Beneficiation

In the mining industry or extractive metallurgy, beneficiation is any process that improves (benefits) the economic value of the ore by removing the gangue minerals, which results in a higher grade product (concentrate) and a waste stream (tailings). Examples of beneficiation processes include froth flotation[1] and gravity separation.

Other economic uses of the term are in use. For example, in the diamond industry, the beneficiation imperative argues that cutting and polishing (processes within the diamond value chain) should be conducted in-country to maximise the local economic contribution.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Introduction to Mineral Processing: Froth Flotation". Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  2. ^ "Beneficiation". Department of Mineral Resources, Republic of South Africa.

Further reading

Anzob

Anzob (Tajik: Анзоб) is a town and jamoat in north-west Tajikistan. It is located in Aini District in Sughd province in the Zarafshan Range, about 110 kilometres (68 mi) north of Dushanbe. The jamoat has a total population of 7,016. It is located on the M34 highway and in the Yaghnob River valley. Anzob has a mining and beneficiation complex.

Cleveland-Cliffs Inc.

Cleveland-Cliffs, Inc., formerly Cliffs Natural Resources, is a Cleveland, Ohio, business firm that specializes in the mining and beneficiation of iron ore. The firm is an independent company whose shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Cleveland-Cliffs' primary operations are organized and managed according to product category and geographic location: U.S. iron ore, Eastern Canadian iron ore, Asia Pacific iron ore, and North American coal.

The company announced on August 15, 2017, it was dropping the Cliffs Natural Resources name and returning to its old brand name, Cleveland-Cliffs Inc.

In October 2018 Cleveland-Cliff's CEO Lourenco Goncalves launched a verbal attack on several Wall Street analysts during a public conference call, resulting in negative media coverage and adverse public attention.

Cominco Resources

Cominco Resources is a private company which is developing the US $2billion Hinda phosphate project located in The Republic of the Congo. Through its subsidiary it owns 100% of the Hinda Phosphate Project, which comprises the Hinda Permit (granted in December 2009), and the Kolatchikanou Permit (granted in June 2011). The Hinda project is the world's largest undeveloped phosphate deposit with a JORC Mineral Resource of 678 Mt and a Minable Ore Reserve of 405 Mt, sufficient for over 24 years of production.

Cominco owns 100% of the Hinda and Kolatchikanou phosphate exploration licences covering 1,663 km2 of ROC’s coastal basin, upon which Cominco discovered and delineated a large graben hosted, marine sedimentary phosphate deposit between 300 m and 800 m wide, running roughly parallel to the Atlantic coast. The deposit is relatively homogeneous and thick and has a very low overburden to Ore ratio (1.5 m3:t). The Orebody is one of few that can be open pit mined, by free digging with no requirement for ripping or blasting.

On 7 December 2015, The Ministry of Mines and Geology granted Cominco an Exploitation (Mining) Licence for phosphate covering an area of 263 km2.

The company's African operations are located at Rond-Point d'Avoum, Centre-Ville in Pointe Noire.

Electrostatic separator

An electrostatic separator is a device for separating particles by mass in a low energy charged beam.

An example is the electrostatic precipitator used in coal-fired power plants to treat exhaust gas, removing small particles that cause air pollution.

Electrostatic separation is a process that uses electrostatic charges to separate crushed particles of material. An industrial process used to separate large amounts of material particles, electrostatic separating is most often used in the process of sorting mineral ore. This process can help remove valuable material from ore, or it can help remove foreign material to purify a substance. In mining, the process of crushing mining ore into particles for the purpose of separating minerals is called beneficiation.

Generally, electrostatic charges are used to attract or repel differently charged material. When electrostatic separation uses the force of attraction to sort particles, conducting particles stick to an oppositely charged object, such as a metal drum, thereby separating them from the particle mixture. When this type of beneficiation uses repelling force, it is normally employed to change the trajectory of falling objects to sort them into different places. This way, when a mixture of particles falls past a repelling object, the particles with the correct charge fall away from the other particles when they are repelled by the similarly charged object.

An electric charge can be positive or negative — objects with a positive charge repel other positively charged objects, thereby causing them to push away from each other, while a positively charged object would attract to a negatively charged object, thereby causing the two to draw together.

Experiments showing electrostatic sorting in action can help make the process more clear. To exhibit electrostatic separation at home, an experiment can be conducted using peanuts that are still in their shells. When the shells are rubbed off of the peanuts and gently smashed into pieces, an electrostatically charged device, like a comb rubbed quickly against a wool sweater, will pick up the peanut shells with static electricity. The lightweight crushed shells that are oppositely charged from the comb easily move away from the edible peanut parts when the comb is passed nearby.

