Bergamo (US: /ˈbɛərɡəmoʊ, ˈbɜːr-, ˈbɛərɡɑːmoʊ/, Italian: [ˈbɛrɡamo] (listen); Eastern Lombard: Bèrghem [ˈbɛrɡɛm] (listen); Latin: Bergŏmum)[a] is a city in the alpine Lombardy region of northern Italy, approximately 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Milan, and about 30 km (19 mi) from Switzerland, the alpine lakes Como and Iseo and 70 km (43 mi) from Garda and Maggiore. The Bergamo Alps (Alpi Orobie) begin immediately north of the city.
With a population of around 120,000, Bergamo is the fourth-largest city in Lombardy. Bergamo is the seat of the Province of Bergamo. The metropolitan area of Bergamo extends beyond the administrative city limits, spanning over a densely urbanized area with slightly less than 500,000 inhabitants. The Bergamo metropolitan area is itself part of the broader Milan metropolitan area, home to over 8 million people.
The city of Bergamo is composed of an old walled core, known as Città Alta ("Upper Town"), nestled within a system of hills constituting a regional park, and the modern expansion in the plains below. The upper town is encircled by massive Venetian defensive systems that are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 9 July 2017.
Bergamo is well connected to several cities in Italy, thanks to the motorway A4 stretching on the axis between Turin, Milan, Verona, Venice and Trieste. The city is served by Il Caravaggio International Airport, the third-busiest airport in Italy with 12.3 million passengers in 2017. Bergamo is the second most visited city in Lombardy after Milan.
|Città di Bergamo|
The skyline of the old fortified Upper City
Coat of arms
Città dei Mille ("City of the Thousand")
Map of the old walled Upper City of Bergamo
Location of Bergamo
Location of Bergamo in Lombardy
|Province||Province of Bergamo (BG)|
|• Mayor||Giorgio Gori (PD)|
|• Total||40.16 km2 (15.51 sq mi)|
|Elevation||485 m (1,591 ft)|
|• Density||3,000/km2 (7,800/sq mi)|
Bergamàsch (Eastern Lombard)
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Dialing code||(+39) 035|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||Cultural: iii, iv|
|Inscription||2017 (41st Session)|
|Fortified Upper City of Bergamo|
|Native name Città Alta di Bergamo|
Porta San Giacomo
|Location||Bergamo, Natural Park of Bergamo Hills Lombardy Italy|
|Area||Bergamo, Lombardy, Northern Italy|
|Governing body||Republic of Venice|
|Designated||2017 (41 Session)|
|Part of||Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar|
|Region||Europe and North America|
Bergamo occupies the site of the ancient town of Bergomum, founded as a settlement of the Celtic tribe of Cenomani. In 49 BC it became a Roman municipality, containing c. 10,000 inhabitants at its peak. An important hub on the military road between Friuli and Raetia, it was destroyed by Attila in the 5th century.
After the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by Charlemagne, it became the seat of a county under one Auteramus (d. 816). An important Lombardic hoard dating from the 6th to 7th centuries was found in the vicinity of the city in the 19th century and is now in the British Museum.
From the 11th century onwards, Bergamo was an independent commune, taking part in the Lombard League which defeated Frederick I Barbarossa in 1165. The local Guelph and Ghibelline factions were the Colleoni and Suardi, respectively.
Feuding between the two initially caused the family of Omodeo Tasso to flee north c. 1250, but he returned to Bergamo in the later 13th century to organize the city's couriers: this would eventually lead to the Imperial Thurn und Taxis dynasty generally credited with organizing the first modern postal service.
After a short period under the House of Malatesta starting from 1407, Bergamo was ceded in 1428 by the Duchy of Milan to the Republic of Venice in the context of the Wars in Lombardy and the aftermath of the 1427 Battle of Maclodio.
Despite the brief interlude granted by the Treaty of Lodi in 1454, the uneasy balance of power among the Northern Italian states precipitated the Italian Wars, a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, also the Papal States, France, and the Holy Roman Empire.
The wars, which were both a result and cause of Venetian involvement in the power politics of mainland Italy, prompted Venice to assert its direct rule over its mainland domains.
As much of the fighting during the Italian Wars took place during sieges, increasing levels of fortification were adopted, using such new developments as detached bastions that could withstand sustained artillery fire.
