Benjamin Spock

Benjamin McLane Spock (May 2, 1903 – March 15, 1998) was an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care (1946) is one of the best-selling volumes in history. The book's premise to mothers is that "you know more than you think you do."[1]

Spock was the first pediatrician to study psychoanalysis to try to understand children's needs and family dynamics. His ideas about childcare influenced several generations of parents to be more flexible and affectionate with their children, and to treat them as individuals. However, his theories were also widely criticized by colleagues for relying too heavily on anecdotal evidence rather than serious academic research.[2]

Spock was an activist in the New Left and anti Vietnam War movements during the 1960s and early 1970s. At the time, his books were criticized for propagating permissiveness and an expectation of instant gratification which allegedly led young people to join these movements—a charge that Spock denied. Spock also won an Olympic gold medal in rowing in 1924 while attending Yale University.

Benjamin Spock
Benjamin McLane Spock (1976)
Spock on April 21, 1976
Benjamin McLane Spock

May 2, 1903
DiedMarch 15, 1998 (aged 94)
Alma materYale University
Columbia University MD
AwardsE. Mead Johnson Award (1948)
Scientific career
FieldsPediatrics, Psychoanalysis
InstitutionsMayo Clinic 1947–1951
University of Pittsburgh 1951–1955
Case Western Reserve University 1955–1967
Benjamin Spock signature


Benjamin Spock
Medal record
Men's rowing
Representing the  United States
Olympic Games
Gold medal – first place 1924 Paris Eight

Benjamin McLane Spock was born May 2, 1903, in New Haven, Connecticut; his parents were Benjamin Ives Spock, a Yale graduate and long-time general counsel of the New Haven Railroad, and Mildred Louise (Stoughton) Spock.[3] His name came from Dutch ancestry; they originally spelled the name Spaak before migrating to the former colony of New Netherland.[4]

As did his father before him, Spock attended Phillips Andover Academy and Yale University. Prior to that he attended Hamden Hall Country Day School. Spock studied literature and history at Yale, and also was active in athletics, becoming a part of the Olympic rowing crew (Men's Eights) that won a gold medal at the 1924 games in Paris. At Yale, he was inducted into the Eta chapter of the Zeta Psi Fraternity and then into the senior society Scroll and Key. He attended the Yale School of Medicine for two years before shifting to Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons, from which he graduated first in his class in 1929. By that time, he had married Jane Cheney.[5]

Jane Cheney married Spock in 1927 and assisted him in the research and writing of Dr. Spock's Baby & Child Care, which was published in 1946 by Duell, Sloan & Pearce as The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care. The book has sold more than 50 million copies in 42 languages.[6][7]

Jane Cheney Spock was a civil liberties advocate and mother of two sons. She was born in Manchester, Connecticut, and attended Bryn Mawr College. She was active in Americans for Democratic Action, the American Civil Liberties Union and the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. Jane and Benjamin Spock divorced in 1976.[8] Following their divorce, she organized and ran support groups for older divorced women.[9]

In 1976, Spock married Mary Morgan.[10] They built a home in Arkansas, on Beaver Lake, where Spock would row daily.[11] Mary quickly adapted to Spock's life of travel and political activism. She was arrested with him many times for civil disobedience. Once they were arrested in Washington, D.C. for praying on the White House lawn, along with other demonstrators. When arrested, Morgan was strip searched; Spock was not. She sued the jail and the mayor of Washington, D.C. for sex discrimination. The American Civil Liberties Union took the case, and won. Morgan also introduced Spock to massage, yoga, and a macrobiotic diet, and meditation, which reportedly improved his health.[10] Mary scheduled his speaking dates and handled the legal agreements for Baby and Child Care for the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th editions. She continues to publish the book with the help of co-author Robert Needlman. Baby and Child Care still sells worldwide.

For most of his life, Spock wore Brooks Brothers suits and shirts with detachable collars, but at age 75, for the first time in his life, Mary Morgan got him to try blue jeans. She introduced him to Transactional analysis (TA) therapists, joined him in meditation twice a day, and cooked him a macrobiotic diet. "She gave me back my youth", Spock would tell reporters. He adapted to her lifestyle, as she did to his. There were 40 years difference in their ages, but Spock would tell reporters, when questioned about their age difference, that they were both 16.

For many years Spock lived aboard his sailboat, the Carapace, in the British Virgin Islands, off Tortola.[12] At age 84, Spock won 3rd place in a rowing contest, crossing 4 miles (6.4 km) of the Sir Frances Drake Channel between Tortola and Norman Island in 2.5 hours.[13] He credited his strength and good health to his life style and his love for life.

Spock had a second sailboat named Turtle, which he lived aboard and sailed in Maine in the summers. They lived only on boats, with no house, for most of 20 years. At the very end of Spock's life, he was advised to come ashore by his physician, Steve Pauker, of New England Medical Center, Boston. In 1992, Spock received the Peace Abbey Courage of Conscience Award at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library for his lifelong commitment to disarmament and peaceable child-rearing.[14][15]

Spock died at a house he was renting in La Jolla, California, on March 15, 1998. His ashes are buried in Camden, Maine.


