bern and plays at Athletics Arena Wankdorf.

Bern was a candidate to host the 2010 Winter Olympics, but withdrew its bid in September 2002 after a referendum was passed that showed that the bid was not supported by locals. Those games were eventually awarded to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

RC Bern is the local rugby club (since 1972) and plays at the Allmend. The ladies team was founded in 1995.

The locality of Bremgartenwald was home to the Bremgarten Circuit, the Grand Prix motor racing course that at one time hosted the Swiss Grand Prix.

Bern Bears is an NGO Basketball Club since 2010 in city of Bern.[46]

Economy

As of  2010, Bern had an unemployment rate of 3.3%. As of 2008, there were 259 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 59 businesses involved in this sector. 16,413 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 950 businesses in this sector. 135,973 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 7,654 businesses in this sector.[30]

In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 125,037. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 203, of which 184 were in agriculture and 19 were in forestry or lumber production. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 15,476 of which 7,650 or (49.4%) were in manufacturing, 51 or (0.3%) were in mining and 6,389 (41.3%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 109,358. In the tertiary sector; 11,396 or 10.4% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 10,293 or 9.4% were in the movement and storage of goods, 5,090 or 4.7% were in a hotel or restaurant, 7,302 or 6.7% were in the information industry, 8,437 or 7.7% were the insurance or financial industry, 10,660 or 9.7% were technical professionals or scientists, 5,338 or 4.9% were in education and 17,903 or 16.4% were in health care.[47]

In 2000, there were 94,367 workers who commuted into the municipality and 16,424 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 5.7 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving.[48] Of the working population, 50.6% used public transport to get to work, and 20.6% used a private car.[30]

Education

Universität Bern Hauptgebäude DSC05758
Main building of the University of Bern

The University of Bern, whose buildings are mainly located in the Länggasse quarter, is located in Bern, as well as the University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule) and several vocations schools.

In Bern, about 50,418 or (39.2%) of the population have completed non-mandatory upper secondary education, and 24,311 or (18.9%) have completed additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule). Of the 24,311 who completed tertiary schooling, 51.6% were Swiss men, 33.0% were Swiss women, 8.9% were non-Swiss men and 6.5% were non-Swiss women.[31]

The canton of Bern school system provides one year of non-obligatory kindergarten, followed by six years of primary school. This is followed by three years of obligatory lower secondary school where the pupils are separated according to ability and aptitude. Following the lower secondary pupils may attend additional schooling or they may enter an apprenticeship.[49]

During the 2009–10 school year, there were a total of 10,979 pupils attending classes in Bern. There were 89 kindergarten classes with a total of 1,641 pupils in the municipality. Of the kindergarten pupils, 32.4% were permanent or temporary residents of Switzerland (not citizens) and 40.2% have a different mother language than the classroom language. The municipality had 266 primary classes and 5,040 pupils. Of the primary pupils, 30.1% were permanent or temporary residents of Switzerland (not citizens) and 35.7% have a different mother language than the classroom language. During the same year, there were 151 lower secondary classes with a total of 2,581 pupils. There were 28.7% who were permanent or temporary residents of Switzerland (not citizens) and 32.7% have a different mother language than the classroom language.[50]

Bern is home to 8 libraries. These libraries include; the Schweiz. Nationalbibliothek/ Bibliothèque nationale suisse, the Universitätsbibliothek Bern, the Kornhausbibliotheken Bern, the BFH Wirtschaft und Verwaltung Bern, the BFH Gesundheit, the BFH Soziale Arbeit, the Hochschule der Künste Bern, Gestaltung und Kunst and the Hochschule der Künste Bern, Musikbibliothek. There was a combined total (as of 2008) of 10,308,336 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year a total of 2,627,973 items were loaned out.[51]

As of 2000, there were 9,045 pupils in Bern who came from another municipality, while 1,185 residents attended schools outside the municipality.[48]

Transport

Combino Bern
Tram station on the Bahnhofplatz, with the Heiliggeistkirche in the background

The public transport in and around Bern is operated by BERNMOBIL, which is integrated into the fare network libero with coordinated timetables, which in itself covers the area of canton of Bern and Solothurn. The fare network includes any mode of public transport, such as any kind of train (including the urban S-Bahn), PostAuto buses, trams, buses (either trolleybuses or motorized buses) and others. Fares are based on the number of zones crossed during a specified time and are independent of the mode of transport or the number of connections. The central part of Bern, excluding Bümpliz, Betlehem, Bottigen, Brünnen, and Riedbach in the west of the municipality, is part of the fare zone 100.

