The Berlin Philharmonic (German: Berliner Philharmoniker) is a German orchestra based in Berlin.
In 2006, ten European media outlets voted the Berlin Philharmonic number three on a list of "top ten European Orchestras", after the Vienna Philharmonic and the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, while in 2008 it was voted the world's number two orchestra in a survey among leading international music critics organized by the British magazine Gramophone (behind the Concertgebouw). The BPO supports several chamber music ensembles.
|Native name||Berliner Philharmoniker|
|Former name||Frühere Bilsesche Kapelle|
|Principal conductor||Kirill Petrenko (designate)|
The Berlin Philharmonic was founded in Berlin in 1882 by 54 musicians under the name Frühere Bilsesche Kapelle (literally, "Former Bilse's Band"); the group broke away from their previous conductor Benjamin Bilse after he announced his intention of taking the band on a fourth-class train to Warsaw for a concert. The orchestra was renamed and reorganized under the financial management of Hermann Wolff in 1882. Their new conductor was Ludwig von Brenner; in 1887 Hans von Bülow, one of the most esteemed conductors in the world, took over the post. This helped to establish the orchestra's international reputation, and guests Hans Richter, Felix von Weingartner, Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler, Johannes Brahms and Edvard Grieg conducted the orchestra over the next few years. In 1887, the pianist and composer Mary Wurm became the first woman to conduct the orchestra. Programmes of this period show that the orchestra possessed only 46 strings, much less than the Wagnerian ideal of 64.
In 1895, Arthur Nikisch became chief conductor, and was succeeded in 1923 by Wilhelm Furtwängler. Despite several changes in leadership, the orchestra continued to perform throughout World War II. After Furtwängler fled to Switzerland in 1945, Leo Borchard became chief conductor. This arrangement lasted only a few months, as Borchard was accidentally shot and killed by the American forces occupying Berlin. Sergiu Celibidache then took over as chief conductor for seven years, from 1945 to 1952. Furtwängler returned in 1952 and conducted the orchestra until his death in 1954.
His successor was Herbert von Karajan, who led the orchestra from 1955 until his resignation in April 1989, only months before his death. Under him, the orchestra made a vast number of recordings and toured widely, growing and gaining fame. The orchestra hired its first female musician, violinist Madeleine Carruzzo, in 1982. However, Karajan's hiring in September 1982 of Sabine Meyer, the first female wind player to the orchestra, led to controversy when the orchestra voted 73 to 4 not to admit her to the orchestra. Meyer subsequently left the orchestra. After Karajan stood down from the orchestra in 1989, the orchestra offered the chief conductorship to Carlos Kleiber, but he declined.
In 1989, the orchestra elected Claudio Abbado as its next principal conductor. It was the first time the Philharmonic resorted to democratic voting after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. He was known to be humorous in his first months at the Philharmonic. He expanded the orchestra's repertoire beyond the core classical and romantic works into more modern 20th-century works. Abbado stepped down from the chief conductorship of the orchestra in 2002. During the post-unification period, the orchestra encountered financial problems resulting from budgetary stress in the city of Berlin. In 2006, the Orchestra Academy of the Berlin Philharmonic established the Claudio Abbado Composition Prize in Abbado's honour.
In June 1999, the musicians elected Sir Simon Rattle as their next chief conductor. Rattle made it a condition of his signing with the Berlin Philharmonic that it be turned into a self-governing public foundation, with the power to make its own artistic and financial decisions. This required a change to state law, which was approved in 2001, allowing him to join the organization in 2002. Rattle's contract with the orchestra was initially through 2012. In April 2008, the BPO musicians voted in favour of retaining Rattle as their chief conductor through 2018. From 2006 to 2010, the general manager of the orchestra was Pamela Rosenberg. In September 2010, Martin Hoffmann became the orchestra's new Intendant. Hoffmann stood down as its Intendant after the close of the 2016/2017 season. Andrea Zietzschmann took up the post as his successor.