In 1946, Spock published his book The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, which became a bestseller. Its message to mothers is that "you know more than you think you do."[1] By 1998 it had sold more than 50 million copies, and had been translated into 42 languages.[6][7]

According to the New York Times, Baby and Child Care was, throughout its first 52 years, the second-best-selling book, next to the Bible.[16] According to other sources, it was among best-sellers, albeit not second-best-selling.

Spock advocated ideas about parenting that were, at the time, considered out of the mainstream. Over time, his books helped to bring about major change. Previously, experts had told parents that babies needed to learn to sleep on a regular schedule, and that picking them up and holding them whenever they cried would only teach them to cry more and not to sleep through the night (a notion that borrows from behaviorism). They were told to feed their children on a regular schedule, and that they should not pick them up, kiss them, or hug them, because that would not prepare them to be strong and independent individuals in a harsh world. In contrast Spock encouraged parents to see their children as individuals, and not to apply a one-size-fits all philosophy to them.

By the late 1960s however, Spock's opposition to the Vietnam War had damaged his reputation; the 1968 edition of Baby and Child Care sold half as many copies of the prior edition.[17] Later in life Spock wrote a book entitled Dr. Spock on Vietnam and co-wrote an autobiography entitled Spock on Spock (with Mary Morgan Spock), in which he stated his attitude toward aging: Delay and Deny.

In the seventh edition of Baby and Child Care, published a few weeks after he died, Spock advocated for a bold change in children's diets, recommending that all children switch to a vegan diet after the age of 2.[18] Spock himself had switched to an all-plant diet in 1991, after a series of illnesses that left him weak and unable to walk unaided. After making the dietary change, he lost 50 pounds, regained his ability to walk and became healthier overall. The revised edition stated children on an all-plant diet will reduce their risk of developing heart disease, obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes and certain diet-related cancers. Studies suggest that vegetarians children are leaner, and adult vegetarians are known to be at lower risk of such diseases.[19]

Spock's approach to childhood nutrition was criticized by a number of experts, including his co-author, Boston pediatrician Dr. Steven J. Parker,[20] as too extreme and likely to result in nutritional deficiencies unless it is very carefully planned and executed, something that would be difficult for working parents.[16]


Sudden infant death syndrome

Spock advocated that infants should not be placed on their back when sleeping, commenting in his 1958 edition that "if [an infant] vomits, he's more likely to choke on the vomitus." This advice was extremely influential on health-care providers, with nearly unanimous support through to the 1990s.[21] Later empirical studies, however, found that there is a significantly increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) associated with infants sleeping on their abdomens. Advocates of evidence-based medicine have used this as an example of the importance of basing health-care recommendations on statistical evidence, with one researcher estimating that as many as 50,000 infant deaths in Europe, Australia, and the US could have been prevented had this advice been altered by 1970, when such evidence became available.[22]

Male circumcision

In the 1940s, Spock favored circumcision of males performed within a few days of birth based on a belief that it would lower the chance of cervical cancer and avoid psychological trauma to older children. However, in the 1976 revision of Baby and Child Care he concurred with a 1971 American Academy of Pediatrics task force that there was no medical reason to recommend routine circumcision, and in a 1989 article for Redbook magazine he stated that "circumcision of males is traumatic, painful, and of questionable value."[23] He received the first Human Rights Award from the International Symposium on Circumcision (ISC) in 1991 and was quoted saying, "My own preference, if I had the good fortune to have another son, would be to leave his little penis alone".[24]

Social and political activism

In 1962, Spock joined The Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, otherwise known as SANE. Spock was politically outspoken and active in the movement to end the Vietnam War. In 1968, he and four others (including William Sloane Coffin, Marcus Raskin, Mitchell Goodman, and Michael Ferber) were singled out for prosecution by then Attorney General Ramsey Clark on charges of conspiracy to counsel, aid, and abet resistance to the draft.[25] Spock and three of his alleged co-conspirators were convicted, although the five had never been in the same room together. His two-year prison sentence was never served; the case was appealed and in 1969 a federal court set aside his conviction.[26]

In 1967, Spock was pressed to run as Martin Luther King, Jr.'s vice-presidential running mate at the National Conference for New Politics over Labor Day weekend in Chicago.[27][28]

In 1968, Spock signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War,[29] and he later became a sponsor of the War Tax Resistance project, which practiced and advocated tax resistance as a form of anti-war protest.[30] He was also arrested for his involvement in anti-war protests resulting from his signing of the anti-war manifesto "A Call to Resist Illegitimate Authority" circulated by members of the radical intellectual collective RESIST.[31] The individuals arrested during this incident came to be known as the Boston Five.[32]

In 1968, the American Humanist Association named Spock Humanist of the Year.[33]

In 1970, Dr. Benjamin Spock was active in The New Party serving as Honorary co-chairman with Gore Vidal. In the 1972 United States presidential election, Spock was the People's Party candidate with a platform that called for free medical care; the repeal of "victimless crime" laws, including the legalization of abortion, homosexuality, and cannabis; a guaranteed minimum income for families; and for an end to American military interventionism and the immediate withdrawal of all American troops from foreign countries.[34] In the 1970s and 1980s, Spock demonstrated and gave lectures against nuclear weapons and cuts in social welfare programs.