Bern's central railway station Bahnhof Bern) (formerly known as Hauptbahnhof Bern) is not only the central network nucleus of Bern, but also of the whole urban and inter-cantonal region. It connects the city to the urban, national and international railways network and is Switzerland's second most busy railway station (202,600 passengers per working day in 2014).

A funicular railway leads from the Marzili district to the Bundeshaus. The Marzilibahn funicular is, with a length of 106 m (348 ft), the second shortest public railway in Europe after the Zagreb funicular.

Several Aare bridges connect the old parts of the city with the newer districts outside of the peninsula.

Bern is well connected to other cities by several motorways (A1, A12, A6).

Bern is also served by Bern Airport, located outside the city near the town of Belp. The regional airport, colloquially called Bern-Belp or Belpmoos, is connected to several European cities. Additionally Zürich Airport, Geneva Airport and EuroAirport Basel Mulhouse Freiburg also serve as international gateways, all reachable within less than two hours by train or car from Bern.

Notable people

BubenbergDenkmal 8406
Statue of Adrian von Bubenberg
Anna Fedorovna by unknown
Anna Fedorovna, early 1800s
LeninEnSuizaMarzo1916--barbaroussovietr00mcbr
Lenin 1916 in Switzerland
Regula Rytz (cropped)
Regula Rytz, 2011
Albrecht von Haller 1736
Albrecht von Haller, 1736
Einstein patentoffice
Albert Einstein, 1904
Lukas Hartmann
Lukas Hartmann, 1985
NiklausManuel1530
Niklaus Manuel, 1530
ManiMatter1970
Mani Matter, 1970
Patricia Kopatchinskaja 4 (c) Marco Borggreve
Patricia Kopatchinskaja, 2012
public servants, the military and the church
politicians and the landed gentry
science and academia
writing and acting
artists and painters
musicians
business
sports
Otto Hess by Carl Horner
Otto Hess, c.1906
Christine Stückelberger 1984 Paraguay stamp crop
Christine Stückelberger, 1984
Jenni 2013-04-15
Jenni Oehrli, 2013

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ According to the Swiss constitution, the Swiss Confederation intentionally has no "capital", but Bern has governmental institutions such as the Swiss parliament and the Federal Council of Switzerland. However, the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland is in Lausanne, the Federal Criminal Court of Switzerland is in Bellinzona, and the Federal Administrative Court of Switzerland and the Federal Patent Court of Switzerland are in St. Gallen. That exemplifies the very federal nature of the Swiss Confederation