In 2006, the orchestra announced it would investigate its role during the Nazi regime. In 2007, Misha Aster published The Reich's Orchestra, his study of the relationship of the Berlin Philharmonic to the rulers of the Third Reich. Also in 2007, the documentary film The Reichsorchester by Enrique Sánchez Lansch was released.
UNICEF appointed the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and Rattle as Goodwill Ambassadors in November 2007. On 10 January 2013, the orchestra announced the scheduled end of Rattle's tenure as artistic director and chief conductor in 2018. In 2014, the orchestra founded its own label "Berliner Philharmoniker Recordings".
After an abortive first attempt on 11 May 2015, the orchestra on 21 June 2015, elected Kirill Petrenko as its next artistic director and chief conductor. In October 2015, the orchestra announced that Petrenko was to formally commence his contract as chief conductor with the 2019/20 season. A year after this news, in October 2016, the orchestra specified more precisely the start of Petrenko's tenure as 19 August 2019.
The orchestra's first concert hall, the Philharmonie situated on the Bernburger Straße in Berlin Kreuzberg, was inaugurated in 1882 in a building previously used as an ice rink and converted by the architect Franz Schwechten. In 1898, a smaller concert hall, the Beethovensaal on Köthener Straße, was also inaugurated for chamber music and chamber ensembles. The first Philharmonie was used until British bombers destroyed it on 30 January 1944, the anniversary of Hitler becoming chancellor. The orchestra played until the end of the war in the Staatsoper, Unter den Linden. The Staatsoper was also destroyed on 3 February 1945. In need of a venue, the Berlin Philharmonic played during the years following the war in the Titania-Palast, an old movie theater converted in a concert hall, and still used the Beethovensaal for smaller concerts. During the 1950s the orchestra moved its concerts at the Musikhochschule (today part of the Berlin University of the Arts), in the Joseph-Joachim-Konzertsaal. However, most of the recordings were done at the Jesus-Christus-Kirche in Berlin Dahlem, celebrated for its acoustics.
The need for a new Philharmonie was expressed since 1949, when the Gesellschaft der Freunde der Berliner Philharmonie e.V. (Friends of the Berliner Philharmonie Society) was created to gather funds. The building of the new Philharmonie started in 1961, following the design of architect Hans Scharoun, and it was inaugurated on 15 October 1963, with a performance of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, conducted by Herbert von Karajan. Its location made it part of the Kulturforum, and the great hall (2,440 seats) was then complemented by a chamber-music hall, the Kammermusiksaal (1,180 seats), built in 1987, following the design of architect Edgar Wisniewski, after a project by Hans Scharoun.
The Berliner Philharmonie has since been the home of the Berlin Philharmonic, and its symbol. The orchestra's logo is based on the pentagon-shape of the concert hall.
On 20 May 2008, a fire broke out at the Philharmonie. One-quarter of the roof underwent considerable damage as firefighters cut openings to reach the flames beneath the roof. The hall interior also sustained water damage, but was otherwise "generally unharmed." The firefighters limited damage by the use of foam. The orchestra was restricted from use of the hall for concerts until June 2008.
On 18 December 2008, the orchestra announced the official creation of a Digital Concert Hall. This hitherto unique internet platform of the BPO enables persons with computer access all over the world to see and hear the Philharmonic's concerts, live or on demand, not only under recent conductors, but even previous concerts conducted, e.g., by Claudio Abbado. Since July 2014, the Digital Concert Hall additionally offers livestreams produced from HD movies of concerts by Herbert von Karajan in the 1960s and early 1970s. Since 2010, selected concerts of the Berlin Philharmonic have been transmitted live to cinemas in Germany and Europe.
Timbre de Platine (Platinum Stamp) awarded by Opéra International magazine
List of recordings of Johannes Brahms' A German Requiem, Op. 45 (1868).
