Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson (born 21 May 1934) is a Swedish biochemist. He shared with Sune K. Bergström and John R. Vane the 1982 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related substances.
Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson
21 May 1934
|Alma mater||Stockholm University|
Discussing the role of prostaglandins in the body, Samuelsson explained, "It's a control system for the cells that participates in many biological functions. There are endless possibilities of manipulating this system in drug development."
His research interests were originally in cholesterol metabolism with importance to reaction mechanisms. Following the structural work on prostaglandins along with Sune Bergström he was interested mainly in the transformation products of arachidonic acid. This has led to the identification of endoperoxides, thromboxanes and the leukotrienes, and his group has chiefly been involved in studying the chemistry, biochemistry and biology of these compounds and their function in biological control systems. This research has implications in numerous clinical areas, especially in thrombosis, inflammation, and allergy.
This field has grown enormously since those days. Between 1981 and 1995 about three thousand papers per year were published that specifically used the expression "prostaglandins," or related terms such as "prostacyclins," "leukotrienes," and "thromboxanes," in their labels and titles.
In 1975, he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with Sune K. Bergström. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1990.
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| Chairman of the Nobel Foundation
12-Hydroxyheptadecatrenoic acid (also termed 12-HHT, 12(S)-hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid, or 12(S)-HHTrE) is a 17 carbon metabolite of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid. It was first detected and structurally defined by P. Wlodawer, Bengt I. Samuelsson, and M. Hamberg as a product of arachidonic acid metabolism made by microsomes (i.e. endoplasmic reticulum) isolated from sheep seminal vesicle glands and by intact human platelets. 12-HHT is less ambiguously termed 12-(S)-hydroxy-5Z,8E,10E-heptadecatrienoic acid to indicate the S stereoisomerism of its 12-hydroxyl residue and the Z, E, and E cis-trans isomerism of its three double bonds. The metabolite was for many years thought to be merely a biologically inactive byproduct of prostaglandin synthesis. More recent studies, however, have attached potentially important activity to it.1934
was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1934th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 934th year of the 2nd millennium, the 34th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1930s decade.1982 in science
The year 1982 in science and technology involved many significant events, listed below.1982 in the United Kingdom
Events from the year 1982 in the United Kingdom. The year was dominated by the Falklands War.ALOX12
ALOX12 (EC 18.104.22.168), also known as arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12-lipoxygenase, 12S-Lipoxygenase, 12-LOX, and 12S-LOX is a lipoxygenase-type enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALOX12 gene which is located along with other lipoyxgenases on chromosome 17p13.3. ALOX12 is 75 kilodalton protein composed of 663 amino acids.Halmstad
Halmstad (Swedish: [ˈhalmsta] (listen)), is a port, university, industrial and recreational city at the mouth of the Nissan river, in the province of Halland on the Swedish west coast. Halmstad is the seat of Halmstad Municipality and the capital of Halland County. The city had a population of 92,797 in 2012, out of a municipal total of over 90,000 (18th most populous - 2012). Halmstad is Sweden's 20th-largest city by population and located about midway between Gothenburg (the second most populous) and Malmö (the third). It is Europe's northernmost city with a lot of timber framing architecture.John O'Keefe (neuroscientist)
John O'Keefe, (born November 18, 1939) is an American-British neuroscientist and a professor at the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour and the Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at University College London. He discovered place cells in the hippocampus, and that they show a specific kind of temporal coding in the form of theta phase precession. In 2014 he received the Kavli Prize in Neuroscience "for the discovery of specialized brain networks for memory and cognition", together with Brenda Milner and Marcus Raichle. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine also that year, together with May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser.Karolinska Institute
The Karolinska Institute (KI; Swedish: Karolinska Institutet; sometimes known as the (Royal) Caroline Institute in English) is a research-led medical university in Solna within the Stockholm urban area of Sweden. It covers areas such as biochemistry, genetics, pharmacology, pathology, anatomy, physiology and medical microbiology, among others. It is recognised as Sweden's best university and one of the largest, most prestigious medical universities in the world. It is the highest ranked in all Scandinavia. The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The assembly consists of fifty professors from various medical disciplines at the university. The current rector of Karolinska Institute is Ole Petter Ottersen, who took office in August 2017.
The Karolinska Institute was founded in 1810 on the island of Kungsholmen on the west side of Stockholm; the main campus was relocated decades later to Solna, just outside Stockholm. A second campus was established more recently in Flemingsberg, Huddinge, south of Stockholm. The Karolinska Institute is consistently ranked among the top medical universities internationally in a number of ranking tables.
The Karolinska Institute is Sweden's third oldest medical school, after Uppsala University (founded in 1477) and Lund University (founded in 1666). It is one of Sweden's largest centres for training and research, accounting for 30% of the medical training and more than 40% of all academic medical and life science research conducted in Sweden.The Karolinska University Hospital, located in Solna and Huddinge, is associated with the university as a research and teaching hospital. Together they form an academic health science centre. While most of the medical programs are taught in Swedish, the bulk of the Ph.D. projects are conducted in English. The institute's name is a reference to the Caroleans.List of Nobel laureates
The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation.List of members of the National Academy of Sciences (Biochemistry)
This list is a subsection of the List of members of the National Academy of Sciences, which includes approximately 2,000 members and 350 foreign associates of the United States National Academy of Sciences, each of whom is affiliated with one of 31 disciplinary sections. Each person's name, primary institution, and election year are given.