References

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  2. ^ "Bilanz der ständigen Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Staatsangehörigkeit (Kategorie), Geschlecht und demographischen Komponenten". Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  3. ^ Holenstein, André (2012). "Die Hauptstadt existiert nicht" [The capital does not exist]. UniPress (in German) (UniPress 152: Die Hauptstatdtregion). Berne: University of Berne: 16–19. doi:10.7892/boris.41280. Als 1848 ein politisch-administratives Zentrum für den neuen Bundesstaat zu bestimmen war, verzichteten die Verfassungsväter darauf, eine Hauptstadt der Schweiz zu bezeichnen und formulierten stattdessen in Artikel 108: «Alles, was sich auf den Sitz der Bundesbehörden bezieht, ist Gegenstand der Bundesgesetzgebung.» Die Bundesstadt ist also nicht mehr und nicht weniger als der Sitz der Bundesbehörden.
  4. ^ http://www.bern.ch/themen/stadt-recht-und-politik/bern-in-zahlen/in_kuerze. Missing or empty |title= (help)
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  6. ^ "Office fédéral du développement territorial ARE – B3: Les aires métropolitaines". www.are.admin.ch (in French, German, and Italian). Federal Office for Spatial Development ARE. 7 June 2006. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
  7. ^ "Old City of Berne". UNESCO World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
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  10. ^ municipal statistics,[1] includes 6,816 weekend commuters not included in the federal statistics of 123,466."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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  26. ^ "Nationalratswahlen 2015: Stärke der Parteien und Wahlbeteiligung nach Gemeinden" (official statistics) (in German and French). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 4 March 2016. Archived from the original (XLS) on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
  27. ^ "EURO 2008 – Partnerschaft von Stadt und Kanton Bern sowie mit Stadt und Land Salzburg". www.bern.ch (in German). Abteilung Kommunikation und Amt für Information, City of Berne. 30 May 2006. Retrieved 6 April 2014. …in einer gemeinsamen Erklärung die Absicht bekundet, mittels einer zeitlich befristeten Partnerschaft zwischen den Städten und Ländern…
  28. ^ "Interpellation Fraktion SP/JUSO Andreas Flückiger/Markus Lüthi, SP): Das orange Wunder von Bern: Diese Freundschaft muss gepflegt werden! Was können wir tun?". www.bern.ch (in German). Der Gemeinderat (Municipal Council). 22 October 2008. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2014. Bisher hat die Stadt Bern bewusst auf eine Städtepartnerschaft verzichtet
  29. ^ "STAT-TAB – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit" (online database) (official site) (in German and French). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Federal Statistical Office - FSO. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
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  31. ^ a b c d e STAT-TAB Datenwürfel für Thema 40.3 – 2000 Archived 9 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine (in German) accessed 2 February 2011
  32. ^ Statistical office of the canton of Bern (in German) accessed 4 January 2012
  33. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB – Datenwürfel für Thema 09.2 – Gebäude und Wohnungen Archived 7 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine (in German) accessed 28 January 2011
  34. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Rental prices Archived 23 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine 2003 data (in German) accessed 26 May 2010
  35. ^ a b Bern in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  36. ^ "City of bears receives Russian bruins". swissinfo.ch. 16 September 2009.
  37. ^ City Council of Bern minutes of the 14 May 1998 5:00PM session accessed 23 November 2008 (in German)
  38. ^ Hofer, 281
  39. ^ "Kantonsliste A-Objekte". KGS Inventar (in German). Federal Office of Civil Protection. 2009. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
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  41. ^ "Narrenpack Theatre Bern". Retrieved 12 April 2009.
  42. ^ "Schlachthaus Theatre Bern". Retrieved 12 April 2009.
  43. ^ "Das Theatre an der Effingerstrasse". Retrieved 12 April 2009.
  44. ^ "Theater am Käfigturm". Retrieved 12 April 2009.
  45. ^ Merk, Martin (12 March 2015). "Swiss stay top: SC Bern number one in European attendance ranking".
  46. ^ http://www.basketballbern.ch Bern Bears
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  48. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office – Statweb (in German) accessed 24 June 2010
  49. ^ EDK/CDIP/IDES (2010). Kantonale Schulstrukturen in der Schweiz und im Fürstentum Liechtenstein / Structures Scolaires Cantonales en Suisse et Dans la Principauté du Liechtenstein (PDF) (Report). Retrieved 24 June 2010.
  50. ^ Schuljahr 2009/10 pdf document(in German) accessed 4 January 2012
  51. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office, list of libraries Archived 6 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine (in German) accessed 14 May 2010
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External links

1954 FIFA World Cup Final

The 1954 FIFA World Cup Final was the final match of the 1954 FIFA World Cup, the fifth World Cup in FIFA history. The game was played at the Wankdorf Stadium in Bern, Switzerland, on 4 July 1954, and saw West Germany beat the heavily favoured Golden Team of Hungary 3–2.

The 1954 final is often listed as one of the greatest matches in World Cup history, and also one of its most unexpected upsets. Beyond football, some historians ascribe the match a lasting impact on both German and Hungarian post-World War II history, contributing in West Germany to a sense of regained international recognition after the lost Second World War and denazification, and in Hungary to discontent with the communist-authoritarian regime in the run-up to the 1956 Hungarian revolution. In Germany, the 1954 final is known as the Miracle of Bern (German: Wunder von Bern).

The win earned Germany its first of four World Cup titles, with the other titles to follow in 1974 and 1990 as West Germany, and in 2014 as Germany. For Hungary, the second place in 1954 remains the best World Cup result to date, jointly with finishing runners-up in 1938. The 1954 tournament is the only FIFA World Cup thus far in which two teams from Central Europe contested the final, with another Central European team, that of Austria, finishing third in the competition.