In 1972, Spock, Julius Hobson (his Vice Presidential candidate), Linda Jenness (Socialist Workers Party Presidential candidate), and Socialist Workers Party Vice Presidential candidate Andrew Pulley wrote to Major General Bert A. David, commanding officer of Fort Dix, asking for permission to distribute campaign literature and to hold an election-related campaign meeting. On the basis of Fort Dix regulations 210-26 and 210-27, General David refused the request. Spock, Hobson, Jenness, Pulley, and others then filed a case that ultimately made its way to the United States Supreme Court (424 U.S. 828—Greer, Commander, Fort Dix Military Reservation, et al., v. Spock et al.), which ruled against the plaintiffs.[35]

Spock was the party's 1976 nominee for Vice President.

Conservative backlash

Norman Vincent Peale was a popular preacher who supported the Vietnam War. During the late 1960s, Peale criticized the anti-Vietnam War movement and the perceived laxity of that era, placing the blame on Dr. Spock's books: "The U.S. was paying the price of two generations that followed the Dr. Spock baby plan of instant gratification of needs."[36]

In the 1960s and 1970s, blame was placed on Spock for the disorderliness of young people, many of whose parents had been devotees of Baby and Child Care.[37] Vice President Spiro Agnew also blamed Spock for "permissiveness".[38][39] These allegations were enthusiastically embraced by conservative adults, who viewed the rebellious youth of that era with disapproval, referring to them as "the Spock generation".[40][41][42]

Spock's supporters countered that these criticisms betrayed an ignorance of what Spock had actually written, and/or a political bias against Spock's left-wing political activities. Spock himself, in his autobiography, pointed out that he had never advocated permissiveness; also, that the attacks and claims that he had ruined American youth only arose after his public opposition to the Vietnam war. He regarded these claims as ad hominem attacks, whose political motivation and nature were clear.[40][41]

Spock addressed these accusations in the first chapter of his 1994 book, Rebuilding American Family Values: A Better World for Our Children.

The Permissive Label: A couple weeks after my indictment [for "conspiracy to counsel, aid and abet resistance to the military draft"], I was accused by Reverend Norman Vincent Peale, a well-known clergyman and author who supported the Vietnam War, of corrupting an entire generation. In a sermon widely reported in the press, Reverend Peale blamed me for all the lack of patriotism, lack of responsibility, and lack of discipline of the young people who opposed the war. All these failings, he said, were due to my having told their parents to give them "instant gratification" as babies. I was showered with blame in dozens of editorials and columns from primarily conservative newspapers all over the country heartily agreeing with Peale's assertions.

Many parents have since stopped me on the street or in airports to thank me for helping them to raise fine children, and they've often added, "I don't see any instant gratification in Baby and Child Care" I answer that they're right--I've always advised parents to give their children firm, clear leadership and to ask for cooperation and politeness in return. On the other hand I've also received letters from conservative mothers saying, in effect, "Thank God I've never used your horrible book. That's why my children take baths, wear clean clothes and get good grades in school."

Since I received the first accusation twenty-two years after Baby and Child Care was originally published--and since those who write about how harmful my book is invariably assure me they've never used it--I think it's clear that the hostility is to my politics rather than my pediatric advice. And though I've been denying the accusation for twenty-five years, one of the first questions I get from many reporters and interviewers is, "Doctor Spock, are you still permissive?" You can't catch up with a false accusation.

In June 1992, Spock told Associated Press journalist David Beard,[43] there was a link between pediatrics and political activism:

People have said, "You've turned your back on pediatrics." I said, "No. It took me until I was in my 60s to realize that politics was a part of pediatrics."[43][44]

Conservatives also criticize Spock for being interest in the ideas of Sigmund Freud and John Dewey and his efforts to integrate their philosophies into the general population.[38] Spock wrote:

John Dewey and Freud said that kids don't have to be disciplined into adulthood but can direct themselves toward adulthood by following their own will[38]

Public misconceptions

Spock had two children: Michael and John. Michael was formerly the director of the Boston Children's Museum and since retired from the museum profession; John is the owner of a construction firm. Spock's grandson Peter, Michael's son, committed suicide on Christmas of 1983 at the age of 22 by jumping from the roof of the Children's Museum.[45] He had been employed at the museum part-time[46] and had long suffered from schizophrenia.[47] This story has often been misreported as his son's suicide.[48]

Olympic success

In 1924, while at Yale, Spock was part of the all-Yale Men's eight rowing team at the Paris Olympics, captained by James Rockefeller, later president of what would become Citigroup. Competing on the Seine, they won the gold medal.[49]

