Berit Nøkleby

Berit Nøkleby (25 September 1939 – 26 July 2018) was a Norwegian historian.

She was born in Drammen, and is a cand.philol. by education. She has contributed to several books on the German occupation of Norway.[1] She wrote book II and IV of the series Norge i krig I–VIII. Fremmedåk og frihetskamp 1940–1945 (II: Nyordning, 1985, and IV: Holdningskamp, 1986). She wrote the book Josef Terboven. Hitlers mann i Norge (1992), and she was co-editor of the encyclopaedia Norsk Krigsleksikon 1940–1945 (1995).

She died at the age of 78.[2]

Berit Nøkleby
Born25 September 1939
Drammen, Norway
Died26 July 2018 (aged 78)

Selected works

  • Nyordning (1985)
  • Holdningskamp (1986)
  • Pass godt på Tirpitz! : norske radioagenter i Secret Intelligence Service 1940-1945 (1988)
  • Da krigen kom (1989)
  • Josef Terboven: Hitlers mann i Norge (1992)
  • Skutt blir den-- : tysk bruk av dødsstraff i Norge 1940-1945 (1996)
  • Barn under krigen (2000)
  • Gestapo: tysk politi i Norge 1940–45 (2003)
  • Krigsforbrytelser: brudd på krigens lov i Norge 1940–45 (2004)
  • Politigeneral og hirdsjef Karl A. Marthinsen (2010)


  1. ^ "Nøkleby, Berit". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget. 2007.
  2. ^ Death announcement, Aftenposten 2 August 2018 p. 33
1939 in Norway

Events in the year 1939 in Norway.

2018 in Norway

Events in the year 2018 in Norway.

Deaths in July 2018

The following is a list of notable deaths in July 2018.

Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:

Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.

German occupation of Norway

The German occupation of Norway during World War II began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway. Conventional armed resistance to the German invasion ended on 10 June 1940 and the Germans controlled Norway until the capitulation of German forces in Europe on 8/9 May 1945. Throughout this period, Norway was continuously occupied by the Wehrmacht. Civil rule was effectively assumed by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen (Reich Commissariat of Norway), which acted in collaboration with a pro-German puppet government, the Quisling regime, while the Norwegian King Haakon VII and the prewar government escaped to London, where they acted as a government in exile. This period of military occupation is in Norway referred to as the "war years" or "occupation period".

Guri Hjeltnes

Guri Hjeltnes (born 23 October 1953) is a Norwegian journalist and historian. Having mainly researched Norwegian World War II history during her career, she is a professor of journalism at the BI Norwegian Business School since 2004. She has also spent considerable time as a journalist and commentator, currently in Verdens Gang.


Milorg (abbreviation of militær organisasjon – military organization) was the main Norwegian resistance movement during World War II. Resistance work included intelligence gathering, sabotage, supply-missions, raids, espionage, transport of goods imported to the country, release of Norwegian prisoners and escort for citizens fleeing the border to neutral Sweden.

Norsk krigsleksikon 1940–1945

Norsk krigsleksikon 1940–1945 is a Norwegian encyclopaedia covering the Second World War.

It was issued in 1995 by the publishing house J.W. Cappelen. The editorial staff consisted of five editors: Hans Fredrik Dahl, Guri Hjeltnes, Berit Nøkleby, Nils Johan Ringdal and Øystein Sørensen. It contains around 1,000 articles, of which around 500 are biographies.

Operation Blumenpflücken

Operation Blumenpflücken ("Operation Flower Picking") was a counter-resistance operation in occupied Norway, planned and carried out by the Gestapo/Sicherheitspolizei in 1944 and early 1945.