1961 European Cup Final

The 1961 European Cup Final was held at the Wankdorf Stadium, Bern on 31 May 1961, and saw Benfica play against Barcelona. This was the first final not to include Real Madrid, who had won the previous five finals. Benfica lifted the trophy for the first time, beating Barcelona 3–2.

Benfica midfielder Mario Coluna broke his nose in the eighth minute of the match; not wanting to risk further damage, when Domiciano Cavém put over a cross in the 55th minute, Coluna hung back outside the penalty area. The ball was cleared directly to him and he volleyed it home for Benfica's third goal of the match.

BSC Young Boys

Berner Sport Club Young Boys is a Swiss professional football club based in Bern, Switzerland, that plays in the Swiss Super League, the top tier in Swiss football. It is widely referred to as Young Boys, or as Young Boys Bern abroad, and is abbreviated to YB (German pronunciation: [ˈiː beː]). The club's colors are yellow and black.

The first team has won 12 Swiss league championships and six Swiss Cups. In 1957, YB was named the Swiss team of the year. YB is one of the most successful Swiss football clubs internationally, and reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in the 1958–59 season.

The club's sports also include field hockey and bowling. The women's hockey team also plays in the highest Swiss League.

Bernese Alps

The Bernese Alps (German: Berner Alpen, French: Alpes bernoises, Italian: Alpi bernesi) are a mountain range of the Alps, located in western Switzerland. Although the name suggests that they are located in the Berner Oberland region of the canton of Bern, portions of the Bernese Alps are in the adjacent cantons of Valais, Fribourg and Vaud, the latter being usually named Fribourg Alps and Vaud Alps respectively. The highest mountain in the range, the Finsteraarhorn, is also the highest point in the canton of Bern.

The Rhône valley separates them from the Chablais Alps in the west and from the Pennine Alps in the south; the upper Rhône valley separate them from the Lepontine Alps to the southeast; the Grimsel Pass and the Aare valley separates them from the Uri Alps in the east and from the Emmental Alps in the north; their northwestern edge is not so well defined, describing a line roughly from Lake Geneva to Lake Thun.

The Bernese Alps are drained by the river Aare and its tributary the Saane in the north, the Rhône in the south, and the Reuss in the east.

Biel/Bienne

Biel/Bienne (official bilingual wording; German: [biːl]; French: [bjɛn]; Italian: Bienna, Romansh: Bienna, Latin: Belna) is a town and a municipality in the Biel/Bienne administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

Biel/Bienne lies on the language boundary between the French-speaking and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, and is throughout bilingual. Biel is the German name for the town, Bienne its French counterpart. The town is often referred to in both languages simultaneously. Since 1 January 2005, the official name has been "Biel/Bienne". Until then, the city was officially named Biel.The city lies at the foot of the first mountain range of the Jura Mountains area, guarding the only practical connection to Jura, on the northeastern shores of Lake Biel (Bielersee, Lac de Bienne), sharing the eastern tip of the lake with its sister city, Nidau. The cities Neuchâtel, Solothurn, and Bern (the capital of Switzerland) lie west, east and southeast of Biel/Bienne. They all can be reached in about 30 minutes by train or car.

Biel/Bienne has about 55,000 inhabitants, with the surrounding agglomeration almost 106,000 (in 2014). The city has been an industrial and watchmaking heart of Switzerland since the 19th century.

Canton of Bern

The canton of Bern or Berne (German: Kanton Bern, French: canton de Berne) is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. Located in west-central Switzerland, it borders the canton of Jura and the canton of Solothurn to the north. To the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and canton of Vaud. To the south lies the canton of Valais. East of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Lucerne and Aargau.

The canton of Bern is bilingual and has a population (as of 31 December 2017) of 1,031,126. As of 2007, the population included 119,930 (or 12.45%) foreigners. The cantonal capital, also the "federal city" of Switzerland, is Bern. Other major cities are Thun and Biel/Bienne.

Craven County, North Carolina

Craven County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 103,505. Its county seat is New Bern. The county was created in 1705 as Archdale Precinct from the now-extinct Bath County. It was renamed Craven Precinct in 1712 and gained county status in 1739. It is named for William, Earl of Craven, who lived from 1606-1697.

Craven County is part of the New Bern, NC, Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Districts of Switzerland

In contrast to centrally organised states, in the federally constituted Switzerland each canton is

completely free to decide its own internal organisation. Therefore, there exists a variety of structures and terminology for the subnational entities between canton and municipality, loosely termed districts.

