Bengali Hindus

Bengali Hindus (Bengali: বাঙালি হিন্দু) are an ethnic, linguistic, and religious population who make up the majority in the Indian states of West Bengal and Tripura. In Bangladesh, they form the largest minority. They are Bengalis adherents of Hinduism, and are native to the Bengal region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent. Bengali Hindus speak Bengali, which belongs to the Indo-Aryan language family and adhere to the Shakta and Vaishnava traditions of their native religion, Hinduism.[9][10] There are significant numbers of Bengali-speaking Hindus in different Indian states.[11][12]

Around the 8th century, the Bengali language branched off from Magadhi Prakrit, a derivative of Sanskrit that was prevalent in the eastern region of the Indian Subcontinent at that time.[13] During the Sena period (11th – 12th century) the Bengali culture developed into a distinct culture within the Hindu civilisation. Bengali Hindus were at the forefront of the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th century. The Bengal region was noted for its participation in struggle for the independence from the British rule.[14][15] At the time of independence of India in 1947, the province of Bengal was partitioned between India and East Pakistan, part of the Muslim-majority state of Pakistan. Millions of Bengali Hindus migrated from East Bengal (later Bangladesh) and settled in West Bengal and other states of India. The migration continued in waves through the fifties and sixties, especially during the 1950 East Pakistan genocide and the 1964 East-Pakistan riots.[16] In 1971, during the Bangladesh Liberation War, an estimated 2.4 million Bengali Hindus were massacred by the Pakistani army.[17] Estimates for the total number of people killed by Pakistan Army range from 300,000[18] to 3,000,000.[19]

Debi Durga Sculpture by Sandalwood Murshidabad WB 30 01 2018
Devi Durga Sculpture by Sandalwood. Found in Murshidabad, West Bengal. Now kept in Indian Museum, Kolkata.
Bengali Hindus
Bengali Swastika
The Bengali Hindu Swastika
Total population
c. 80 million
Regions with significant populations
 India64,385,546[1][2][3]
 Bangladesh14,000,000[4]
 United Kingdom350,000[5]
 United States340,235
 Canada300,000[6]
 New Zealand20,500[7]
 Australia10,500[8]
Languages
Bengali
Religion
Hinduism

Ethnonym

The Hindus are a religious group,[20] native to the Indian subcontinent, speaking a broad range of Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages and adhering to the native belief systems, rooted in the Vedas. The word Hindu is popularly believed to be a Persian exonym for the people native to the Indian subcontinent. The word is derived from Sindhu,[21] the Sanskrit name for the river Indus and it initially referred to the people residing to the east of the river. The Hindus are constituted into various ethno-linguistic subgroups, which in spite of being culturally diverse, share a common bond of unity.

The word Bengali is derived from the Bengali word bangali. The English word Bengali denoting the people as well as the language is derived from the English word Bengal denoting the region, which itself is derived ultimately from the Bengali word Vanga which was one of the five historical kingdoms of Eastern India. According to Harivamsa, Bali, the king of the asuras had five sons from his wife Sudeshna through sage Dirghatama. The five sons namely Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra and Sumha went on to found five kingdoms of the same name in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent. In ancient times Vanga proper consisted of the deltaic region between Bhagirathi, Padma and Madhumati, but later on extended to include the regions which now roughly comprise the Indian state of West Bengal and Bangladesh.

In India, they tend to identify themselves as Bengalis[22] while in Bangladesh they tend to identify themselves as Hindus.[23] In the global context, the terms Indian Bengali[24] and Bangladeshi Hindu[25] are respectively used. In India, Bengali generally refers to Bengali Hindus, excluding a significant number of Bengali Muslims who are also ethnically Bengalis.[26] The 'other' is usually identified as 'non-Bengali', a term that generically refers to the Hindu people who are not Bengali speaking, but sometimes specifically used to denote the Hindi speaking population.

Ethnology

The Bengali Hindus constitute of numerous endogamous castes, which are sometimes further subdivided into endogamous subgroups. The caste system evolved over centuries and became more and more complex with time. In the medieval period, several castes were boycotted by the ruling classes from time to time and this isolation continued till the 19th century. These social boycotts were somewhat discriminatory in nature. After the Renaissance, the rigidity of the caste system ceased to a great extent, so much so that the first celebrated intercaste marriage took place as early as in 1925.