Additional entries listed alphabetically by conductor:
Sergiu Celibidache conducting the Kölner Rundfunk-Sinfonie-Orchester, Agnes Giebel, Hans Hotter. Reissued 2009 by Past Classics
Stephen Cleobury conducting the King's College Choir, using Brahms's 2-piano arrangement. Recorded in 2006 and released by EMI
Harry Christophers conducting The Sixteen, also using Brahms's 2-piano arrangement. Recorded in 2006 and released on Coro Records. Uses period instruments
Michel Corboz conducting the Ensemble vocal et instrumental de Lausanne, with Christa Goetze, soprano, and Werner Lechte, baritone (EMI; reissue Virgin Classics)
Karl Eliasberg conducting the USSR State Symphony Orchestra, recorded in 1960 and released in 2010 by Vista Vera
Wilhelm Furtwängler conducting the Lucerne Festival orchestra and chorus live in concert, with soloists Elisabeth Schwarzkopf and Hans Hotter, also recorded in 1948. The recording is incomplete, however, and suffers from severe wow, surface noise, and overload distortion
Bernard Haitink conducting the Vienna Philharmonic. Recorded in 1980 and released by Philips Records
Wolfgang Helbich Conductor, Bremer Domchor, Kammer-Sinfonie Bremen, Siri Thornhill, Klaus Mertens, MDG 2002
Philippe Herreweghe conducting the Orchestre des Champs-Élysées. Recorded live in 1996 and released in 1996 by Harmonia Mundi. Uses period instruments.
Craig Jessop conducting the Utah Symphony and Mormon Tabernacle Choir. Recorded February 1999 and released in October 1999 by Telarc. Recorded in English.
Herbert von Karajan conducting the Berlin Philharmonic and Wiener Singverein, with soloists Gundula Janowitz and Eberhard Waechter. Recorded in 1964 and released on CD 2002 by Deutsche Grammophon
Herbert von Karajan conducting the Berlin Philharmonic and Wiener Singverein, with soloists Anna Tomowa-Sintow and José Van Dam. Recorded in 1976 and released on CD in 1988 by EMI
Herbert Kegel conducting the Leipzig Radio Symphony Orchestra and Choir. Recorded in 1985 with soloists Mari Anne Häggander and Siegfried Lorenz. Released in 1987 by Capriccio
Otto Klemperer conducting the Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus, with soloists Elisabeth Schwarzkopf and Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau. Recorded in 1961 and released on CD in 1999 by EMI Classics (re-released in 2010 as part of the EMI Masters series)
Rafael Kubelík conducting the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. Recorded live in 1978 and released in 2002 by Audite
Sir Gilbert Levine conducting the Staatskapelle Dresden and the Munich Bach Choir. Recorded live in 2002 with Wolfgang Holzmair and Christiane Oelze
Lorin Maazel conducting the New Philharmonia Chorus & Orchestra, with Ileana Cotrubaş, soprano, and Hermann Prey, baritone (Sony)
Kurt Masur conducting the New York Philharmonic. Recorded live in 1995 and released in 1995 by Teldec
Yannick Nézet-Séguin conducting the London Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus. Soloists Elizabeth Watts, soprano; Stéphane Degout, baritone. Recorded live 4 April 2009 at the Southbank Centre Royal Festival Hall. Released by the LPO as LPO0045.
André Previn conducting the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded in 1986 and released in 1992 by Teldec
Valentin Radu conducting the Ama Deus Ensemble Orchestra and Chorus. Recorded in concert 4 April 2010 and released by Lyrichord. Tatyana Galitskaya, soprano and Ed Bara, bass. "This disc and that of Klemperer with the Philharmonia Orchestra present two complementary (and complimentary) pictures of the Brahms Requiem. Both should be in everyone's collection..." Burton Rothleder, Fanfare Magazine, January/February 2011, p. 78.
