Berezina River

The Berezina or Biarezina[2] (Belarusian: Бярэ́зіна; pronounced [bʲaˈrɛzʲinɐ]) is a river in Belarus and a tributary of the Dnieper River.

The Berezina Preserve by the river is on the UNESCO list of Biosphere Preserves.

Berezina River
Belarusian: Бярэзіна
Berezina River
Berezina River in Belarus
Location
CountryBelarus
Physical characteristics
Source 
 - locationBelarus
Mouth 
 - location
Dnieper
Length561 km (349 mi)[1]
Basin size24,500 km2 (9,500 sq mi)[1]

Cities and towns on the Berezina

Historical significance

  • Napoleon Bonaparte's army suffered heavy losses (about 36,000) when crossing the Berezina in November 1812 during his retreat from Russia (see Battle of Berezina). Since then "Berezina" is used in French as a synonym of catastrophe. (See also Charles Joseph Minard for a visual graphic of the army's fate.)
  • Charles XII of Sweden's army crossed the Berezina on June 25, 1708 during his campaign against Peter the Great of Russia in the Great Northern War. (see ISBN 0-306-80863-3 for details)
  • Several armies in German Wehrmacht Army Group Centre were entrapped and prevented from crossing the Berezina in June, 1944, during the envelopment phases of the Bobruysk and Minsk Offensives, within the closing phases of Operation Bagration in World War II. There was war between Germany and Russia/USSR in the Beresina River in 1917-1918.
  • See also Battle of Berezina (disambiguation).

References

  1. ^ a b "Main Geographic Characteristics of the Republic of Belarus. Main characteristics of the largest rivers of Belarus". Land of Ancestors. Data of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Belarus. 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  2. ^ official transliteration

Coordinates: 52°32′59″N 30°15′00″E / 52.54972°N 30.25000°E

4th Airborne Corps (Soviet Union)

The 4th Airborne Corps was an airborne corps of the Red Army in World War II. It fought in the Vyazma airborne operation, an unsuccessful landing during the Rzhev-Vyazma Offensive.

73rd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 73rd Rifle Division was a formation of the Great Patriotic War Soviet Army. The division began assigned to the 20th Army at the beginning of the war and was destroyed and rebuilt twice before the war ended.

According to research in the Soviet archives published by Michael Avanzini and Craig Crofoot, the division was formed five times from 1930 to the late 1940s. Its first formation was established at Omsk in the Siberian Military District in 1930, and reformed a second time in September 1939 after serving as the cadre for the 109th Rifle Division and the 194th Rifle Division. Disbanded for unknown reasons in October 1939.

83rd Infantry Division (German Empire)

The 83rd Infantry Division (83. Infanterie-Division) was a formation of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed in November 1914 as the "Division Posen 1", part of the Posen Corps (Korps Posen), and became the 83rd Infantry Division in June 1915. It was initially formed from the garrison infantry regiments of Fortress Posen (Festung Posen). The division was disbanded in 1919 during the demobilization of the German Army after World War I.

Aleksey Semenovich Zhadov

Aleksey Semenovich Zhadov (Russian: Алексе́й Семёнович Жа́дов), born with the surname "Zhidov" (Russian: Жи́дов), was a Soviet military officer in the Red Army, who during World War II commanded the 66th Army, later renamed the 5th Guards Army, from the Battle of Stalingrad up till the end of the war. For his leadership of the army, Zhadov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. Postwar, Zhadov commanded the Central Group of Forces and was deputy commander of the Soviet Ground Forces.

Babruysk

Babruysk, Babrujsk, or Bobruisk (Belarusian: Бабру́йск, Łacinka: Babrujsk, Russian: Бобру́йск, Polish: Bobrujsk, Yiddish: באברויסק‎) is a city in the Mogilev Region of eastern Belarus on the Berezina river. It is a large city in Belarus. As of 2009, its population was 215,092. The name Babruysk (as well as that of the Babruyka River) probably originates from the Belarusian word babyor (бабёр; beaver), many of which used to inhabit the Berezina. However, beavers in the area had been almost eliminated by the end of the 19th century due to hunting and pollution.