The Bengali Hindu families are patriarchal as well as patrilocal and traditionally follow a joint family system. However, due to the Partition and subsequent urbanisation, the joint families have given way to the nuclear families. The Bengali Hindus were traditionally governed by the Dāyabhāga school of law, as opposed to the Mitākṣarā school of law, which governed the other Hindu ethno-linguistic groups. In India, after the promulgation of the Hindu code bills, the Bengali Hindus along with other Hindus are being governed by a uniform Hindu law.

There are two major social subgroups among the Bengali Hindus – the ghotis and the bangals. The Bengali Hindus who emigrated from East Bengal (Bangladesh) at the wake of the Partition and settled in West Bengal, came to known as the bangals, while the native Bengali Hindus of West Bengal came to known as ghotis. For several decades after partition, these two social subgroups possessed marked difference in their accents and their rivalry was manifested in many spheres of life, most notably in the support for the football clubs of East Bengal and Mohun Bagan respectively. Several such differences have eased with passing years.

History

Ancient period

Ganesh (musée d'art asiatique de Berlin)
Dancing Ganesha sculpture from North Bengal, 11th century CE, Asian Art Museum of Berlin (Dahlem).

In the ancient times, some of the Bengali Hindus were seafaring people as evident from Vijay Singha's naval conquest of Lanka,[27][28] the tales of merchants like Chand Sadagar and Dhanapati Saudagor whose ships sailed to far off places for trade and establishment of colonies in South East Asia. By the 3rd century B.C.E. they were united into a powerful state, known to the Greeks as Gangaridai, whose military prowess demoralised Alexander from further expedition to the east.[29][30] Later the region of Bengal came under Maurya, Shunga and Gupta rule. In the 7th century, Shashanka became the independent Hindu ruler of Gauda. He successfully fought against his adversaries Harshavardhana and Bhaskaravarmana and protected the sovereignty of the people.

Medieval period

In the middle of the 8th century, the Bengali Hindu nobility democratically elected Gopala as the ruler of Gauda, ushering in an era of peace and prosperity in Bengal, ending almost a century of chaos and confusion. The Buddhist Pala rulers unified Bengal into a single political entity and expanded it into an empire, conquering a major portion of North India. During this time, the Bengali Hindus excelled in art, literature, philosophy, mathematics, sciences and statecraft. The first scriptures in Bengali Charyapada was composed during the Pala rule. The Pala were followed by the Senas who made far reaching changes in the social structure of Bengali Hindus, introducing 36 new castes and orthodox institutions like kulinism.

The literary progress of the Pala and Sena period came to a halt after the Turkish conquest in the early 13th century. Except for Haridas Datta's Manasar Bhasan no significant literary work was composed for about a century after the conquest.[31] Even though the ruling classes resisted the invaders, Gauda, the centre of Bengal polity, fell to the Islamic invaders. During this period hundreds of temples and monasteries were desecrated. The next attack on the society came from the Islamic missionaries.[32] Local chieftains like Akananda, Dakshin Ray and Mukut Ray, resisted the missionary activities.

The Pathan occupation of Bengal was limited to the region of Gauda, the rest of which was held in sway by different Bengali Hindu rulers. Islam religion gradually spread throughout the Bengal region, and many Bengali Hindus were converted to Islam. In the early 15th century, the Pathan rule of Gauda was overthrown by the Bengali Hindu nobility under the leadership of Ganesha. When the Delhi-based Mughals tried to bring Bengal under their direct rule, the Bengali Hindu chiefs along with some Bengali Muslims consolidated themselves into confederacies and resisted the Mughals. After the fall of the confederacies, the Mughals brought a major part of Bengal under their control, and constituted a subah.

Early modern period

During the decline of the Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Bengal (who were Muslim) ruled a large part of Bengal. During the reign of Alivardi Khan. a Nawab, the severe taxation and frequent raids made the life miserable for the ordinary Bengali people.[33] A section of the Bengali Hindu nobility helped the British East India Company in overthrowing the Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah regime. After obtaining the revenue rights, the East India Company imposed more oppressive taxation that led to the famine of 1770, in which approximately one third of the Bengali population died of starvation.[34]

The British began to face stiff resistance in conquering the semi-independent Bengali Hindu kingdoms outside the pale of Muslim occupied Bengal. In some cases, even when their rulers have been captured or killed, the ordinary people began to carry on the fight. These resistances took the form of Bhumij (Chuar is a deragatory term used by the English to denote the Bhumij) and Paik Rebellion. These warring people were later listed as criminal tribes and barred from recruitment in the Indian army. In 1766, the British troops were completely routed by the sanyasis and fakirs or the warrior monks at Dinhata, where the latter resorted guerilla warfare. Bankim Chandra's Anandamath is based on the Famine and consequential Sannyasi Rebellion.[35]