Alexander Rahbari conducting the Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra. Released on 2 December 1992 by Naxos with Miriam Gauci, soprano, Eduard Tumagian, baritone, Slovak Philharmonic Choir
Wolfgang Sawallisch conducting the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. Released in 1995 by Orfeo
Giuseppe Sinopoli conducting the Czech Philharmonic. Released in 1983 by Deutsche Grammophon with Lucia Popp, soprano, Wolfgang Brendel, baritone, Prague Philharmonic Chorus
Robert Spano conducting the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chorus with Twyla Robinson, soprano, and Mariusz Kwiecień, baritone. Recorded in 2007, released in 2008 on Telarc.Albrecht Mayer
Albrecht Mayer (born June 3, 1965, Erlangen) is a German classical oboist. The principal oboist of the Berlin Philharmonic, he is internationally known as a soloist and chamber musician, who made several recordings.Aurèle Nicolet
Aurèle Nicolet (22 January 1926 – 29 January 2016) was a Swiss flautist. He was considered one of the world's best flute players of the late twentieth century.
He performed in various international concerts. A number of composers wrote music especially for him, including Josef Tal, Toru Takemitsu, György Ligeti, Krzysztof Meyer, and Edison Denisov.
His pupils include Emmanuel Pahud, Carlos Bruneel, Michael Faust, Pedro Eustache, Thierry Fischer, Irena Grafenauer, Huáscar Barradas, Kristiyan Koev, Jadwiga Kotnowska, Robert Langevin, Tom Ottar Andreassen, Marina Piccinini, Kaspar Zehnder and Ariel Zuckermann.
He died at the age of 90 in 2016 in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.Berliner Philharmonie
The Berliner Philharmonie is a concert hall in Berlin, Germany and home to the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra.
The Philharmonie lies on the south edge of the city's Tiergarten and just west of the former Berlin Wall. The Philharmonie is on Herbert-von-Karajan-Straße, named for the orchestra's longest-serving principal conductor. The building forms part of the Kulturforum complex of cultural institutions close to Potsdamer Platz.
The Philharmonie consists of two venues, the Grand Hall (Großer Saal) with 2,440 seats and the Chamber Music Hall (Kammermusiksaal) with 1,180 seats. Though conceived together, the smaller hall was opened in the 1980s, some twenty years after the main building.Claudio Abbado
Claudio Abbado, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (Italian pronunciation: [ˈklaudjo abˈbaːdo]; 26 June 1933 – 20 January 2014) was an Italian conductor. One of the most celebrated and respected conductors of the 20th century, particularly in the music of Gustav Mahler, he served as music director of the La Scala opera house in Milan, principal conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra, principal guest conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, music director of the Vienna State Opera, founder and director of Lucerne Festival Orchestra, music director of European Union Youth Orchestra and principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic orchestra.Emmanuel Pahud
Emmanuel Pahud (born 27 January 1970) is a Franco-Swiss flute player.
He was born in Geneva, Switzerland. His father is of French and Swiss background and his mother is French. The Berlin-based flutist is most known for his baroque and Classical flute repertory.
Pahud was born into a nonmusical family.
As a young boy living in Italy, Pahud was captivated by the sounds of the flute.
From the age of four to the age of 22, he was tutored and mentored by flutists such as François Binet, Carlos Bruneel and Aurèle Nicolet.
Classically trained at the Conservatoire de Paris, he leapt into the international orchestral and solo music scene when he joined the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra in 1992.
His versatility in music styles over the years has "signalled the arrival of a new master flautist" (The Guardian). He plays in diverse music genres, whether baroque, jazz, contemporary, classical, orchestral, or chamber music.Eugen Jochum
Eugen Jochum (German: [ˈɔʏ̯ɡeːn ˈjɔxʊm]; 1 November 1902 – 26 March 1987) was an eminent German conductor.
Jochum was born to a Roman Catholic family in Babenhausen, near Augsburg, Germany; his father was an organist and conductor. Jochum studied the piano and organ in Augsburg, enrolling in its Academy of Music from 1914 to 1922. He then studied at the Munich Conservatory, with his composition teacher being Hermann von Waltershausen; it was there that he changed his focus to conducting, his teacher being Siegmund von Hausegger, who conducted the first performance of the original version of the Ninth Symphony of Anton Bruckner and made the first recording of it.