Books by Benjamin Spock

  • Baby and Child Care (1946, with revisions up to tenth edition, 2018)
  • A Baby's First Year (1954)
  • Feeding Your Baby and Child (1955)
  • Dr. Spock Talks With Mothers (1961)
  • Problems of Parents (1962)
  • Caring for Your Disabled Child (1965)
  • Dr. Spock on Vietnam (1968)
  • Decent and Indecent (1970)
  • A Teenager's Guide to Life and Love (1970)
  • Raising Children in a Difficult Time (1974)
  • Spock on Parenting (1988)
  • Spock on Spock: a Memoir of Growing Up With the Century (1989)
  • A Better World for Our Children (1994)[50]
  • Dr. Spock's the School Years: The Emotional and Social Development of Children 01 Edition (2001)

See also


  1. ^ a b Hidalgo, Louise (23 August 2011). "Dr Spock's Baby and Child Care at 65". BBC.
  2. ^ Maier, 260.
  3. ^ Bart Barnes, "Pediatrician Benjamin Spock Dies", The Washington Post, Tuesday, March 17, 1998; Page A01.
  4. ^ "Benjamin Spock -New Netherland Institute". New Netherland Institute. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
  5. ^ Biography of Spock at Archived September 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ a b Pace, Eric. "Benjamin Spock, World's Pediatrician, Dies at 94". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  7. ^ a b "Dr. Spock's baby book will endure". CNN. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  8. ^ "The Spocks: Bittersweet Recognition in a Revised Classic". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-08-10.
  9. ^ "Jane C. Spock, 82; Worked on Baby Book". The New York Times. 1989-06-14. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-08-10.
  10. ^ a b "At 88, an Undiminished Dr. Spock". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  11. ^ "Dr. Spock: He's newborn at 75 (February 18, 1979)". Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  12. ^ "Mary Morgan: Spock's wife also caretaker". Daily Breeze (Torrance, CA). 29 April 1990.
  13. ^ "BENJAMIN McLANE SPOCK (1903-1998) - den kontroversielle rebellen". Tidsskrift for Norsk Barnelegeforening. 34 (1): 26–28. 2016.
  14. ^ "Recipients of the Courage of Conscience Award | The Peace Abbey FoundationThe Peace Abbey Foundation". Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  15. ^ Fensch, Thomas (2014). At the Dangerous Edge of Social Justice: Race, Violence and Death in America. New Century Books.
  16. ^ a b Jane E. Brody, Final Advice From Dr. Spock: Eat Only All Your Vegetables, The New York Times, June 20, 1998. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
  17. ^ "Benjamin Spock".
  18. ^ Jane E. Brody, PERSONAL HEALTH; Feeding Children off the Spock Menu, The New York Times, June 30, 1998. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
  19. ^ Dunham, Laurie; Kollar, Linda M. (January 2006). "Vegetarian Eating for Children and Adolescents". Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 20 (1): 27–34. doi:10.1016/j.pedhc.2005.08.012. ISSN 0891-5245.
  20. ^ "Dr. Spock's Irresponsible Legacy".
  21. ^ Ruth Gilbert, Georgia Salanti, Melissa Harden and Sarah See (2005). "Infant sleeping position and the sudden infant death syndrome: systematic review of observational studies and historical review of recommendations from 1940 to 2002", International Journal of Epidemiology, Oxford University Press.
  22. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation. "Health Report", September 11, 2006. Radio program. Transcript
  23. ^ Spock, Benjamin (1989-04-01). "Circumcision - It's Not Necessary". Redbook. Archived from the original on February 10, 2006.
  24. ^ Milos, Marilyn Fayre; Donna Macris (March–April 1992). "Circumcision: A medical or a human rights issue?". Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. 37 (2 S1): S87–S96. doi:10.1016/0091-2182(92)90012-R. PMID 1573462. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  25. ^ The William Sloane Coffin, Jr. Project Committee. "Once to Every Man and Nation". Archived from the original on 2003-11-10. Retrieved 2009-12-29.
  26. ^ See United States v. Spock, 416 F.2d 165 (1st Cir. 1969).
  27. ^ Manly, Chesly (27 August 1967). "'New Politics' Convention to Open Here". Chicago Tribune.
  28. ^ Gizzi, John (28 August 2013). "King Was Pressed to Run for President in 1968". Newsmax.
  29. ^ "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" January 30, 1968 New York Post
  30. ^ "A Call to War Tax Resistance" The Cycle 14 May 1970, p. 7
  31. ^ Barsky, Robert F. Noam Chomsky: a life of dissent. 1st ed. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1998. Web. <"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2014-06-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)>
  32. ^ Kutik, William M,. "Boston Grand Jury Indicts Five For Working Against Draft Law." Harvard Crimson. 08 Jan 1968: n. page. Web. 4 Jun. 2014. <
  33. ^ "Humanists of the Year". American Humanist Association. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
  34. ^ "8 Unusual Presidential Candidates".
  35. ^ "Greer v. Spock 424 U.S. 828 (1976)".
  36. ^ LIFE, Editors of (2016-02-01). LIFE 100 People Who Changed the World. Time Inc. Books. ISBN 9781618934710.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  37. ^ "Benjamin Spock, World's Pediatrician, Dies at 94".
  38. ^ a b c On this Day Benjamin Spock, World's Pediatrician, Dies at 94 New York Times on the Web Learning Channel March 17, 1998
  39. ^ Permissiveness? Not Dr. Spock, Says Widow, Rejecting Label from Nixon's VP, Spiro Agnew. Spock So-So On Spanking, But He Wasn't a Crook! Thomas Maire author of Dr. Spock An American Life July 16, 2008
  40. ^ a b Reed, Roy (May 2, 1983). "Dr. Spock, At 80, Still Giving Advice". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
  41. ^ a b "Remembering Dr. Spock". The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. 1998-03-16. PBS. Retrieved 2009-05-28.
  42. ^ Spock Generation Not all bad Associated Press reprinted by the Windsor Star October 7, 1968
  43. ^ a b
  44. ^ William H. Thomas (March 11, 2014). Second Wind: Navigating the Passage to a Slower, Deeper, and More Connected Life. Simon & Schuster. p. 21. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
  45. ^ "Spock Grandson Dies at 22". The New York Times. December 27, 1983. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
  46. ^ Doctored Spock, Retrieved January 5, 2015
  47. ^ Dr. Spock: an American life - Google Books. 1998-11-25. ISBN 978-0-465-04315-6. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
  48. ^ "Dr. Spock Son Suicide". Retrieved 2010-05-23.
  49. ^ "Rowing at the 1924 Paris Summer Games: Men's Coxed Eights". Sports Reference. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  50. ^ Eric Pace, "Benjamin Spock, World's Pediatrician, Dies at 94"; The New York Times, March 17, 1998.