Babruysk occupies an area of 66 square kilometres (25 sq mi), and comprises over 450 streets whose combined length stretches for over 430 km (267 mi).

Babruysk is located at the intersection of railroads to Asipovichy, Zhlobin, Kastrychnitski and roads to Minsk, Gomel, Mogilev, Kalinkavichy, Slutsk, and Rahachow. It has the biggest timber mill in Belarus, and is also known for its chemical, machine building and metal-working industries.

In 2003, there were 34 public schools in Babruysk, with over 34,000 students. There are also three schools specializing in music, dance and visual arts. Additionally, there is a medical school and numerous professional technical schools.

Barysaw

Borisov (Barysaw, officially transliterated as Barysaŭ, Belarusian: Бары́саў [baˈrɨsaw]; Russian: Бори́сов [bɐˈrʲisəf], Polish: Borysów) is a city in Belarus situated near the Berezina River in the Minsk Region. With a population of around 145,000, it lies around 74 km northeast of Minsk.

Battle of Berezina

The Battle of Berezina (or Beresina) took place from 26 to 29 November 1812, between the French army of Napoleon, retreating after his invasion of Russia and crossing the Berezina (near Borisov, Belarus), and the Russian armies under Mikhail Kutuzov, Peter Wittgenstein and Admiral Pavel Chichagov. The battle ended with a mixed outcome. The French suffered very heavy losses but managed to cross the river and avoid being trapped. Since then "Bérézina" has been used in French as a synonym for "disaster."

Battle of Berezina (disambiguation)

Battle of Berezina may refer to one of the following events that happened by the Berezina River.

A battle between Charles XII of Sweden and Peter the Great on June 25, 1708 won by Charles.

Battle of Berezina during Napoleon's invasion of Russia.

Battles during the Polish–Soviet War:

Battle of Berezina (1919), a failed Bolshevik assault between October 30 and November 3, 1919

A successful attack of three Bolshevik brigades between May 16 and May 27, 1920

A counterattack by the Polish forces in June 1920

The third attack on the Polish positions around the village of Berezina in late June and early July 1920

Battles in 1941 and 1944 during the Second World War.

Bobr River

The Bobr is a river in Belarus. It is a left tributary of the Berezina River and approximately 124 km (77 mi) long.

Byerazino

Berazino (Belarusian: Беразіно́, translit. Bierazino), or Berezino (Russian: Березино́, Polish: Berezyna, Lithuanian: Berezinas), also known as Biarezan (Бярэзань, Yiddish: בערעזין‎, translit. Berezin), is a town on the Berezina River in Minsk Region of Belarus. The population is 13,300 (1998 census).

Dokshytsy

Dokshytsy (Belarusian: Докшыцы, Russian: До́кшицы, Yiddish: דאקשיץ‎ Dokshitz, Lithuanian: Dokšica) is a town in the Vitebsk Region of Belarus with a significant Chassidic history. It is 200 km (124.27 mi) southwest of Vitebsk and a kilometer from the source of the Berezina River. Its population in 2010 was 6,600.

The town is first mentioned in a document of Grand Duke Vytautas dated 1407 which refers to tributaries called "doxyczahe."

After the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, Dokshitsy became part of the Russian Empire, forming part of the Minsk Governorate; in 1795 it was briefly made a city before losing a portion of its territory and reverting to village status two years later. During the War of 1812 it was overrun and destroyed by the French.

During World War II, it was occupied by the Red Army on 17 September 1939 and by Nazi Germany on 9 July 1941; the Germans destroyed the city and set up a military garrison. Jews of the city are gathered in a ghetto in September 30, 1941. On May 29, 1942, 2 600 Jews are executed on a site outside the city.

In April 1942, hundreds of young people were sent from the ghetto to a labor camp in Glambukia. During this period an underground organization was established in the ghetto, headed by Yosef Shapira.

It was retaken by the Red Army on 2 July 1944.

List of rivers of Belarus

This is a list of rivers in Belarus.

Pavel Chichagov

Pavel Vasilievich Chichagov or Tchichagov (Russian: Па́вел Васи́льевич Чича́гов) (8 July [O.S. 27 June] 1767 – 20 August 1849) was a Russian military and naval commander of the Napoleonic Wars.