Jochum's first post was as a rehearsal pianist at Mönchen-Gladbach, and then in Kiel. He made his conducting debut with the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra in 1926 in a program which included Bruckner's Seventh Symphony. In the same year he was appointed conductor at the Kiel Opera House, where he conducted seventeen operas in his first season, including The Flying Dutchman, Der Rosenkavalier and Turandot.After Kiel he went to Mannheim, where Wilhelm Furtwängler praised his conducting. He turned down an offer to conduct twelve concerts with the New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, believing that his repertory and experience were not yet equal to it. (He did not appear in America until 1958.) His next appointment was as music director in Duisburg, from 1930 to 1932. In 1932 he became chief of the Berlin Radio Orchestra, also conducting 16 concerts a season with the Berlin Philharmonic, and at the Deutsche Oper.In 1934 Jochum succeeded Karl Böhm as musical director of the Hamburg State Opera and the Hamburg Philharmonic. Throughout the Nazi era, Hamburg remained, as Jochum put it, "reasonably liberal", and Jochum was even able to keep his post despite not joining the party. He performed music by composers such as Hindemith and Bartók elsewhere banned by the Nazis. In 1944, Joseph Goebbels included Jochum in the Gottbegnadeten list.
In the postwar denazification initiatives, however, British and American authorities had a "high-level disagreement" over Jochum that was "an exception" to the usual pattern of British authorities following the American lead: after "initially clearing" Jochum and selecting him to conduct the Munich Philharmonic in May 1945, the American authorities temporarily blacklisted him on grounds that he "had done exceptionally well" during the war and that his brothers had been "fanatical" Nazis; but British authorities "found no fault" with Jochum, arguing that he had never been a member of the Nazi party, SS or Sturmabteilung, had remained a "convinced Roman Catholic," and had "not compromised his artistic integrity." By 1948, the American authorities had determined that they could find no evidence of his joining any Nazi organizations.Jochum continued to serve at Hamburg until 1949, then left when the newly reconstituted Bayerischer Rundfunk appointed him the founding music director of its new orchestra, the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. To build the orchestra, Jochum "recruited highly qualified musicians," including the Koeckert Quartet as the "nucleus of the strings". Jochum remained music director of the orchestra until 1961; with it, he made numerous recordings, mostly for Deutsche Grammophon.Jochum was also a regular guest conductor of the Concertgebouw Orchestra, Amsterdam, and served as the orchestra's 'first conductor' (eerste dirigent) from 1941–1943, during the chief conductorship of Willem Mengelberg. From 1961 to 1963, Jochum was joint chief conductor of the Concertgebouw Orchestra alongside Bernard Haitink. He conducted frequently in London, with the London Philharmonic Orchestra and the London Symphony Orchestra. In 1975, the LSO appointed him conductor laureate, a position he held until 1978. Jochum served as principal conductor of the Bamberg Symphony from 1969-1973. He later worked regularly with the Staatskapelle Dresden, with which he recorded the complete symphonies of Bruckner and "London" symphonies of Joseph Haydn (which latter he also recorded with the London Philharmonic). He appeared regularly at the Salzburg Festival. He also, in 1953–54 and 1971, conducted at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus; he made his debut conducting Tristan und Isolde.
He led the world premieres of various works, including the Concerto for Strings by Boris Blacher, the Concerte per il principe Eugenio by Alberto Bruno Tedeschi, the Suite Française by Werner Egk, the Tanz-Rondo by Gottfried von Einem, and the Symphony No. 6 by Karl Amadeus Hartmann.