British rule, Renaissance, struggle for Independence

According to author James Jeremiah Novak, as British rulers took power from Bengal's ruling Muslim class, they strategically catered to Bengali Hindus (a majority in Bengal region at that time).[36] The British rule destroyed the bases of Bengali Muslim society.[36] Bengali Hindus got favours from the British rulers, and experienced development in education and social mobility. In the 19th century, the elite class of Bengali Hindu people underwent radical social reforms and rapid modernisation; the phenomenon came to be known as the Bengal Renaissance.

Swami vivekanand old archive
Swami Vivekananda was a leading figure of the Renaissance who promoted India and Hinduism to the world

Public media like press and theatres became vents of nationalist sentiments, apolitical organisations had given way to political platforms, secret revolutionary societies emerged and the society at large became restive.

With rising nationalism among Bengali Hindus, the British rulers applied divide and rule policy, and started to make favours to Bengali Muslims.[36] To keep the rising Bengali Hindu aspirations at bay, the British partitioned the province in 1905 and along with some additional restructuring came up with two provinces – Eastern Bengal & Assam and Bengal itself, in each of which the Bengali Hindus were reduced to minorities. The Bengali Hindus, however, opposed to the Partition tooth and nail, embarked on a political movement of Swadeshi, boycott and revolutionary nationalism. On 28 September 1905, the day of Mahalaya, 50,000 Bengali Hindus resolved before the Mother at Kalighat to boycott foreign goods and stop employing foreigners.[37][38] The British Raj finally annulled the Partition in 1911. The Raj, however, carried out some restructuring, and carved out Bengali Hindu majority districts like Manbhum, Singbhum, Santal Pargana and Purnia awarding them to Bihar and others like Cachar that were awarded to Assam, which effectively made the Bengali Hindus a minority in the united province of Bengal. The Britishers also transferred the capital from Calcutta to New Delhi.

The revolutionary movement gained momentum after the Partition. Bengali revolutionaries collaborated with the Germans during the War to liberate British India. Later the revolutionaries defeated the British army in the Battle of Jalalabad and liberated Chittagong. During the Quit India Movement, the revolutionaries liberated the Tamluk and Contai subdivision of Midnapore district from British rule and established the Tamralipta National Government.

Communal Award in Bengal 1932
Bengali Hindus who constituted 44% of the province, were awarded less than a third of the representation in the legislature.

The British, unable to control the revolutionary activities, decided to hinder the Bengali Hindu people through administrative reforms. The Government of India Act 1919 introduced in the 144 member Bengal Legislative Assembly, 46 seats for the Muslims, 59 for the institutions, Europeans & others and left the rest 39 as General,[N 1] where the Bengali Hindus were to scramble for a representation. The situation worsened with the Communal Award of 1932, where in the 250 member Bengal Legislative Assembly a disproportionate 119 seats were reserved for the Muslims, 17 for Europeans, Anglo-Indians & Indian Christians, 34 for the institutions, and the rest 80 were left as General.[39] The Communal Award further divided the Hindus into Scheduled Caste Hindus and Caste Hindus.[39] Out of the 80 General seats, 10 were reserved for the Scheduled Castes.[N 2] In response the leading Bengali Hindu landholders, lawyers and professionals signed the Bengal Hindu Manifesto on 23 April 1932 rejecting the justification of reservation of separate electorates for Muslims in the Bengal Legislative Assembly.[40]

In 1946, the Muslim League supporters started a series of violent attacks against Hindus in Kolkata in the name of Direct Action Day, which escalated into the bloodiest communal riots between Hindus and Muslims of modern India. After the initial attacks, rapes and killings by Muslims, Bengali Hindus joined hands with Sikhs and non-Bengali Hindus in attacking Muslims and ultimately it turned out to be a violent reprisal that resulted in heavy casualties of Muslims, finally forcing the government to stop the mayhem. Later in the year, the Muslim League government orchestrated the infamous Noakhali genocide.[41]