Further reading

  • Bloom, Lynn Z. Doctor Spock: Biography of a Conservative Radical. The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indianapolis: 1972.
  • Maier, Thomas. Doctor Spock: An American Life. Harcourt Brace, New York: 1998.
  • Interview in The Libertarian Forum 4, no. 12 (December 1972; mislabelled no. 10).  The Libertarian Forum is largely favorable to Spock's views as being pro-libertarian.

External links

1972 United States presidential election in Vermont

The 1972 United States presidential election in Vermont took place on November 7, 1972, as part of the 1972 United States Presidential Election which was held throughout all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Voters chose three representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Vermont voted for incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon of California and his running mate Vice President Spiro Agnew of Maryland, defeating Democratic Senator George McGovern of South Dakota and his running mate U.S. Ambassador Sargent Shriver of Maryland.

Nixon took 62.66% of the vote to McGovern's 36.47%, a margin of 26.20%. Coming in a distant third was the People’s Party candidate famed pediatrician Dr. Benjamin Spock, who took 0.54% in Vermont on the Liberty Union ballot line.

Vermont historically was a bastion of liberal Northeastern Republicanism, and by 1972 the Green Mountain State had gone Republican in every presidential election since the founding of the Republican Party, except in the Democratic landslide of 1964, when the GOP had nominated staunch conservative Barry Goldwater.

Richard Nixon was seen as a mainstream moderate Republican, and while winning nationally in a massive 49-state landslide, he easily held onto Vermont’s three electoral votes. The only state McGovern carried was neighboring Massachusetts, along with the District of Columbia.

As Nixon won a historic landslide nationally, Vermont weighed in as about 2% more Republican than the nation.

Nixon won every county in Vermont, and broke sixty percent in every county except for Chittenden County, the most populous county, home to the state's largest city, Burlington. Though the state wouldn't vote for another Democratic presidential candidate until 1992, no subsequent Republican who won the state was able to match Nixon’s 62 percent vote share.

Bringing Up Baby (TV programme)

Bringing Up Baby is a four-part British television documentary series which compares three different childcare methods for babies: the Truby King method (a strict, routine-based method popular in the 1950s), the Benjamin Spock approach (a more relaxed approach based on parents' instincts, popular in the 1960s), and the Continuum concept (in which babies are in constant contact with a parent at all times, based on tribal child-rearing methods and popular in the 1970s). Each method was advocated and administered by a nanny for two families each. The series was controversial when it aired on Channel 4 in 2007, particularly due to the actions recommended by Truby King advocate Claire Verity, and questions over Verity's qualifications.