He was a regular recording artist, from his first records in 1932. In the stereo LP era, he recorded mainly for Deutsche Grammophon. His DG cycle of the symphonies of Anton Bruckner, split between the Berlin Philharmonic and Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, has remained in the record catalogs ever since its first issue in the 1960s. This cycle and a later Jochum Bruckner cycle, with the Staatskapelle Dresden for EMI, have been widely and frequently acclaimed and have caused his name to be especially associated with this composer. In addition, he was president of the International Bruckner Society from 1950, and wrote extensively about Bruckner interpretation. Still, according to his New York Times obituary, he said in a 1983 interview, "Today, everyone thinks of me as a specialist in Bruckner's symphonies. But I began with the music of Bach, Mozart and Beethoven. And it is to their music that I still feel closest." His recordings of Bach's Mass in B minor and St. John Passion are frequently counted among the finest of these works. His three complete recordings of the Beethoven symphonies have also been strongly praised: they were made with the Berlin Philharmonic and Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra in the 1950s for Deutsche Grammophon, with the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra in the late 1960s for Philips, and with the London Symphony Orchestra in the 1970s for EMI. Jochum also made two complete recordings of the symphonies of Johannes Brahms, one with the Berlin Philharmonic in the mid-1950s, the other with the London Philharmonic in 1977. On the strengths of these sets, the conductor Kenneth Woods called him "the greatest Brahms conductor who ever lived." (Others would nominate Weingartner or Toscanini.) He also recorded the Brahms piano concertos with Emil Gilels, a recording that is often listed among the finest made of these works. His recordings of Mozart, Haydn, Schumann, Wagner and Carl Orff have also been highly praised. His 1967 recording of Carmina Burana is considered by Bill Alford to be an authoritative interpretation, as Orff himself was present during the recording and endorsed the finished product.Regarding his podium technique, Kenneth Woods blogs, "Look at his hands -- very small and focused motions but so powerful." Woods also states that "his sense of rubato, while still incredibly daring, is perhaps more un-erring than [that of] even Wilhelm Furtwängler."
Jochum's older brother Otto Jochum (1898–1969) was a composer and choral conductor; his younger brother Georg Ludwig Jochum (1909–1970) was, like Jochum, an orchestral conductor. His daughter Veronica Jochum is a pianist on the faculty of the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts.
Jochum died in Munich in 1987, at the age of 84. His wife Maria predeceased him, in 1985.Herbert von Karajan
Herbert von Karajan (German: [ˈhɛɐbɛɐt fɔn ˈkaraˌjan] (listen); born Heribert Ritter von Karajan; 5 April 1908 – 16 July 1989) was an Austrian conductor. He was principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic for 35 years. Generally regarded as one of the greatest conductors of the 20th century, he was a dominant figure in European classical music from the mid-1950s until his death. Part of the reason for this was the large number of recordings he made and their prominence during his lifetime. By one estimate he was the top-selling classical music recording artist of all time, having sold an estimated 200 million records.James Galway
Sir James Galway, (born 8 December 1939) is an Irish virtuoso flute player from Belfast, nicknamed "The Man with the Golden Flute". He established an international career as a solo flute player.Kirill Petrenko
Kirill Garrievich Petrenko (born 11 February 1972) is a Russian-Austrian conductor, currently the Generalmusikdirektor (General Music Director) of the Bavarian State Opera, and the chief conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic as of the 2019–2020 season, succeeding Sir Simon Rattle.Lucerne Festival
The Lucerne Festival is a series of classical music festivals based in Lucerne, Switzerland. Founded in 1938, it currently produces three festivals per year, attracting some 110,000 visitors annually taking place since 2004 primarily at the Lucerne Culture and Congress Centre (KKL) designed by Jean Nouvel. Each festival features resident orchestras and soloists alongside guest performances from international ensembles and artists, in 2017 including the Berlin Philharmonic, Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Vienna Philharmonic, Emanuel Ax, Martha Argerich and Maxim Vengerov.Moment of Glory
Moment of Glory is a compilation album by German hard rock band Scorpions. It was recorded in collaboration with the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and released in 2000. The album features re-arranged songs from the Scorpions repertoire, as well as classical interludes, a cover song and the new single "Moment of Glory". Initially, English composer Andrew Powell was asked to provide arrangements and Michael Kamen was designated next for the orchestral material. After the latter gave up the job in order to work with Metallica for their album S&M, finally the Austrian arranger and conductor Christian Kolonovits proved to be the right collaborator.Sabine Meyer
Sabine Meyer, born 30 March 1959, in Crailsheim, Baden-Württemberg is a German classical clarinetist.Salzburg Easter Festival
The Salzburg Easter Festival (German: Osterfestspiele Salzburg) is an annual festival of opera and classical music held in Salzburg, Austria during Easter week.