The Direct Action Day and the Noakhali genocide prompted the Bengali Hindu leadership to move for the creation of a Bengali Hindu majority province by partitioning Bengal. At that time, the movement for creation of Pakistan was in full swing and Bengal was supposed to form one of its constituent provinces. After the failure of United Bengal plan when it became evident that all of Bengal would go to Pakistan, the Bengali Hindus voted for the Partition of Bengal.[42] On 23 April 1947, the Amrita Bazar Patrika published the results of an opinion poll, in which 98.3% of the Bengali Hindus favoured the creation of a separate homeland.[43][44] The proposal for the Partition of Bengal was moved in the Legislative Assembly on 20 June 1947, where the Hindu members voted 58–21 in favour of the Partition with two members abstaining.[N 3]

The Boundary Commission awarded the Bengali Hindus a territory far less in proportion to their population which was around 46% of the population of the province, awarding the Bengali Hindu majority district of Khulna to Pakistan. However, some Bengali Muslim majority districts such as Murshidabad and Malda were handed to India.

Post-partition period

After the Partition, the majority of the urban upper class and middle class Bengali Hindu population of East Bengal immigrated to West Bengal. The ones who stayed back were the ones who had significant landed property and believed that they will be able to live peacefully in an Islamic state. However, after the genocide of 1950, Bengali Hindus fled East Bengal in thousands and settled in West Bengal. In 1964, tens of thousands of Bengali Hindus were massacred in East Pakistan and most of the Bengali Hindu owned businesses and properties of Dhaka were permanently destroyed[45] During the liberation war of Bangladesh, an estimated 2.4 million Bengali Hindus were massacred in Bangladesh.[17] The Enemy Property Act of the Pakistan regime which is still in force in the new incarnation of Vested Property Act, has been used by successive Bangladeshi governments to seize the properties of the Hindu minorities who left the country during the Partition of India and Bangladesh liberation war. According to Professor Abul Barkat of Dhaka University, the Act has been used to misappropriate 2,100,000 acres (8,500 km2) of land from the Bengali Hindus, roughly equivalent to the 45% of the total landed area owned by them.[46]

The refugee rehabilitation became an acute crisis and hundreds of refugees were rehabilitated in the inhabitable terrains of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and the Andamans. Apart from that thousands of Bengali Hindus had also immigrated to Assam, Tripura and other regions of the North East. In the Barak Valley region of Assam, where the Bengali Hindus were in a majority because of the inclusion of Sylhet into Pakistan, and subsequent immigration of Bengali Hindus from Sylhet into Cachar, an impasse was arrived at on the question of language. The government of Assam had unilaterally imposed Assamese as the sole medium of education. In response, the Bengali Hindus began peaceful demonstrations demanding Bengali as the optional medium of primary education in the Barak Valley region. The situation took an ugly turn on 19 May 1961, when eleven Bengali Hindu protesters including a minor girl were gunned down by the police at the Silchar railway station.[47][48][49] Subsequently, the Assam government allowed Bengali as the medium of education in Barak Valley.[47] However, the rise of ethnic militancy in the eighties and nineties once again made the Bengali Hindus vulnerable in the North East. The United Liberation Front of Asom, National Democratic Front of Bodoland, Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam and National Liberation Front of Tripura militants have selectively targeted the Bengali Hindu people, prompting the latter to form the Bengali Tiger Force.[50]

Discrimination against Bengali Hindu population is not limited to the North East. In Jharkhand, the Bengali Hindu demand of making Bengali the second official language has not been met, in spite of the fact that the Bengali Hindu population forms the second largest linguistic group in the state. They constitute almost 40 percent of the population in Jharkhand.Most of the Bengalis of Jharkhand are the Bhumiputras or the original settlers in the region.In Bihar, many Bengali Hindu refugees are denied land owning rights and caste certificates.[51][52][53]

Geographic distribution

Bengali Hindus constitute a minority ethnic group of the total population in both Bangladesh and India,[54] forming less than 10% of the population in both countries. From the sixties onward, like many other ethnic groups of India, many Bengali Hindus began to emigrate outside India, mostly to pursue higher studies or in search of lucrative careers. This gave rise to a sizeable expatriate Bengali Hindu population in many parts of the world.

Bengali Hindus form a majority in West Bengal, with a population of 64,385,546 (70.54%), while in Bangladesh, Bengali Hindus are the second largest community with a population of 14,112,218 (8.03%).

Before India became independent, the city of Dhaka (present capital of Bangladesh) had a significant number of Bengali Hindus, but their numbers have since considerably dwindled, being outnumbered by Bengali Muslims. Bengali Hindus are at present the second largest community after Muslims in Dhaka at 1,476,184 (7%).