Most cantons are divided into Bezirke (German for districts, singular Bezirk). They are also termed Ämter (Lucerne, singular Amt), Amtsbezirke (Bern, Amtsbezirk), district (in French) or distretto (Ticino and part of Graubünden). The Bezirke generally provide only administration and court organization. However, for historical reasons districts in cantons Graubünden and Schwyz are their own legal entities with jurisdiction over tax and often have their own Landsgemeinde.

Seven of the 26 cantons – Uri, Obwalden, Nidwalden, Glarus, Zug, Basel-City and Geneva – have always existed without the district level of government. An eighth one, Appenzell Innerrhoden, uses no intermediate level either, but calls its lowest-level subdivisions Bezirke, although they are functionally equivalent to municipalities elsewhere.

A number of further cantons are considering (or have already decided) an abolition of the district level in the future: Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Schaffhausen, Lucerne, St. Gallen, Schwyz in 2006 voted on its abolition, but voted in favour of keeping the division, some with modifications. Bern in 2006 decided a reduction of its 26 districts to ten administrative regions, which took effect in 2010. St. Gallen, Solothurn and Lucerne removed the administrative role, but retained districts for elections. In 2008 Vaud decided on a reduction from 19 to 10 districts, followed by Thurgau which combined eight into five in 2012. In 2017 Graubünden replaced the 11 districts with 11 regions. In 2018 Neuchâtel eliminated the district level.

For further updated about this districts, see: Population size and population composition – Data, indicators: Cantons, communes or Permanent resident population by age, canton, district and commune 2010–2013.

Municipalities of the canton of Bern

There are 346 municipalities in the canton of Berne, Switzerland (as of January 2019).

National League (ice hockey)

The National League (NL) is a professional ice hockey league in Switzerland. It is the top tier of the Swiss hockey league system and of the two-tier National League. Prior to the 2017–18 season, the league was officially called National League A.

The NL has the most attended hockey club in Europe, SC Bern, and is also the most attended league within the same continent, averaging 6,882 spectators for the 2016–17 season.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Craven County, North Carolina

This list includes properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Craven County, North Carolina. Click the "Map of all coordinates" link to the right to view an online map of all properties and districts with latitude and longitude coordinates in the table below.

New Bern, North Carolina

New Bern is a city in Craven County, North Carolina, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 29,524, which had risen to an estimated 30,242 as of 2013. It is the county seat of Craven County and the principal city of the New Bern Metropolitan Statistical Area.

It is located at the confluence of the Neuse and the Trent rivers, near the North Carolina coast. It lies 112 miles (180 km) east of Raleigh, 87 miles (140 km) northeast of Wilmington, and 162 miles (261 km) south of Norfolk. New Bern is the birthplace of Pepsi.

New Bern was settled in 1710 by Bernese and Palatine immigrants under the auspices of Christoph von Graffenried, 1st Baron of Bernberg. The new colonists named their settlement after Bern, Switzerland, home state of their patron. The English connection with Switzerland had been established by some Marian exiles who sought refuge in Protestant parts of Switzerland. There were also marriages between the Royal House of Stuart and notable people in the history of Calvinism. The colonists later discovered they had started their settlement on the site of a former Tuscarora village named Chattoka. This caused conflicts with the Tuscaroras who were in the area.

New Bern is the second-oldest European settled colonial town in North Carolina, after Bath. It served as the capital of the North Carolina colonial government, then briefly as the state capital. After the American Revolution, New Bern became wealthy and quickly developed a rich cultural life. At one time New Bern was called "the Athens of the South," renowned for its Masonic Temple and Athens Theater. These are both still very active today.

New Bern has four historic districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places; their numerous contributing buildings include residences, stores and churches dating back to the early eighteenth century. Within easy walking distance of the waterfront are more than 164 homes and buildings listed on the National Register. Also nearby are several bed and breakfasts, hotels, restaurants, banks, antiques stores and specialty shops. The historic districts contain many of the city's 2,000 crape myrtles—its official flower—and developed gardens. New Bern has two "Local Historic Districts", a municipal zoning overlay that affords legal protection to the exteriors of New Bern's irreplaceable historic structures. These areas provide much of New Bern's unique charm, appeal to retirees and heritage tourism, and contribute to the city's economic success. The Local Historic Districts, while vitally important to New Bern, comprise only 2.43% of New Bern's 27-square-mile area. There is considerable area available for new development.