For most of the festival's history, the resident orchestra of the Easter Festival has been the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, of which Karajan was music director at the time, with Karajan also serving as the Easter Festival's artistic director. The orchestra continued its involvement with the festival through the subsequent tenure of Claudio Abbado, who became artistic director in 1994.
In February 2010, allegations of financial scandal and embezzling arose against the then-executive director of the Easter Festival, Michael Dewitte. The scandal widened after Klaus Kretschmer, the technical director of the Salzburg Festival, was similarly accused, and later found severely injured in Salzburg after a reported suicide attempt. Both Dewitte and Kretschmer were dismissed. Peter Alward was then named the new managing director of the Easter Festival.In May 2011, the Berlin Philharmonic decided to leave the Salzburg Easter Festival as orchestra in residence In June 2011, the Easter Festival announced the appointment of the Staatskapelle Dresden as its new resident orchestra, and its Chief Conductor Christian Thielemann as its new artistic director, as of the 2013 season.Since 1 July 2015, the cultural manager, composer and conductor Peter Ruzicka has been the managing director an Intendant of the Salzburg Easter Festival, following Peter Alward and Bernd Gaubinger.Simon Rattle
Sir Simon Denis Rattle (born 19 January 1955) is an English conductor.
He rose to international prominence during the 1980s and 1990s, while Music Director of the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra (1980–98). Rattle was principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic from 2002 to 2018.
It was announced in March 2015 that Rattle would become Music Director of the London Symphony Orchestra from September 2017.
As a passionate supporter of music education, Rattle is also the patron of Birmingham Schools' Symphony Orchestra, arranged during his tenure with CBSO in mid 1990s. The Youth Orchestra is now under the auspices of charitable business Services for Education.Symphony No. 7 (Henze)
The Seventh Symphony by the German composer Hans Werner Henze was written in 1983-84. It was commissioned by the Berliner Philharmoniker as part of the orchestra's centenary celebrations in 1982.
Unlike its immediate predecessors, Henze has stated that this work is very much a 'German' symphony, in the Beethovenian tradition. Accordingly, it is cast in four movements and is broadly analogous to the 'classical' form: Introduction, slow movement, Scherzo and Finale. However Henze uses even more traditional German motifs across the movements: an allemande (a German dance) in the first and Liedform in the second. For the two final movements he focuses on the eighteenth-century poet Friedrich Hölderlin, incarcerated at Tübingen where he was subjected to what amounted to torture in the name of medical intervention. The final movement is a deeply lyrical orchestral setting of Hölderlin's late poem Hälfte des Lebens (Half of Life).Szymon Goldberg
Szymon Goldberg (1 June 1909 – 19 July 1993) was a Polish-born Jewish classical violinist and conductor, latterly an American.
Born in Włocławek, Congress Poland, Goldberg played the violin as a child growing up in Warsaw. His first teacher was Henryk Czaplinski, a pupil of the great Czech violinist Otakar Ševčík; his second was Mieczysław Michałowicz, a pupil of Leopold Auer. In 1917, at age eight, Goldberg moved to Berlin to study the violin with the legendary pedagogue Carl Flesch. He was also a student of Josef Wolfsthal.