The Treaty of Campo Formio (17 October 1797) formally recognized the inclusion of Bergamo and other parts of Northern Italy into the Cisalpine Republic, a "sister republic" of the French First Republic that was superseded in 1802 by the short-lived Napoleonic Italian Republic and in 1805 by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.
At the 1815 Congress of Vienna, Bergamo was assigned to the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, a crown land of the Austrian Empire. The visit of Ferdinand I in 1838 coincided with the opening of the new boulevard stretching into the plains, leading to the railway station that was inaugurated in 1857.
The Austrian rule was at first welcomed, but later challenged by Italian independentist insurrections in 1848.
For its contribution to the Italian unification movement, Bergamo is also known as Città dei Mille ("City of the Thousand"), because a significant part of the rank-and-file supporting Giuseppe Garibaldi in his expedition against the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies came from Bergamo and its environs.
During the twentieth century, Bergamo became one of Italy's most industrialized areas.
The 2017 43rd G7 summit on agriculture was held in Bergamo, in the context of the broader international meeting organized in Taormina. The "Charter of Bergamo" is an international commitment, signed during the summit, to reduce hunger worldwide by 2030, strengthen cooperation for agricultural development in Africa, and ensure price transparency.
The town has two centres: Città alta ("upper city"), a hilltop medieval town, surrounded by 16th-century defensive walls, and the Città bassa ("lower city"). The two parts of the town are connected by funicular, roads, and footpaths.
The upper city, surrounded by Venetian walls built in the 16th century, forms the historic centre of Bergamo. Walking along the narrow medieval streets, you can visit numerous places of interest including:
It contains the tomb of Bartolomeo Colleoni.
|Parco regionale dei Colli di Bergamo|
|Regional Park of the Bergamo Hills|
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
San Vigilio Hill from Città Alta
|Area||11,613 acres (47.00 km2)|
|Governing body||Parco dei Colli di Bergamo, Regione Lombardia|
The lower city is the modern centre of Bergamo. At the end of the 19th century Città Bassa was composed of residential neighborhoods built along the main roads that linked Bergamo to the other cities of Lombardy. The main boroughs were Borgo Palazzo along the road to Brescia, Borgo San Leonardo along the road to Milan and Borgo Santa Caterina along the road to Serio Valley. The city rapidly expanded during the 20th century. In the first decades, the municipality erected major buildings like the new courthouse and various administrative offices in the lower part of Bergamo in order to create a new center of the city. After World War II many residential buildings were constructed in the lower part of the city which are now divided into twenty-five neighborhoods:
Boccaleone, Borgo Palazzo, Borgo Santa Caterina, Campagnola, Carnovali, Celadina, Centro-Papa Giovanni XXIII, Centro-Pignolo, Centro-Sant'Alessandro, Città Alta, Colli, Colognola, Conca Fiorita, Grumello del Piano, Longuelo, Loreto, Malpensata, Monterosso, Redona, San Paolo, San Tomaso de' Calvi, Santa Lucia (Bergamo)|Santa Lucia, Valtesse-San Colombano, Valverde con Valtesse-Sant'Antonio, Villaggio degli Sposi
The most relevant sites are:
In 2010, there were 119,551 people residing in Bergamo (in which the greater area has about 500 000 inhabitants), located in the province of Bergamo, Lombardia, of whom 46.6% were male and 53.4% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 16.79 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 23.61 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 17.88 percent (minors) and 20.29 percent (pensioners).
The average age of Bergamo residents is 45 compared to the Italian average of 43. In the eight years between 2002 and 2010, the population of Bergamo grew by 5.41 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 5.77 percent.
Nowadays, the city has an advanced tertiary economy focussed on banking, retail, and services associated to the industrial sector of its province. Corporations and firms linked to the area include UBI banking group, Brembo (braking systems), Tenaris (steel), ABB (power and automation technology), S. Pellegrino (beverage company based in San Pellegrino Terme), Italcementi (cement and concrete) and Riva-Ferretti (yachts and luxury ships based in Sarnico).
Bergamo produces the Denominazione di origine controllata wines Moscato di Scanzo e Valcalepio.
Bergamo was the hometown and last resting place of Enrico Rastelli, a highly technical and world-famous juggler who lived in the town and, in 1931, died there at the early age of 34. There is a life-sized statue of Rastelli within his mausoleum. A number of painters were active in the town as well; among these were Giovanni Paolo Cavagna, Francesco Zucco, and Enea Salmeggia, each of whom painted works for the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. Sculptor Giacomo Manzù and the bass-baritone opera singer Alex Esposito were born in Bergamo.