The electrostatic separation of conductors is one method of beneficiation; another common beneficiation method is magnetic beneficiation. Electrostatic separation is a preferred sorting method when dealing with separating conductors from electrostatic separation non-conductors. In a similar way to that in which electrostatic separation sorts particles with different electrostatic charges magnetic beneficiation sorts particles that respond to a magnetic field. Electrostatic beneficiation is effective for removing particulate matter, such as ash from mined coal, while magnetic separation functions well for removing the magnetic iron ore from deposits of clay in the earth.

Environmental impact of iron ore mining

The environmental impact of iron ore mining, in all its phases of, from excavation to beneficiation to transportation, may include detrimental effects on air quality, water quality, and biological species.

Essar Steel

Essar Steel is a fully integrated flat carbon steel manufacturer – from iron ore to ready-to-market products – with a current capacity of 10 million tonnes per annum (MTPA). Essar Steel’s manufacturing facility comprises ore beneficiation, pellet making, iron making, steel making, and downstream facilities including cold rolling mill, galvanising, pre-coated facility, steel processing facility, extra wide plate mill and a pipe mill. Essar Steel is currently under the IBC process and the matter is pending decision at the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT). The company's US subsidiary declared bankruptcy amid allegations of fraud in late 2015.

Graphite

Graphite (), archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a hexagonal structure. It occurs naturally in this form and is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Under high pressures and temperatures it converts to diamond. Graphite is used in pencils and lubricants. Its high conductivity makes it useful in electronic products such as electrodes, batteries, and solar panels.

Heilbron

Heilbron is a small farming town in the Free State province of South Africa which services the cattle, dairy, sorghum, sunflower and maize industries. Raw stock beneficiation occurs in leisure foods, dairy products and stock feeds. It also serves as a dormitory town for the Gauteng metropolis.

Game farming in the district grew to the extent that it is believed that game numbers reached an all-time high, evident in visiting tourist numbers. Due to its close proximity to Gauteng (60 km) the town became ever more popular to weekend tourists and city dwellers in need of a relaxing weekend filled with peace and quiet with lots of fresh air. Popular activities are horse riding, off road cycling, fishing, game drives, utilizing both motor vehicles and quad bikes, historical tours and affordable sporting facilities.

Hindustan Copper

Hindustan Copper Ltd. (BSE: 513599, NSE: HINDCOPPER) is a Government-owned corporation in the Central Public Sector Enterprise under the Ministry of Mines (India), Government of India. HCL is the only vertically integrated copper producer in India engaged in a wide spectrum of activities ranging from Mining, Beneficiation, Smelting, Refining and Continuous Cast Rod manufacturer.

HCL shares are listed at Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai, Ahmedabad exchanges. On 31 July 2015, the government of India announced a 15% stake sale in Hindustan Copper Limited, reducing its stake from 89.5% to 74.5%.

Industrial mineral

Industrial resources (minerals) are geological materials which are mined for their commercial value, which are not fuel (fuel minerals or mineral fuels) and are not sources of metals (metallic minerals) but are used in the industries based on their physical and/or chemical properties.

They are used in their natural state or after beneficiation either as raw materials or as additives in a wide range of applications.

Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red. The iron is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4, 72.4% Fe), hematite (Fe2O3, 69.9% Fe), goethite (FeO(OH), 62.9% Fe), limonite (FeO(OH)·n(H2O), 55% Fe) or siderite (FeCO3, 48.2% Fe).

Ores containing very high quantities of hematite or magnetite (greater than about 60% iron) are known as "natural ore" or "direct shipping ore", meaning they can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel—98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel. Indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is "more integral to the global economy than any other commodity, except perhaps oil".

Jalamid

Jalamid(Arabic: حزم الجلاميد‎) is a town and crossroads in Saudi Arabia near the Iraqi border.

Komsomolskoye mining company

Komsomolskoye mining company was founded in 1995 in Komsomolske, Donetsk Oblast. In 2011 Komsomolskoye mining company became part of the Iron Ore Division of Metinvest Group. Komsomolskoye mining company is the biggest Ukrainian flux supplier to metallurgical and food industries. Structure of the enterprise includes three active quarries and two crushing and beneficiation factories.