Peter Lang (publisher)

Peter Lang is an academic publisher specializing in the humanities and social sciences. It has its headquarters in Pieterlen and Bern, Switzerland, with offices in Brussels, Frankfurt am Main, New York City, Dublin, Oxford, Vienna, and Warsaw.Peter Lang publishes over 1,800 academic titles annually, both in print and digital formats, with a backlist of over 55,000 books. It has its complete online journals collection available on Ingentaconnect and distributes its digital textbooks globally through Kortext.

SC Bern

Schlittschuh Club Bern (Ice-skating Club Bern in English) is an ice hockey team based in Bern, Switzerland. They play in the National League (NL), the top tier of the Swiss hockey league system. For the 16th time in a row, the club is the most attended ice hockey team in Europe for the 2016–17 season, averaging 16,399 spectators.They are traditional rivals with HC Fribourg-Gottéron, EHC Biel, and the SCL Tigers.

Swiss Football Association

The Swiss Football Association (German: Schweizerischer Fussballverband, French: Association Suisse de Football, Italian: Associazione Svizzera di Football/Calcio, Romansh: Associaziun Svizra da Ballape) is the governing body of football in Switzerland. It organizes the football league, the Swiss Football League and the Switzerland national football team. It is based in Bern.

It was formed in 1895, was a founder member of FIFA in 1904 and joined UEFA during its foundation year, 1954. FIFA is now based in Switzerland at Zürich. Also UEFA is based in the Swiss city of Nyon.

ASF-SFV is the abbreviation of the associations name in three of the national languages of Switzerland. ASF stands for both French (Association Suisse de Football) and Italian (Associazione Svizzera di Football), while SFV is the German (Schweizerischer Fussballverband).- Romansh - It is abbreviated as ASB (Associaziun Svizra da Ballape).

Universal Postal Union

The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle), established by the Treaty of Bern of 1874, is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that coordinates postal policies among member nations, in addition to the worldwide postal system. The UPU contains four bodies consisting of the Congress, the Council of Administration (CA), the Postal Operations Council (POC) and the International Bureau (IB). It also oversees the Telematics and Express Mail Service (EMS) cooperatives. Each member agrees to the same terms for conducting international postal duties. The UPU's headquarters are located in Bern, Switzerland.French is the official language of the UPU. English was added as a working language in 1994. The majority of the UPU's documents and publications – including its flagship magazine, Union Postale – are available in the United Nations' six official languages (French, English, Arabic, Chinese, Russian, and Spanish).

University of Bern

The University of Bern (German: Universität Bern, French: Université de Berne, Latin: Universitas Bernensis) is a university in the Swiss capital of Bern and was founded in 1834. It is regulated and financed by the Canton of Bern. It is a comprehensive university offering a broad choice of courses and programs in eight faculties and some 150 institutes. With around 17,904 students , the University of Bern is the third biggest University in Switzerland.

Verona

Verona (Italian pronunciation: [veˈroːna] (listen); Venetian: Verona or Veròna; historical German: Bern, Welschbern, or Dietrichsbern) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with 258,108 inhabitants. It is one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. It is the second largest city municipality in the region and the third largest in northeast Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 (550.58 sq mi) and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants. It is one of the main tourist destinations in northern Italy, because of its artistic heritage and several annual fairs, shows, and operas, such as the lyrical season in the Arena, the ancient amphitheater built by the Romans.

Two of William Shakespeare's plays are set in Verona: Romeo and Juliet and The Two Gentlemen of Verona. It is unknown if Shakespeare ever visited Verona or Italy, but his plays have lured many visitors to Verona and surrounding cities. The city has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because of its urban structure and architecture.

World Spider Catalog

The World Spider Catalog (WSC) is an online searchable database concerned with spider taxonomy. It aims to list all accepted families, genera and species, as well as provide access to the related taxonomic literature. The WSC began as a series of individual web pages in 2000, created by Norman I. Platnick of the American Museum of Natural History. After Platnick's retirement in 2014, the Natural History Museum of Bern (Switzerland) took over the catalog, converting it to a relational database.As of October 2017, 46,932 accepted species were listed.The order Araneae (spiders) has the seventh-largest number of species of all orders. The existence of the World Spider Catalog makes spiders the largest taxon with an online listing that is updated regularly. It has been described as an "exhaustive resource" that has "promoted rigorous scholarship and amplified productivity" in the taxonomy of spiders.