The American electrical engineer and professor Andrew Viterbi, inventor of Viterbi's algorithm, was born in Bergamo, before migrating to the US during the Fascist era because of his Jewish origins. Designers born in Bergamo include the late Mariuccia Mandelli, the founder of Krizia and one of the first female fashion designers to create a successful line of men's wear.
Bergamo railway station is connected to Milan, Lecco, Cremona, Treviglio, Brescia and Monza with regional trains operated by Trenord. The city is also served by two daily Frecciargento services to Rome operated by Trenitalia.
Transport within Bergamo is managed by ATB and includes a network of bus lines together with two funicular systems opened in 1887 ("Funicolare di Bergamo Alta") and in 1912 ("Funicolare di Bergamo San Vigilio"). The Bergamo–Albino light rail was inaugurated in 2009.
Two light rail lines are currently in the planning stage:
Bergamo has a partnership with:
Bergamo is home to the following consulates:
Alzano Lombardo (Bergamasque: Lsà) is a comune in the province of Bergamo, Lombardy, northern Italy.
Alzano received the honorary title of city with a presidential decree of 11 March 1991.Atalanta B.C.
Atalanta Bergamasca Calcio, commonly referred to as Atalanta, is an Italian football club based in Bergamo, Lombardy. It currently plays in Serie A, having gained promotion from Serie B in 2010–11.
They are nicknamed the Nerazzurri and the Orobici. Founded in 1907 by some Swiss students in the gym of the liceo classico, Atalanta play in blue-and-black vertically striped shirts, black shorts and black socks. The club stadium is the 21,300 seat Atleti Azzurri d'Italia.
In Italy, Atalanta is sometimes called Regina delle provinciali (queen of the provincial clubs) to mark the fact that the club is by far the most consistent among Italian clubs not based in a regional capital, having played 58 times in Serie A, 28 times in Serie B and only once in Serie C.
The club won the Coppa Italia in 1963 and reached the Cup Winners' Cup semi-final in 1988, when it was still competing in Serie B. This is still the best ever performance by a non-first division club in a major UEFA competition (together with Cardiff City). Atalanta also participated in four seasons of the UEFA Europa League (previously known as UEFA Cup), reaching the quarter-finals in the 1990–91 season.Brembo
Brembo S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of automotive brake systems, especially for high-performance cars and motorcycles based in Bergamo, near Milan.Brusaporto
Brusaporto (Bergamasque: Brüsa) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) northeast of Milan and about 9 kilometres (6 mi) southeast of Bergamo. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 4,524 and an area of 5.0 square kilometres (1.9 sq mi).Brusaporto borders the following municipalities: Albano Sant'Alessandro, Bagnatica, Seriate.Castro, Lombardy
Castro (Bergamasque: Càster) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) northeast of Milan and about 35 kilometres (22 mi) northeast of Bergamo on the western side of the lake Iseo. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,449 and an area of 3.5 square kilometres (1.4 sq mi).Castro borders the following municipalities: Lovere, Pianico, Pisogne, Solto Collina.Gaetano Donizetti
Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (Italian: [doˈmeːniko ɡaeˈtaːno maˈriːa donidˈdzetti] (listen); 29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer. Along with Gioachino Rossini and Vincenzo Bellini, Donizetti was a leading composer of the bel canto opera style during the first half of the nineteenth century. Donizetti's close association with the bel canto style was undoubtedly an influence on other composers such as Giuseppe Verdi.Donizetti was born in Bergamo in Lombardy. Although he did not come from a musical background, at an early age he was taken under the wing of composer Simon Mayr who had enrolled him by means of a full scholarship in a school which he had set up. There he received detailed training in the arts of fugue and counterpoint. Mayr was also instrumental in obtaining a place for the young man at the Bologna Academy, where, at the age of 19, he wrote his first one-act opera, the comedy Il Pigmalione, which may never have been performed during his lifetime.Over the course of his career, Donizetti wrote almost 70 operas. An offer in 1822 from Domenico Barbaja, the impresario of the Teatro di San Carlo in Naples, which followed the composer's ninth opera, led to his move to that city and his residency there which lasted until the production of Caterina Cornaro in January 1844. In all, Naples presented 51 of Donizetti's operas.