Indian States other than West Bengal

Bengali Hindus are the second largest community in Assam with a population of 3 million (9.12%). They are concentrated in the Barak Valley region.As per 2011 census Bengali speaking population of Assam is a little above 91 lakhs, which is about 29% of the total population of Assam. About 31% of the Bengali speaking people are Hindus. In Jharkhand the Bengali Hindu population is 2.5 million (8.09%).

In Tripura, Bengali hindus form the majority due to immigration of from neighbouring East Pakistan during 1971 as a result Tripura become a Bengali majority state. Bengalis comprise nearly 59.81% of the state population which is around 2.19 million respectively whereas tribals are 40.92% of the state population which is around 1.63 million as of 2011.

There is also a significant number of Bengali Hindus residing in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, estimated approximately 100,000 comprising 26% of the population. Bengali is also the most widely spoken language in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, despite it lacking official status.

Outside Indian Subcontinent

UK has a huge portion of Bengali Hindu population. Former Cricketer Isa Guha and Rhona Mitra are prominent descendants of Bengali Hindu diaspora.

Culture

Bengali Fish meal
Various Bengali fish and seafood served with rice and dessert
Mala Badal - Bengali Hindu Wedding - Howrah 2015-12-06 7716
Traditional Bengali wedding
Fish Market of bengali
Fish Market of Bengali
Fish And Rice
Signature dish of Bengali:Fish And Rice

Economy

Bengali Hindu society used to be caste-oriented throughout centuries and the professional status of men depended exclusively on the hierarchical caste divisions. Some professions such as weaving, pottery, carpentry, blacksmithing etc. have always been carried out by special Hindu caste groups in Bengal. In traditional Bengali Hindu society, nearly every occupation is carried on by a ranked hierarchy of specialised caste groups- not only artisan occupations but also personal and domestic service functions such as barbering, laundering, latrine cleaning as well as non-menial tasks such as priesthood. However, with the introduction of British rule and appearance of urban civilisation, the former rural agrarian and artisan economy gradually crumbled and gave way to modern middle class economy. However, agriculture, land tenure, farming and fishing form the predominant economic activity in most of the rural area till now. A small but significant section of rural people carry out small trades and businesses. In urban and semi-urban areas, most of the people are engaged in business, industry, government and private service sectors, self-employing works and intellectual pursuits. Unemployment has persisted in a certain minuscule section of the community.

Literature

Kalighat Savitri begs Yama not to take Satyaban
Savitri-Satyavan story on Kalighat Painting, 3rd quarter of the 19th century.

The proper Bengali literary history begins with the early Vaishnava literature like the Shreekrishna Kirtana and the Vaishnava padavalis followed by translation literatures like Ramayana and Srikrishna Vijaya. In the medieval period literary works on the life and teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu were composed. This period saw the emergence of Shakta padavalis. The characteristic feature of Bengali Hindu literature in the middle age are the mangalkavyas, that glorify various Hindu gods and goddesses often using folkloristic backgrounds.

The early modern period saw a flurry in the literary activity especially after the emergence of the Bengali press. The first Bengali prose Raja Pratapaditya Charitra was written during this time. The Renaissance saw a rapid development in modern Bengali literature. Most of the epics, poems, novels, short stories and dramas of the modern classical literature were written during this period. The Bengal Literary Society that later came to be known as Bangiya Sahitya Parishad was founded. The literary development during the Renaissance culminated in Rabindranath's Nobel prize for literature.

In the Post-Partition period, the Bengali Hindus pioneered the Hungry generation, Natun Kabita and the little magazine movements. Of late, some of them have made their mark in contemporary English literature.

Art

The Kalighat school of painting flourished in Bengal in the early modern period, and especially after the first paper mill was set up in 1809. During the rise of nationalism in the early 20th century, the Bengali Hindus pioneered the Bengal school of art. It provided the artistic medium of expression to the Hindu nationalist movement. Though the Bengal school later gave way to modernist ideas, it left an enduring legacy. In the post-liberalisation phase of India, modern art acquired a new dimension as young artists like Devajyoti Ray, Sudip Roy and Paresh Maity started gaining international recognition. Devajyoti Ray is known for introducing Pseudorealism, which is one of the most original genres of Indian art today.

Religion

Dakshineshwar
Dakshineshwar Kali Temple, Kolkata: a spiritual centre of Bengali Hindus
Shiva Temple, Puthia, Rajshahi NK (2)
Shiva Temple, Puthia, Rajshahi.