Charles R. Attwood

Dr. Charles Raymond Attwood (May 27, 1932 – September 8, 1998) was a board-certified pediatrician and Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics.Attwood was born near New Edinburg, Arkansas. He was the son of Mrs. Raymond Attwood. He received his Bachelor of Arts from Hendrix College in 1953, graduated from the University of Arkansas School of Medicine in 1958, and interned at Brook General Hospital in San Antonio, Texas. He served in the US Army as a pediatrician at Fort McClellan, Alabama, and completed his pediatric residence at Letterman General Hospital in San Francisco. After his army career, Attwood worked with Dr. Henry Bruin, specializing in infectious disease.In 1972, Attwood moved to Crowley, Louisiana, and opened a private practice.In the 1990s, Attwood was instrumental in defending some vegan parents whose children were removed by social workers from the California Department of Children's Services.Attwood wrote health articles in national and European publications, and served as a writer and consultant for Medical Economics Magazine. Along with colleagues Dr. Dean Ornish, Dr. John McDougall and Dr. Neal Barnard, Dr. Attwood successfully petitioned the United States Department of Agriculture to include a statement in its Guidelines for Americans that a vegetarian diet promotes health.Attwood published Dr. Attwood’s Low-fat Prescription for Kids in 1995, in which he advocated a low-fat, plant-based diet for children and cited evidence that such a diet is necessary for children to avoid heart disease, stroke, certain cancers, and diabetes. Dr. Benjamin Spock wrote the Foreword. Attwood took a leave of absence from his practice to promote his book, and traveled over the ensuing three and a half years until his death.In 1996, as a consultant for the Center for Science in the Public Interest, Attwood exposed the Gerber Baby Food practice of diluting fruits and vegetables with water, sugar, and modified starch. Gerber's market share dropped from 85% to 65% in the months following a national news conference on the practice. Shortly thereafter Gerber discontinued this 40-year practice, changing their labels to reflect 100% fruit and 100% vegetables.In June 1997, Attwood was sued for malpractice by the mother of a child who died from complications of diabetes.Attwood established and helped build the vegetarian website, Benjamin Spock later hired Attwood to work as a nutritional consultant for the last revision of his own classic bestseller, Baby and Child Care, released in July 1998.Attwood's audio series, The Gold Standard Diet: How to Live to be 100, was released nationally to bookstores in 1998.In October 1998, Hohm Press published Attwood's book, A Vegetarian Doctor Speaks Out, some of which grew out of letters from people who contacted him through his website.Attwood died at his home in Greenville, South Carolina, at the age of 66 from complications of a malignant brain tumor.

Duell, Sloan and Pearce

Duell, Sloan and Pearce was a publishing company located in New York City. It was founded in 1939 by C. Halliwell Duell, Samuel Sloan and Charles A. Pearce. It initially published general fiction and non-fiction, but not westerns, light romances or children's books. It published works by many prominent authors, including Archibald MacLeish, John O'Hara, Erskine Caldwell (including his American Folkways series) Anaïs Nin, Conrad Aiken, Wallace Stegner, E. E. Cummings, Howard Fast, Benjamin Spock and Joseph Jay Deiss. In addition to their literary list, the firm published many works of military history with a focus on aviation in the war years.

Duell, Sloan and Pearce soon became sales agent for Musette Publishers, which had a line of children's books. The firm also published photographic essays, including the U.S. Camera annuals. U.S. Camera 1941 was banned in Boston because it contained photographs of nudes. In 1942 the firm agreed to handle all advertising, promotion, selling and distribution of Eagle Books titles. The firm later added the Essential Books and Bloodhound Mysteries divisions. In 1947 they introduced the New American Naturalist series, which was intended to provide a comprehensive survey of American flora and fauna for the general reader. Arrowhead Books was later added as an independent subsidiary of Duell, Sloan and Pearce.

In 1951 Duell, Sloan and Pearce entered into an agreement with Little, Brown and Company for Little, Brown to handle the manufacturing, warehousing, promotion and selling of all Duell, Sloan and Pearce titles. The two firms remained independent, but the books carried both imprints. In 1956, Duell, Sloan and Pearce terminated the arrangement with Little, Brown, and joined the McKay Group, a cooperative selling and manufacturing association in New York. In March 1961 Duell, Sloan and Pearce became an affiliate of Meredith Publishing Company. In 1967 Meredith announced that all affiliated imprints, including Duell, Sloan and Pearce, would no longer be used. The rights to Duell, Sloan and Pearce books were sold by Meredith to the independent publisher Hawthorn Books in 1969. After Hawthorn closed in 1977, the rights to its titles were acquired by E. P. Dutton.

Free-range parenting

Free-range parenting is the concept of raising children in the spirit of encouraging them to function independently and with limited parental supervision, in accordance of their age of development and with a reasonable acceptance of realistic personal risks. Seen as the opposite of helicopter parenting, the idea was popularized by pediatrician Benjamin Spock. A notable text of the movement is Lenore Skenazy's book Free-Range Kids: Giving Our Children the Freedom We Had Without Going Nuts with Worry (2009).

Leonard Boudin

Leonard B. Boudin (July 20, 1912 – November 24, 1989) was an American civil liberties attorney and left-wing activist who represented Daniel Ellsberg of Pentagon Papers fame and Dr. Benjamin Spock, the author of Baby and Child Care, who advocated draft resistance during the Vietnam War. Other opponents of the Vietnam war whom he represented were Julian Bond, William Sloan Coffin, and Philip Berrigan.