Climate data for Bern (Zollikofen), elevation: 553 m or 1,814 ft, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1901–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.9
(60.6)
18.5
(65.3)
23.0
(73.4)
28.2
(82.8)
31.4
(88.5)
33.7
(92.7)
36.8
(98.2)
37.0
(98.6)
31.6
(88.9)
25.5
(77.9)
20.8
(69.4)
19.1
(66.4)
37.0
(98.6)
Average high °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
4.7
(40.5)
9.5
(49.1)
13.4
(56.1)
18.2
(64.8)
21.6
(70.9)
24.3
(75.7)
23.7
(74.7)
19.1
(66.4)
13.8
(56.8)
7.3
(45.1)
3.5
(38.3)
13.5
(56.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.4
(31.3)
0.7
(33.3)
4.7
(40.5)
8.1
(46.6)
12.7
(54.9)
16.0
(60.8)
18.3
(64.9)
17.7
(63.9)
13.7
(56.7)
9.3
(48.7)
3.7
(38.7)
0.6
(33.1)
8.8
(47.8)
Average low °C (°F) −3.6
(25.5)
−3.1
(26.4)
0.2
(32.4)
3.0
(37.4)
7.4
(45.3)
10.5
(50.9)
12.5
(54.5)
12.3
(54.1)
8.9
(48.0)
5.4
(41.7)
0.4
(32.7)
−2.3
(27.9)
4.3
(39.7)
Record low °C (°F) −21.8
(−7.2)
−23.0
(−9.4)
−15.6
(3.9)
−7.9
(17.8)
−2.2
(28.0)
0.9
(33.6)
3.6
(38.5)
3.5
(38.3)
−0.8
(30.6)
−5.5
(22.1)
−13.9
(7.0)
−20.5
(−4.9)
−23.0
(−9.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 60
(2.4)
55
(2.2)
73
(2.9)
82
(3.2)
119
(4.7)
111
(4.4)
106
(4.2)
116
(4.6)
99
(3.9)
88
(3.5)
76
(3.0)
74
(2.9)
1,059
(41.7)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 12.8
(5.0)
13.1
(5.2)
7.0
(2.8)
0.8
(0.3)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.0)
5.5
(2.2)
13.3
(5.2)
52.6
(20.7)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9.6 9.0 10.6 10.4 12.6 11.1 10.8 10.7 8.9 10.4 10.2 9.9 124.2
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 4.1 3.5 2.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 3.1 14.1
Average relative humidity (%) 84 79 73 71 73 71 71 73 79 84 85 85 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 64 87 137 159 182 205 236 217 165 113 68 49 1,682
Percent possible sunshine 29 35 41 42 42 47 53 53 49 38 30 23 42
Source #1: MeteoSwiss[21]
Source #2: KNMI[22]
Districts and quarters of Bern
District I
District II
District III
District IV
District V
District VI
Historic Population Data[35]
Year Total Population German-speaking French-speaking Protestant Catholic Jewish Christian Catholic Other or no religion given No religion given Swiss Non-Swiss
1700 14,219
1730 15,932
1764 14,515
1798 12,186
1818 18,997
1837 24,362
1850 29,670 27,986 1,478 206 28,009 1,661
1880 44,087 41,784 1,875 39,948 3,456 387 296 40,463 3,624
1910 90,937 83,144 4,566 78,234 9,650 1,056 1,997 81,335 9,602
1930 111,783 102,444 6,378 95,600 13,280 854 2,049 104,864 6,919
1950 146,499 129,781 10,262 118,823 23,295 1,089 792 2,500 139,367 7,132
1970 162,405 133,737 8,041 115,779 41,374 635 561 4,056 139,873 22,532
1990 136,338 110,279 5,236 79,889 36,723 335 334 19,057 10,006 112,599 23,739
Principal sights
Neighbourhoods
Main streets
Squares
Fountains
Lists
Capitals of Swiss cantons
Cities in Switzerland by population
300,000+
100,000+
30,000+
15,000+
Capitals of European states and territories
World Heritage Sites in Switzerland
Lake Geneva region
Espace Mittelland
Eastern
Ticino
Nationwide

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