The Bengali Hindus generally follow the beliefs and practices that fall under the broad umbrella of Hinduism. Majority of them follow either the Shakta or the Vaishnava traditions, and some follow a synthesis of the two. The minor traditions include Shaiva etc. A significant minority is atheist who do not follow any rituals. Brahmoism is also found among Bengali Hindus.

Apart of the parent tradition, the Bengali Hindus usually affiliate themselves to one of the many sects that have come to be established as institutionalised forms of the ancient guru-shishya traditions. Major amongst them include the Ramakrishna Mission, Bharat Sevashram Sangha, Bijoy Krishna Goswami, Anukul Thakur, Matua, ISKCON, Gaudiya Math, Ananda Marga, Ram Thakur etc.

Festivals

According to a famous Bengali proverb, there are thirteen festivals in twelve months. Bengali Hindus celebrate all major Indian festivals. The year begins with the Bengali New Year's Day or Pohela Boishakh which usually falls on 15 April. Traditional business establishment commence their fiscal year on this day, with the worship of Lakshmi and Ganesha and inauguration of the halkhata (ledger). People dress in ethnic wear and enjoy ethnic food. Poila Baishakh is followed by Rabindra Jayanti, Rath Yatra and Janmashtami before the commencement of the Pujas.

The puja season begins with the Vishwakarma Puja and is followed up by Durga Puja, the greatest and largest Bengali Hindu festival. It is commemoration of the victory of the good over the evil. According to Chandi Purana, goddess Durga killed Mahishasura, the evil demon and saved the devas. Rama the prince of Ayodhya invoked the blessings of goddess Durga in a battle against Ravana of Lanka. Durga Puja is the commemoration of Rama's victory over Ravana and it ends in Bijoya Dashami. Durga Puja is followed by Kojagari Lakshmi Puja, Kali Puja, Bhai phonta, Jagaddhatri Puja.

The winter solstice is celebrated a Paush Sankranti in mid January, followed by Netaji Jayanti and Saraswati Puja. The spring is celebrated in the form of Dolyatra or Holi. The year ends with Charak Puja and Gajan.

Durga puja, garlands for her

Durga Puja, the largest festival of Bengali Hindus

Dakshina Kali 2 Shakespeare Sarani Arnab Dutta 2011

Kali Puja, a major festival of Bengal

Roth Procession

Rath Yatra at Dhamrai in Dhaka district, Bangladesh

Durga Puja DS

A traditional Durga idol

Durga Puja by countries

The Bengali Hindu diaspora celebrate Durga Puja all over the world.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ There were no separate electorates for Hindus, in spite of them being minorities in the province.
  2. ^ The Caste Hindus were supposed to contest in the 70 General seats. However as per the Poona Pact between Gandhi and Ambedkar, 20 General seats were reserved for Scheduled Castes.
  3. ^ Rup Narayan Roy and Jyoti Basu, the two Communist Party MLAs abstained.

References

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  3. ^ Sanghamitra, Niyogi (2008). "Immigrant Sub-National Ethnicity: Bengali-Hindus and Punjabi-Sikhs in the San Francisco Bay Area". Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston and the Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston on 31 July 2008. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
  4. ^ http://203.112.218.65:8008/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/National%20Reports/Union%20Statistics.pdf
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  9. ^ "What Is Hinduism?", p. 27
  10. ^ "The Home and the World", by Rabindranath Tagore, p. 320
  11. ^ B.P. Syam Roy (28 September 2015). "Bengal's topsy-turvy population growth". The Statesman.
  12. ^ Population by religious community: West Bengal. 2011 Census of India.
  13. ^ "Historical Dictionary of the Bengalis", p. 351, by Kunal Chakrabarti, Shubhra Chakrabarti
  14. ^ "Muslim freedom martyrs of India". Two Circles. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
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  29. ^ "When he (Alexander) moved forward with his forces certain men came to inform him that Porus, the king of the country, who was the nephew of that Porus whom he had defeated, had left his kingdom and fled to the nation of Gandaridai... He had obtained from Phegeus a description of the country beyond the Indus: First came a desert which it would take twelve days to traverse; beyond this was the river called the Ganges which had a width of thirty two stadia, and a greater depth than any other Indian river; beyond this again were situated the dominions of the nation of the Prasioi and the Gandaridai, whose king, Xandrammes, had an army of 20,000 horse 200,000 infantry, 2,000 chariots and 4,000 elephants trained and equipped for war".... "Now this (Ganges) river, which is 30 stadia broad, flows from north to south, and empties its water into the ocean forming the eastern boundary of the Gandaridai, a nation which possesses the greatest number of elephants and the largest in size." –Diodorus Siculus (c.90 BC – c.30 BC). Quoted from The Classical Accounts of India, Dr R.C. Majumdar, p. 170-72/234
  30. ^ Gangaridai#During Alexander's invasion
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Adityapur massacre