The designation (d) after the name means the member is deceased.May 21
May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 224 days remain until the end of the year.Prostaglandin
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds called eicosanoids having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. They are derived enzymatically from the fatty acid arachidonic acid. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and of the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives.
The structural differences between prostaglandins account for their different biological activities. A given prostaglandin may have different and even opposite effects in different tissues in some cases. The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. They act as autocrine or paracrine factors with their target cells present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion. Prostaglandins differ from endocrine hormones in that they are not produced at a specific site but in many places throughout the human body.
Prostaglandins are powerful locally acting vasodilators and inhibit the aggregation of blood platelets. Through their role in vasodilation, prostaglandins are also involved in inflammation. They are synthesized in the walls of blood vessels and serve the physiological function of preventing needless clot formation, as well as regulating the contraction of smooth muscle tissue. Conversely, thromboxanes (produced by platelet cells) are vasoconstrictors and facilitate platelet aggregation. Their name comes from their role in clot formation (thrombosis).
Specific prostaglandins are named with a letter (which indicates the type of ring structure) followed by a number (which indicates the number of double bonds in the hydrocarbon structure). For example, prostaglandin E1 is abbreviated PGE1 or PGE1, and prostaglandin I2 is abbreviated PGI2 or PGI2. The number is traditionally subscripted when the context allows; but, as with many similar subscript-containing nomenclatures, the subscript is simply forgone in many database fields that can store only plain text (such as PubMed bibliographic fields), and readers are used to seeing and writing it without subscript.Rosenstiel Award
The Lewis S. Rosenstiel Award for Distinguished Work in Basic Medical Research is awarded by Brandeis University. It was established in 1971 "as an expression of the conviction that educational institutions have an important role to play in the encouragement and development of basic science as it applies to medicine".Medals are presented annually at Brandeis University on the basis of recommendations of a panel of scientists selected by the Rosenstiel Basic Medical Sciences Research Center. Awards are given to scientists for recent discoveries of "particular originality" and "importance to basic medical research". A $30,000 prize and a medallion accompanies each award. The Rosenstiel Basic Medical Sciences Research Center, named after Lewis Solon Rosenstiel, was established in 1968, carrying out research in basic medical science.Samuelsson
Samuelsson is a Swedish patronymic surname meaning "son of Samuel". There are alternative spellings such as the English Samuelson and the Norwegian Samuelsen. It is uncommon as a given name. Samuelsson may refer to:
Bengt I. Samuelsson (born 1934), Swedish biochemist
Evelina Samuelsson (born 1984), Swedish ice hockey player
Guðjón Samúelsson (1887–1950), State Architect of Iceland
Gunnar Samuelsson (1927–2007), Swedish cross-country skier
Henrik Samuelsson (born 1994), Swedish-American ice hockey player
Kalle Samuelsson (born 1986), Swedish bandy player
Kjell Samuelsson (born 1958), Swedish ice hockey player
Magnus Samuelsson (born 1969), Swedish actor, former "World's Strongest Man"
Marcus Samuelsson (born 1970), Swedish chef and restaurant co-owner
Martin Samuelsson (born 1982), Swedish ice hockey player
Mikael Samuelsson (born 1976), Swedish ice hockey player
Philip Samuelsson (born 1991), Swedish-American ice hockey player
Sebastian Samuelsson (born 1997), Swedish biathlete
Tommy Samuelsson (born 1960), Swedish ice hockey player
Ulf Samuelsson (born 1964), Swedish ice hockey playerSir Hans Krebs Medal
The Sir Hans Krebs Lecture and Medal is awarded annually by the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) for outstanding achievements in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology or related sciences.
It was endowed by the Lord Rank Centre for Research and named after the German-born British biochemist Sir Hans Adolf Krebs, well known for identifying the urea and citric acid cycles. The awardee receives a silver medal and presents one of the plenary lectures at the FEBS Congress.Sune Bergström
Karl Sune Detlof Bergström (10 January 1916 – 15 August 2004) was a Swedish biochemist. In 1975, he was appointed to the Nobel Foundation Board of Directors in Sweden, and was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University, together with Bengt I. Samuelsson.
He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane in 1982, for discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related substances.
Bergström was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1965, and its President in 1983. In 1965, he was also elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1966. In 1985 he was appointed member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.In 1943, Bergström married Maj Gernandt. He had two sons, the businessman Rurik Reenstierna, with Maj Gernandt, and the evolutionary geneticist Svante Pääbo, from an extramarital affair with the Estonian chemist Karin Pääbo. Both sons were born in 1955, and Rurik had learned about existence of Svante only around 2004.Svante Pääbo
Svante Pääbo ([ˈsvanːteː ˈpæːboː]; born 20 April 1955) is a Swedish geneticist specialising in the field of evolutionary genetics. As one of the founders of paleogenetics, he has worked extensively on the neanderthal genome. Since 1997, he has been director of the Department of Genetics at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.
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