Before 1830, success came primarily with his comic operas, the serious ones failing to attract significant audiences. However, his first notable success came with an opera seria, Zoraida di Granata, which was presented in 1822 in Rome. In 1830, when Anna Bolena was premiered, Donizetti made a major impact on the Italian and international opera scene and this shifted the balance of success away from primarily comedic operas, although even after that date, his best-known works included comedies such as L'elisir d'amore (1832) and Don Pasquale (1843). Significant historical dramas did appear and succeed; they included Lucia di Lammermoor (the first to have a libretto written by Salvadore Cammarano) given in Naples in 1835, and one of the most successful Neapolitan operas, Roberto Devereux in 1837. Up to that point, all of his operas had been set to Italian libretti.
Donizetti found himself increasingly chafing against the censorship limitations which existed in Italy (and especially in Naples). From about 1836, he became interested in working in Paris, where he saw much greater freedom to choose subject matter, in addition to receiving larger fees and greater prestige. Starting in 1838 with an offer from the Paris Opéra for two new works, he spent a considerable part of the following ten years in that city, and set several operas to French texts as well as overseeing staging of his Italian works. The first opera was a French version of the then-unperformed Poliuto which, in April 1840, was revised to become Les martyrs. Two new operas were also given in Paris at that time.
As the 1840s progressed, Donizetti moved regularly between Naples, Rome, Paris, and Vienna, continuing to compose and stage his own operas as well as those of other composers. But from around 1843, severe illness began to take hold and to limit his activities. Eventually, by early 1846 he was obliged to be confined to an institution for the mentally ill and, by late 1847, friends had him moved back to Bergamo, where he died in April 1848.Orio al Serio International Airport
Orio al Serio International Airport (IATA: BGY, ICAO: LIME), officially also known as Il Caravaggio International Airport, is the third busiest international airport in Italy. It is located in the municipal territory of Orio al Serio, 2 nautical miles (3.7 kilometres; 2.3 miles) southeast of Bergamo in Italy. The airport is 45 km (28 mi) north-east of Milan, where it operates alongside Malpensa Airport and Linate Airport, the city's other two primary airports. The airport served 11,159,631 passengers in 2016.
The airport is called Milan/Bergamo by several airlines, although neither "Milan" nor "Bergamo" are part of the airport's official naming.The airport is managed by SACBO, a company partially owned by SEA – Aeroporti di Milano, the operator of Linate and Malpensa airports. SEA, the company that runs the latter two airports, also holds a 31% stake in SACBO. It is named "Il Caravaggio" after the Baroque painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, who lived as a child at Caravaggio in the Province of Bergamo.Osio Sotto
Osio Sotto (Bergamasque: Öss de Sóta) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) northeast of Milan and about 11 kilometres (7 mi) southwest of Bergamo. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 11,097 and an area of 7.5 square kilometres (2.9 sq mi).Founded in Roman times, the comune is currently the tenth municipality in the province of Bergamo by population, and the fourth of the southern Bergamo region.
Osio Sotto borders the following municipalities: Boltiere, Brembate, Filago, Levate, Osio Sopra, Verdellino.Ponte San Pietro
Ponte San Pietro (Bergamasque: Pùt San Piero) is a comune in the province of Bergamo, Lombardy, northern Italy. It is about 40 kilometres (25 mi) northeast of Milan and about 8 kilometres (5 mi) west of Bergamo.
Sights include the Villa Mapelli-Mozzi.Province of Bergamo
The Province of Bergamo (Italian: provincia di Bergamo; Lombard: proìnsa de Bèrghem) is a province in the Lombardy region of Italy. It has a population of 1,112,187 (2017), an area of 2,754.91 square kilometers (1,063.68 sq mi), and contains 243 comuni. Its capital is the city of Bergamo.Riva di Solto
Riva di Solto (Bergamasque: Rìa de Sólt) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) northeast of Milan and about 30 kilometres (19 mi) east of Bergamo, on the western shore of the Lake Iseo.
Riva di Solto borders the following municipalities: Fonteno, Marone, Parzanica, Pisogne, Solto Collina.San Pellegrino Terme
San Pellegrino Terme (Bergamasque: San Pelegrì) is a comune in the province of Bergamo, Lombardy, Italy. Located in the Val Brembana, it is the location where beverage company San Pellegrino, and its carbonated mineral water drinks are produced.