Adityapur massacre (Bengali: আদিত্যপুর হত্যাকান্ড) refers to the massacre of Bengali Hindus by the Pakistani occupation army during the Bangladesh Liberation War at Adityapur in Bangladesh. On 14 June 1971, the Pakistani army in collaboration with the Razakars, killed 63 Bengali Hindus in the village of Adityapur in Sylhet district.

Akhira massacre

Akhira massacre (Bengali: আখিরা হত্যাকান্ড) was a massacre of the emigrating Hindus of the then Dinajpur district near Baraihat on 17 April 1971 by the Pakistani army with collaboration from the local Razakars. It is estimated that around 100 Hindus were killed in the massacre.

Ambica Charan Mazumdar

Ambica Charan Mazumdar (1850–1922) was a Bengali Indian politician who served as the president of the Indian National Congress.

Bagbati massacre

Bagbati massacre (Bengali: বাগবাটি হত্যাকান্ড) refers to the cold blooded killings of more than 200 unarmed Bengali Hindus by the Al Badar, Pakistan Army, Razakars and Peace Committee and in the Bagbati Union of Sirajganj sub-division in the erstwhile district of greater Pabna in May 1971. After the massacre the bodies were buried or dumped in wells.

Bakhrabad massacre

Bakhrabad massacre (Bengali: বাখরাবাদ হত্যাকান্ড) was a massacre of the Hindu population of Bakhrabad village, in the district of the Comilla, on 24 May 1971 by the Pakistani army with the help of Al Badr and Al Shams, during the Bangladesh Liberation War.

Bamakhepa

Bamakhepa (1837–1911),(Bengali: বামাক্ষ্যাপা) born Bamacharan Chattopadhyay, popularly known as the "mad saint," was a Hindu saint, held in great reverence in Tarapith and whose shrine is also located in the vicinity of the Tara temple in Birbhum. He was born at Atla village in Rampurhat subdivision of Birbhum district.

Bengali Americans

Bengali Americans (Bengali: মার্কিন বাঙ্গালী) are Americans of Bengali ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage and identity. They trace their ancestry to the historic ethno-linguistic region of Bengal in South Asia (now divided between Bangladesh and India). Bengali American usually refers to Bengali Muslims, Bengali Hindus, Bengali Buddhists, Bengali Jains, and Bengali Christians. Bengali American are also a subgroup of Bangladeshi Americans and Indian Americans. Bengali Muslims are also classified under Bangladeshi Americans, or American Muslim.

United States has the largest population of Bengali Hindus outside of Asia and second-largest population of Bengali people outside of Asia after the United Kingdom. The highest concentration of Bengali Americans is in New York City Metropolitan Area, with California, New Jersey, Texas, Michigan, Virginia, and Florida being other states with high concentration of Bengali Americans in that particular order. Almost half of the Bengali Hindus in the US are in California. California as a subnational division has the largest concentration of Bengali Hindus outside of Asia. New York City has the largest metropolitan Bengali population outside of India, Bangladesh, and England. Significant immigration of Bengalis to the United States started after 1965.

Bengali Americans may refer to-

Bangladeshi Americans, Americans of Bangladeshi descent of Bengali Hindu ancestry, and Bengali Muslims. Bengali Muslims are usually classified as Bangladeshi Americans and American Muslims.

Bengali Indian Americans, Americans of Indian and Bengali Hindu descent whose ancestral origins are in West Bengal, Bangladesh or erstwhile East Bengal, Jharkhand, Purnia, Odisha, Goalpara region, Assam, the Barak Valley, Tripura, Nepal, Meghalaya, Rakhine state, and other parts of India who are known as Probashi Bengalis. Bengali Hindu Americans also come from Southeast Asia, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South America, Caribbean, and other parts of the world.

Bengali Hindu diaspora

The Bengali Hindu diaspora is the worldwide population of the Bengali Hindus of Indian and Bangladeshi origin.