It was planned by Ernst Weiner, and was a part of the Gegenterror organized to weaken the Norwegian resistance. The purpose was not to terrorize or liquidate central resistance leaders, but rather to capture and kill other known Norwegians and hide the real purpose. According to Arnfinn Moland, the killings were made to look like actions by the Norwegian resistance (Home Front), specifically the Communist parts of it.Many believed the deception well into the 1990s. Egil Ulateig's 1996 book Med rett til å drepe, with consultant help from Hans Fredrik Dahl, made such a claim about two of the Blumenpflücken victims. During the war, even some of the German participants thought the initiative had come from Siegfried Fehmer or the Reichskommissariat Norwegen. Arnfinn Moland also claimed that the Norwegian Nazi police Statspolitiet were not informed. Historian Tore Pryser has stated that Statspolitiet were indeed involved.According to Moland, Weiner participated and, between 12 June and 1 July 1944, shot the first three of the eleven victims, Einar Hærland (long thought to have been liquidated by Norwegians), Sigurd Roll and Gunnar Spangen. According to Berit Nøkleby in Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45, a woman named Sigrid Hammerø was also killed, the operation's only female victim. The next seven killings took place in November and December 1944. The first was carried out by two Norwegian perpetrators and a German helper, Erwin Morio. The next three were carried out by Germans only; Heinz Vierke was legally acquitted for one killing during the legal purge in Norway after World War II. The next killing was by two Norwegians. The last three were carried out by Nickerl (first name unknown, participated twice) or Heinz Vierke (once) with Norwegian helpers. The last victim, Georg Henrik Resch, killed in Drammen on 6 January 1945, was the wrong person. Two attempts failed, one on 4 September 1944 and the other on 30 October 1944. All but three killings took place in Oslo or Aker.Of the eleven killings that went to trial after the war, there were convictions in each case, except the one with Heinz Vierke. Ernst Weiner was among the arrested, but was said to have shot himself and a fellow inmate while in prison. Historian Tore Pryser has cast some doubt on the "official version" that this was a suicide.

Operation Martin

Operation Martin (Red) was an Allied World War II clandestine operation aimed at destroying a German air control tower at Bardufoss. It was also tasked with organizing secret military resistance groups in Tromsø in German-occupied Norway in 1943.

The operation consisted of twelve Norwegian nationals under Company Linge group, who had been trained by British in Scotland and returned to Norway in March 1943. This mission was compromised when the Norwegian operatives seeking a trusted local resistance contact, accidentally made contact with an unaligned civilian shopkeeper with the same name as their contact. The civilian reported them to the Germans.

The escape failed when the group's vessel MK "Bratholm I" was discovered and attacked by the German frigate Räumboot R56. To escape, the MK "Bratholm I" was scuttled by its own Norwegian crew. An 8-ton explosive was detonated using a time delay fuse. The crew fled in a small boat, which was promptly sunk by the Germans. Eleven Norwegian soldiers from the Company Linge died, one was shot on site while ten were captured, interrogated by the Gestapo, and executed in Tromsø. Only one person managed to flee over from Rebbenesøya to Sweden, a neutral country. The survivor was Jan Baalsrud. His three-month escape was made through Lyngen and Manndalen with the help of local villagers.

Oscar Hans

Oscar Hans (born 6 February 1910, date of death unknown) was a German war criminal, leader of a SS-Sonderkommando during the occupation of Norway. He was born in Volmeringen, Lorraine, German Empire.Hans led the execution of more than 300 persons during the war years, including 195 persons executed at Trandumskogen in Ullensaker. His first job was the executions of Viggo Hansteen and Rolf Wickstrøm in September 1941, following the court-martial after the so-called milk strike in Oslo. After the war he was initially sentenced to death, but his appeal was more successful. The Supreme Court of Norway judged that he could not have known he was acting in violation of certain treaties. The Supreme Court also expelled him from Norway, and later he was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment by a British court, for execution of six British citizens. His trial by a British Military Court in Hamburg was held on 18–22 August 1948. He was released in April 1954.

Quisling regime

The Quisling regime or Quisling government are common names used to refer to the fascist collaborationist government led by Vidkun Quisling in German-occupied Norway during the Second World War. The official name of the regime from 1 February 1942 until its dissolution in May 1945 was Nasjonale regjering (English: National Government). Actual executive power was retained by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen, headed by Josef Terboven.

Given the use of the term quisling, the name Quisling regime can also be used as a derogatory term referring to political regimes perceived as treasonous puppet governments imposed by occupying foreign enemies.

Sund, Norway

Sund is a municipality in Hordaland county, Norway. The municipality is located in the traditional district of Midhordland. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Skogsvåg. Other larger villages in Sund include Klokkarvik, Tælavåg, Kausland, and Hammarsland.

Sund covers the southern third of the island of Store Sotra, west of the city of Bergen. It also includes many smaller, surrounding islands. The history of the municipality dates back to 1838, when Sund was first established as a formannskapsdistrikt, the precursor of the modern municipalities. Sund is a predominantly rural municipality, with no major settlements, the largest being Hammarsland with approximately 900 inhabitants (in 2013). Due to the proximity to the city of Bergen, a large proportion of the population commutes to the city to work.

The 100-square-kilometre (39 sq mi) municipality is the 381st largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Sund is the 149th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 7,058. The municipality's population density is 74.5 inhabitants per square kilometre (193/sq mi) and its population has increased by 24.5% over the last decade.

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