After a recital in Warsaw in 1921, and a debut with the Berlin Philharmonic in 1924 in which he played three concertos, he was engaged as concert-master of the Dresden Philharmonic from 1925 to 1929. In 1929 he was offered the position of concertmaster of the Berlin Philharmonic by its Principal Conductor, Wilhelm Furtwängler. He accepted the position, serving from 1930 to 1934. During these years, he also performed in a string trio with Paul Hindemith on viola and Emanuel Feuermann on cello, and also led a string quartet of Berlin Philharmonic members.The rise of the Third Reich forced Goldberg to leave the orchestra in 1934, despite Furtwängler's attempts to safeguard the Jewish members of the orchestra. Thereafter, he toured Europe with the pianist Lili Kraus. He made his American debut in New York in 1938 at Carnegie Hall. While in the former Netherlands East Indies he formed the "Goldberg Quartet, together with Robert Pikler on viola, Louis MOJZER on cello and Eugenie Emerson, piano. Pikler and MOJZER were Hungarians and Emerson was American. This Piano Quartet toured the major cities in Java, before the Japanese invasion and occupation. Goldberg's first wife was a skilled artist and sculptor. She was interned in the Tjihapit Women's Camp in Bandung, together with Mojzer's Family. While Goldberg and Kraus were on a tour of Asia, they and their families were interned in Java by the Japanese from 1942 to 1945.
He toured Australia for three months in 1946. Eventually he went to the United States and became a naturalised American citizen in 1953. From 1951 to 1965 he taught at the Aspen Music School. Concurrently he was active as a conductor. In 1955 he founded the Netherlands Chamber Orchestra in Amsterdam, which he led until 1979. He also took the ensemble on many tours. From the years 1977 to 1979 he was the conductor of the Manchester Camerata.
He taught at Yale University from 1978 to 1982, the Juilliard School in New York City from 1978 to 1980, the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia from 1980 to 1981, and the Manhattan School of Music in New York starting in 1981. From 1990 until his death, he conducted the New Japan Philharmonic in Tokyo.His first wife died in the 1980s after a long illness. In 1988, he married his second wife, Japanese pianist Miyoko Yamane (1938–2006), a former student of Rudolf Serkin and Rudolf Kolisch; they resided primarily in Philadelphia (with annual visits to Japan) until 1992, when they moved to Toyama, Japan. He died in Toyama in 1993, aged 84.
He made a number of recordings, most notably a celebrated series of Mozart and Beethoven sonatas with Lili Kraus before World War II, the three Brahms Sonatas with Artur Balsam (Brunswick AXTL 1082), and Mozart and Schubert pieces with Radu Lupu (with whom he performed as a duo in concert) in the 1970s.
The Berlin Philharmonic, in a 2014 tribute to their former concertmaster, wrote that in the music of Bach and Mozart, Goldberg "brought a poise and a beauty of tone that seemed like perfection. Indeed he was the finest Mozart violinist of his time, with the feline grace essential for the violin sonatas, the concertos and the Sinfonia concertante." He owned and played the "Baron Vitta" Giuseppe Guarneri (Guarneri del Gesù) violin; after his death his widow gave it to the Library of Congress.The 12 Cellists of the Berlin Philharmonic
The 12 Cellists of the Berlin Philharmonic (German: Die 12 Cellisten der Berliner Philharmoniker) are an all-cello ensemble featuring the cellists of the Berlin Philharmonic.Wilhelm Furtwängler
Gustav Heinrich Ernst Martin Wilhelm Furtwängler (German: [ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʊɐ̯tvɛŋlɐ]; January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest symphonic and operatic conductors of the 20th century.Furtwängler was principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic between 1922 and 1945, and from 1952 until 1954. He was also principal conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra (1922–26), and was a guest conductor of other major orchestras including the Vienna Philharmonic.
He was the leading conductor to remain in Germany during the Second World War, although he was not an adherent of the Nazi regime. This decision caused lasting controversy, and the extent to which his presence lent prestige to the Third Reich is still debated.
Furtwängler's conducting is well documented in commercial and broadcast recordings and has contributed to his lasting reputation.
He had a major influence on many later conductors, and his name is often mentioned when discussing their interpretive styles.