Bongal

Bongal is a derogatory slur used to refer to the Bengali Hindus in Assam. The Bengalis who had settled in Assam during the British period when they were brought in from neighbouring Bengal province to work in and maintain the newly formed British administration or those who migrated from East Pakistan (present Bangladesh) as refugees in the wake of the Partition of India and their descendants are collectively referred to as Bongals. The Bengali speaking Muslims from eastern Pakistan (immigrants before 1971, infiltrators thereafter), on the other hand, are called Na Asamiya. The term lent the name to the infamous Bongal Kheda movement of the 1950s and 1960s which resulted in an ethnic cleansing of Bengali Hindus from the Brahmaputra valley in Assam. During the colonial days, the term referred to anyone who was perceived as a foreigner (a non-Assamese from the "mainland"). Later on however, it meant exclusively the Bengali Hindus.

Dkhar

Dkhar or Utkhar is a term used by the Khasis to refer to non-tribal peoples in Meghalaya and Assam. In real terms, the words mean the affluent, educated settler from West Bengal or the Hindu, Bengali-speaking "East Bengal" man who made Assam or Meghalaya his home 50 years or even 100 years ago. The term is a Khasi word which means a foreigner. It is sometimes abbreviated to Khar.

The resentment against the non-tribal outsiders were mostly against the Bengalis and the Nepalis who constituted bulk of the non-tribal population of the state. In 1979-80, Khasi mobs attacked the Bengali speaking people in Meghalaya resulting in an ethnic cleansing.Racism is prevalent, among the Khasi people looking down on other tribal people as well.

Fanindra Nath Gooptu

Fanindranath Gooptu (Bengali ফণীন্দ্রনাথ গুপ্ত) mostly known as F.N. Gooptu was a patriot and a industrialist. He made fountain pen with indigenous process. He also made pencil, nip of fountain pen, ink etc. His own company F. N. Gooptu & Co. was situated at the Beliaghata region of Kolkata, India.

Ishangopalpur massacre

Ishangopalpur massacre (Bengali: ঈশাণগোপালপুর হত্যাকান্ড) refers to the massacre of Bengali Hindus in Ishangopalpur village, in the outskirts of Faridpur on 2 May 1971. The Pakistan army shot and bayoneted 28 Bengali Hindus to death.

Kaliganj massacre

Kaliganj massacre (Bengali: কালিগঞ্জ হত্যাকান্ড) refers to the massacre of unarmed Bengali Hindus fleeing to India in Kaliganj market, in the present day Jaldhaka Upazila of Nilphamari District on 27 April 1971. An estimated 400 Bengali Hindus were killed by the Pakistan Army. It is alleged that this massacre was masterminded by Muslim League leader and central minister Kazi Abdul Kader.

Malaun

Malaun (Bengali: মালাউন) is term for a Bengali Hindu, most commonly used in Bangladesh. The word is derived from the Arabic "ملعون", meaning 'accursed' or 'deprived of God's Mercy', and in modern times, it is used as an ethnic slur by the Muslims in Bengal for Hindus. Political leaders from religious parties frequently abuse the Hindus as Malauns during the election rallies.

Pomara massacre

Pomara massacre refers to the killing of unarmed Bengali Hindus of Pomara Union in Chittagong District of Bangladesh on 14 September 1971. The Pakistan army buried alive 13 Bengali Hindus in the Pomra reserved forest.

Rupankar

Rupankar Bagchi, known mononymously Rupankar is a bengali singer-songwriter and playback singer from Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

He has sung many famous songs in recent Bengali films like Chalo Let's Go (2008), Baishe Srabon (2011), Aparajita Tumi (2012), Hemlock society (2012), Dutta Vs Dutta (2012), Jaatishwar (2014) and Chotushkone (2014). He was awarded the National Film Award for Best Male Playback Singer for the song "E Tumi Kemon Tumi" from Jaatishwar.

Satanikhil massacre

Satanikhil massacre refers to the massacre of Bengali Hindu intellectuals on 14 May 1971 on the banks of Satanikhil canal in Dhaka district by the Pakistan armed forces. 14 Bengali Hindus were killed in the massacre.

Suryamani massacre

Suryamani massacre (Bengali: সূর্যমণি হত্যাকান্ড) took place on the early hours of 7 October 1971 in Suryamani village of the then Barisal district. The Razakars shot dead 24 Bengali Hindus.

Sutrapur massacre

Sutrapur massacre (Bengali: সূত্রাপুর হত্যাকান্ড) was the massacre of unarmed Bengali Hindu residents of Malakartola Lane of Sutrapur in Dhaka on 27 March 1971. The Pakistan army shot dead fourteen Bengali Hindus and one Muslim in the Loharpool bridge of Sutrapur.

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