He was born in 1767 in Saint Petersburg, the son of Admiral Vasili Chichagov and his English wife. At the age of 12 he was enlisted in the Guard. In 1782 he served in a campaign in the Mediterranean as an aide to his father. He served with distinction in the Russian-Swedish War of 1788-1790, where he commanded the Rostislav and was awarded the Order of St. George, fourth degree, and a golden sword with the inscription "For Courage".

After the war, he studied at the Royal Naval Academy. While there, he met Elizabeth Proby, the daughter of a commissioner at the Chatham dockyard, and became engaged to her. When he returned to Russia in 1796, he applied for permission to marry but was told by Paul I "there are sufficient brides in Russia; there is no need to look for one in England." Some violence followed and Chichagov was sent to prison. He was soon pardoned, given permission to marry Elizabeth, and promoted to Rear Admiral. In 1802, Alexander I, Paul's successor, promoted Chichagov to Vice Admiral and made him a member of the Committee on Navy Reorganization. In 1807, he was promoted to Admiral and appointed Minister of the Navy.

Chichagov resigned and traveled in Europe in 1809-1811. Elizabeth died in 1811. In 1812, Alexander recalled him and appointed him Commander in Chief of the newly formed Third Western Army and Governor-General of Moldavia and Wallachia. However, the 1812 Treaty of Bucharest ended the Russo-Turkish War by the time he took command of the army. During the 1812 campaign against Napoleon, he was blamed for letting Napoleon escape at the Berezina River in November 1812. In 1813, he was dismissed and the following year went to France on a furlough, never to return to Russia. He remained a member of the State Council until 1834 but was then removed from that position, and his properties confiscated. He died in Paris in 1849 where after his death his memoirs were published.

Rudnya, Rudnyansky District, Smolensk Oblast

Rudnya (Russian: Ру́дня, Polish: Rudnia) is a town and the administrative center of Rudnyansky District in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Malaya Berezina River (Dnieper's basin) 68 kilometers (42 mi) northwest of Smolensk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 10,030 (2010 Census); 9,853 (2002 Census); 11,032 (1989 Census).

Svietlahorsk

Svietlahorsk (Belarusian: Светлаго́рск, [sʲvʲetɫaˈɣorsk], Svetlogorsk (Russian: Светлого́рск), until 1961 Šacilki, Belarusian: Шацілкі) is a town in the Svietlahorsk District of Gomel Region of Belarus, the administrative center of the rajon (district). It is located by the Berezina River and has 68,593 inhabitants (2015 estimate).

Svietlаhorsk-na-Biarezinie (Svietlаhorsk on Biarezina) is also a railroad station on the Zhlobin — Kalinkavichy railway line.

Svislach (Berezina)

Svislach, or Svislač (Belarusian: Свіслач, pronounced [ˈsʲvʲisɫatʂ] (listen)) or Svisloch (Russian: Свислочь) is a river in Belarus, a right tributary of the Biarezina river. It is 327 km in length. The name is derived from the root -visl- 'flowing,' of Indo-European origin (compare the Vistula River).Svislach flows through Minsk, the capital of Belarus.

Uzh River (Prypiat)

The Uzh (Ukrainian: Уж) is a river, a right tributary of the Pripyat, which empties into the Kiev Reservoir, in central Ukraine. It takes its source in the Zhytomyr Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine, and then flows briefly near the delta of the Berezina River. The Uzh then flows near the city of Chernobyl of Kiev Oblast, into the Pripyat River.

Western Front (RSFSR)

The Western Front (Russian: Западный фронт) was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War and Polish-Soviet War, which existed between February 12, 1919 and April 8, 1924. The Western Front was first established on the basis of the administration of the disbanded Northern Front. The Front headquarters were located consequently in Staraya Russa, Molodechno, Dvinsk, Smolensk and Minsk .

Withdrawal (military)

A withdrawal is a type of military operation, generally meaning retreating forces back while maintaining contact with the enemy. A withdrawal may be undertaken as part of a general retreat, to consolidate forces, to occupy ground that is more easily defended, or to lead the enemy into an ambush. It is considered a relatively risky operation, requiring discipline to keep from turning into a disorganized rout or at the very least doing severe damage to the military's morale.

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