The town is home to several Art Nouveau edifices from the early 20th century, including the Casinò, the Grand Hotel and the Terme ("Baths").
Leonardo da Vinci visited the source in Lombardy to sample the town’s "miraculous" water.
The 18th stage of the 2011 Giro d'Italia finished in San Pellegrino Terme.Stadio Atleti Azzurri d'Italia
The Atleti Azzurri d'Italia, will be known for sponsorship reasons as the Gewiss Stadium from the 2019–20 Serie A season for at least six seasons, is a stadium in Bergamo, Italy, used by the Atalanta and Albinoleffe football teams. The field is 120 m long, and 70 m wide. The stadium has a capacity of 21,300 seats.
The stadium is seen by many to be outdated and not up to standard for Serie A due to inadequate facilities, poor views from a number of stands and because most of the stadium has no roof cover.
In the last decade some projects for a new stadium have been put forward, though issues with funding and location has stifled these plans. As a result, a plan of action was proposed to gradually develop the existing stadium, and finally, the first stage of improvements were completed just after the beginning of the 2015-2016, with future work to be carried out if a 99-year lease can be agreed with the city council.
The first stage improvements included a revelation in the removal of the pitch side barrier, one of the first Serie A clubs to make this change, along with better management and substitute bench facilities and the introduction of luxury Sky Boxes atop the grandstand complete with sofas, TV screens and amenities. There have also been areas dedicated to cater for disabled spectators. At the same time, the press box has been lowered and moved, bringing reporters closer to the action offering them a better all-round match experience. These improvements have come at the cost of reducing the overall capacity by around 3,000 seats.
Atalanta officially owned their stadium from 8 August 2017, after €8,608,600 was paid to own the arena, with a further €2,600,000 for the partial redevelopment of the ground carried out in 2015.Stezzano
Stezzano (Bergamasque: Stezà) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) northeast of Milan and about 8 kilometres (5 mi) south of Bergamo.Trofeo Faip–Perrel
The Trofeo Faip–Perrel is a professional tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually at the PalaNorda di Bergamo - Palazzetto di Bergamo, in Bergamo, Italy, since 2006.Valbrembo
Valbrembo (Bergamasque: Albrèmb) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 45 kilometres (28 mi) northeast of Milan and about 4 kilometres (2 mi) northwest of Bergamo. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 3,584 and an area of 3.7 square kilometres (1.4 sq mi).Valbrembo borders the following municipalities: Almenno San Bartolomeo, Bergamo, Brembate di Sopra, Mozzo, Paladina, Ponte San Pietro.Part of Valbrembo's territory is part of Parco dei Colli di Bergamo.
This comune is known, because in 1981, was established the Faunistic Park Le Cornelle.Villa d'Almè
Villa d'Almè (Bergamasque: Éla d'Almè) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 45 kilometres (28 mi) northeast of Milan and about 7 kilometres (4 mi) northwest of Bergamo.
Villa d'Almè borders the following municipalities: Almè, Almenno San Salvatore, Sedrina, Sorisole, Ubiale Clanezzo. Part of Villa d'Almè's territory is included in the Parco dei Colli di Bergamo.Virtus Bergamo Alzano Seriate 1909
Virtus Bergamo Alzano Seriate 1909 is an Italian association football club from Alzano Lombardo and Seriate, Lombardy. It currently plays in Serie D.Zanica
Zanica (Bergamasque: Sanga) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 45 kilometres (28 mi) northeast of Milan and about 8 kilometres (5 mi) south of Bergamo.
Zanica borders the following municipalities: Azzano San Paolo, Cavernago, Comun Nuovo, Grassobbio, Orio al Serio, Stezzano, Urgnano.
|Climate data for Bergamo (1971–2000, extremes 1946–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.9
|Average high °C (°F)||6.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−15.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||66.1
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||7.1||5.3||7.0||9.3||11.1||9.1||6.3||7.2||6.5||8.3||7.1||6.6||90.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||75||75||68||71||69||67||67||68||71||75||78||79||72|
|Source: Servizio Meteorologico (humidity 1961–1990)|
|History of Bergamo|
|Monuments and places|
|Mountains and hills of the park|
|Rivers of the park|
Cities in Italy by population