Liberty Union Party

The Liberty Union Party (LUP) of Vermont is a democratic socialist political party founded in 1970 by former Congressman William H. Meyer, Peter Diamondstone, Dennis Morrisseau and others.The Party has had several successes in local elections in Vermont and is the fourth largest in the state after the Democratic, Republican, and Progressive parties.

Linda Jenness

Linda Jenness (born 1941) was a Socialist Workers Party candidate for president of the United States in the 1972 election. She received 83,380 votes (vs. 47,169,911 for Richard Nixon).

Margaret McFarland

Margaret Beall McFarland (1905–1988) was an American child psychologist who focused much of her research on the meaning of the interactions between mothers and children. With pediatrician Benjamin Spock and psychologist Erik Erikson, she co-founded a counseling center for families and children in Pittsburgh. Professionals from various fields came to the center to learn about child development. McFarland and Spock also established a child development department at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.

McFarland met Fred Rogers in the 1950s when she agreed to supervise his work with a child for a seminary counseling course, and she later became a consultant to Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. She met with Rogers on a weekly basis and reviewed the content and wording of his scripts until her death, and he cited her as a major influence on his career.

Margaret Wright (American politician)

Margaret Wright (c. 1922/1923 — May 11, 1996) was a third-party candidate for President of the United States and a community activist in Los Angeles, California.

Wright was a shipyard worker during World War II, and one of the principals of the film The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter. In the United States presidential election, 1976, Wright represented the People's Party, and her running mate was Benjamin Spock, who had been their presidential candidate in 1972. Their ticket was also endorsed by the Peace and Freedom Party. Bumper stickers advertised her as a "Socialist for President." The ticket received 49,016 votes (0.06%) Wright was also a founder and activist of Women against Racism in the Watts section of Los Angeles.

Maris Cakars

Maris Cakars (Latvian: Māris Čakars) (1942-1992) is best known as having served as editor of WIN (Workshop in Nonviolence) Magazine, a bi-weekly journal of the nonviolent anti-Vietnam War movement, from 1970 to 1976.

During his leadership at WIN, authors such as Grace Paley, Barbara Deming, Andrea Dworkin, Abbie Hoffman, and many others from the nonviolent Left appeared in its pages. It also published excerpts from secret files stolen by persons unknown from the FBI offices in Media, Pennsylvania. The files were described by the New York Times as "a virtually complete collection of political materials" from the FBI's regional offices, dealing with secret FBI surveillance of student, civil rights and anti-war groups.

According to Tad Richards:

As part of his work with Win, the War Resisters League and the Committee for Non-Violent Action, Cakars helped organize demonstrations at the Pentagon and in New York, including a demonstration at a Manhattan military induction center where Dr. Benjamin Spock was arrested. Cakars managed to get himself arrested by both superpowers in the '70s, and for the same reasons. He was arrested in Moscow by the KGB for passing out anti-war leaflets in Red Square.

His social conscience led him beyond international movements and into the local community. At a time when America seemed to be divided into hostile camps between radical peaceniks and the establishment, Cakars joined the St. Remy Volunteer Department, and rose to the rank of lieutenant. At the time of his death, he was director of publications for the New York City Fire Department.

Cakars was born in Riga, Latvia, which he left with his parents in 1944 to escape Soviet occupation. The family arrived in America in 1949, and he was raised in Oceanside, Long Island, New York. He studied at Lafayette College and Columbia University. He married Susan Kent, and together they had two children, a daughter, Andrea, and a son, Jānis.After he left WIN in 1976, he lived in Brooklyn. He edited Women's World and managed production for Seven Days magazines, and served as sports editor for the Guinness Book of World Records.He died of internal hemorrhaging in 1992 at the age of 49.

Marjorie Spock

Marjorie Spock (September 8, 1904, New Haven, Connecticut – January 23, 2008, Sullivan, Maine) was an environmentalist, author and poet, best known for her influence on Rachel Carson when the latter was writing Silent Spring. Spock was also a noted Waldorf teacher, eurythmist, biodynamic gardener and anthroposophist.

Michael Ferber

Michael Kelvin Ferber (born July 1, 1944) was the youngest of the five defendants in the federal anti-draft trial in the spring of 1968 in Boston, Massachusetts. The trial attracted national attention because one of the defendants was Dr. Benjamin Spock, the well-known pediatrician and author of the best-selling The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care. The other defendants were the Rev. William Sloane Coffin, Jr., chaplain of Yale University; Mitchell Goodman, novelist and teacher; and Marcus Raskin, a lawyer who served briefly on the U.S. National Security Council under Kennedy and co-founded the Institute for Policy Studies. The trial was known as "The Spock Trial" and the defendants as "The Boston Five".

National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam

The Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, which became the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, was a coalition of antiwar activists formed in 1967 to organize large demonstrations in opposition to the Vietnam War. The organization was informally known as "the Mobe".

Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic

At his death in 1927, Payne Whitney bestowed the funds to build and endow the Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic (PWC) on the Upper East Side of Manhattan. An eight-story free-standing hospital, it was immediately affiliated with Cornell University's medical school (now Weill Cornell Medical College or Weill Cornell Medicine) and with the New York Hospital (now New York–Presbyterian Hospital), both of which are adjacent to PWC.

Payne Whitney was a large donor to the Hospital and Medical College, and it has been an issue of long speculation why he chose a psychiatric building to be his primary naming opportunity at New York-Cornell.

The poet Robert Lowell wrote of his hospitalization at Payne Whitney, Marilyn Monroe was hospitalized there in early 1961, and Mary McCarthy based her book, The Group, on her inpatient experience. The poet James Schuyler wrote about his experiences there in the eleven-poem series "The Payne Whitney Poems" which appeared in the New York Review of Books, August 17, 1978 issue. In Woody Allen's 1979 film, Manhattan, a character named Caroline Payne Whitney Smith is featured in a comedy sketch, where she and her husband are considered "normal folks," except for the fact that she is a catatonic.

The Payne Whitney building itself was torn down in the early 1990s to make way for an expansion of the New York-Presbyterian Hospital over the FDR Drive. Since that time, all clinical and research services at the two primary Cornell psychiatric campuses—in Manhattan and in White Plains, New York—have been named after Payne Whitney. The clinic also has an outpatient and Continuing Day Treatment Program in an off-campus building at East 61st Street and York Avenue on the Upper East Side of Manhattan.

Payne Whitney Clinic and Weill Cornell Medical College have been home to some of the most notable psychiatrists in the country. Currently-affiliated psychiatrists and psychologists include Jack Barchas, Robert Michels, Otto F. Kernberg, James Kocsis, George Makari, Michael Posner, William Breitbart, and Theodore Shapiro. Previously-affiliated psychiatrists include Arnold Cooper, Frederic Flach, Benjamin Spock, Gerald Klerman, Robert Millman, Louis Jolyon West, David Silbersweig, Harry Tiebout, Mary Jane Sherfey, Helen Singer Kaplan, Allen Frances, and Paul McHugh. Payne Whitney has also been the "voluntary faculty" home to Roy Schafer, Richard Isay, Michael Perelman, Gail Saltz, and Daniel Stern, and the recent home of such senior scholars as David A. Hamburg and Beatrix Hamburg.

Peace and Freedom Party

The Peace and Freedom Party (PFP) is a left-wing political party with affiliates and former members in more than a dozen American states, including California, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana and Utah, but none now have ballot status besides California. Peace and Freedom's first candidates appeared on the ballot in 1966 in New York. The Peace and Freedom Party of California was organized in early 1967, gathering over 103,000 registrants which qualified its ballot status in January 1968 under the California Secretary of State Report of Registration.

The Peace and Freedom Party has appeared in other states as an anti-war and pro-civil rights organization opposed to the Vietnam War and in support of black liberation, farm-worker organizing, women's liberation, and the gay rights movements. In 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016, the party's presidential candidates were Leonard Peltier, Ralph Nader, Roseanne Barr and Gloria La Riva, respectively.

People's Party (United States, 1971)

The People's Party was a political party in the United States, founded in 1971 by various individuals and state and local political parties, including the Peace and Freedom Party, Commongood People's Party, Country People's Caucus, Human Rights Party, Liberty Union, New American Party, New Party (Arizona), and No Party. The party's goal was to present a united anti-war platform for the coming election.

The People's Party ran for the presidency two times. First in U.S. presidential election, 1972 with Dr. Benjamin Spock (an American pediatrician and author of parenting books) as their candidate. The party also contested the U.S. presidential election, 1976. The presidential candidate this time was Margaret Wright. Dr. Spock was the Party's candidate for vice president.

After the election, the party moved to become a loose coalition, but was soon defunct, with most of its founding parties also dissolved.

The party's papers are now in the Western Historical Manuscript Collection of the University of Missouri–St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, having been where the party had held its conventions.

Rowing at the 1924 Summer Olympics – Men's eight

The men's eights event was part of the rowing programme at the 1924 Summer Olympics. The competition, the sixth appearance of the event, was held from 13 to 17 July 1924 on the river Seine. Ten teams, each from a different nation, competed.

The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care

Benjamin Spock's The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care is one of the best-selling books of the twentieth century, selling 500,000 copies in the six months after its initial publication in 1946, and 50 million by the time of Spock's death in 1998. As of 2011, the book had been translated into 39 languages.Spock and his manual helped revolutionize child-rearing methods for the post-World War II generation. Mothers heavily relied on Spock's advice and appreciated his friendly, reassuring tone. Spock emphasizes in his book that, above all, parents should have confidence in their abilities and trust their instincts. The famous first line of the book reads, “Trust yourself. You know more than you think you do.”

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