Mining in Mauritania

Mauritania's mineral sector was dominated by iron ore mining and beneficiation. Other mineral commodities produced in the country included cement, copper, gold, gypsum, petroleum, salt, and steel. The Ministère des Mines et de l’Industrie was the Government agency responsible for enacting the Mining Code and for the coordination of all activities in the mining sector. The Direction des Mines et de la Géologie was the entity responsible for promoting the mineral sector and for providing geologic and mining information to potential investors; the Direction des Hydrocarbures was in charge of the development of the petroleum sector; and the Office Mauritanien des Recherches Géologiques was the Government entity responsible for evaluating areas of mineral potential for exploration. Société Nationale Industrielle et Minière (SNIM) was responsible for iron ore production and benefciation.In 2007, the total value of exports from Mauritania was estimated to be about $1.5 billion. Excluding fish exports, which amounted to $254 million, all the main export categories were either mining or hydrocarbon products. Iron ore exports, which were valued at $575 million, represented about 38% of the country’s total exports; crude oil exports were valued at $339 million and accounted for 23%; copper exports were valued at $184 million and accounted for about 13%; and gold exports were valued at $59 million and accounted for 4% of total exports.All mineral commodity production increased during the year with the exception of crude petroleum, which decreased by about 51% to 5,487,000 barrels (872,400 m3) compared with 11,168,000 barrels (1,775,600 m3) in 2006. Cement production increased by 14.6% to 409,513 metric tons (t) compared with a revised 357,239 t in 2006. Gypsum production increased by 8.9%; iron ore production, by 6.8%; salt production, by about 35.5%; and

crude steel production, by about 4.2%. The sharp increase in copper and gold production was owing to the opening of the Guelb Mohgrein Mine in late 2006.Mining, which was one of the country’s most important sectors to the national economy, contributed about 12% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and represented more than one-half of the country’s export earnings in 2005. according to the Ministère des Mines et de l’industrie (MMi), the development, diversification, and promotion of the mining sector have become the government’s priority in recent years. the number of foreign companies applying for prospecting licenses was increasing, and projects were at various stages ranging from grassroots exploration to mine development.

Mining industry of Russia

The mineral industry of Russia is one of the world's leading mineral industries and accounts for a large percentage of the Commonwealth of Independent States' production of a range of mineral products, including metals, industrial minerals, and mineral fuels. In 2005, Russia ranked among the leading world producers or was a significant producer of a vast range of mineral commodities, including aluminum, arsenic, cement, copper, magnesium compounds and metals, nitrogen, palladium, silicon, nickel and vanadium.In 2005, the Russian economy benefited significantly from high oil, gas, and metal prices. Oil revenues accounted for about 14% of the GDP. Following the mineral fuel industry, the next leading branch of the mineral industry, in terms of its contribution to the national economy was the metallurgical sector, which contributed 19% of the value of industrial production, accounted for 11.1% of the value of industrial capital stock, and employed 9.3% of the industrial labor force. In 2005, a total of 1,071,000 people were employed in the mineral extraction sector and made up 1.6% of the country's labor force. Investment in mineral extraction and metallurgy accounted for about 20% of total investment in the Russian economy.

Rittenhouse Gap, Pennsylvania

Rittenhouse Gap is the name of a village in Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania, at 40°28′04″N 75°37′47″W.

The gap which gives the town its name lies between the headwaters of Swabia Creek, in the Lehigh River watershed, and an unnamed tributary of the Perkiomen Creek, in the Schuylkill River watershed. Gap Hill lies along its northwestern side.

The village is located at the northeastern end of the gap, around the source of Swabia Creek. The Catasauqua and Fogelsville Railroad was extended to the village in 1865, to carry magnetite from the mines in the vicinity, largely owned by the Thomas Iron Company. These mines were among those selected by Thomas Edison for experiments in magnetic beneficiation of iron ore, by which he hoped to make iron mining in the northeastern US cost-effective. The availability of cheap Mesabi Range ore defeated his plans, and the mines and railroad were abandoned after World War I. The geological origins of the deposits have been the subject of recent research.

With the closing of the iron mines, the community lost its principal support. It now lies at the head of the Bear Creek Ski and Recreation Area and uses the Macungie zip code of 18062.

Sijua

Sijua is a neighbourhood in Dhanbad in Jharkhand state, India.

Stoilensky GOK

OJSC Stoilensky GOK is an iron ore company in Russia. Its main facility, the Stoilensky Mining and Beneficiation Plant (SGОК), is located in Stary Oskol, in the Belgorod region. Stoilensky is associated with Novolipetsk Steel and accounts for roughly 16% of Russia's iron ore production.Stoilensky GOK is listed in the MICEX and RTS exchanges in Russia.

Tega Industries Ltd.

Tega Industries Ltd. is an Indian corporation headquartered in Kolkata, India and a constituent of MM group of companies. It provides customized solutions to mining, mineral beneficiation, bulk material handling, and slurry transportation industry.

The company specializes in manufacturing, distribution, and life cycle management of wear resistant lining components required for grinding, sizing and beneficiation of minerals, downstream equipment such as hydro-cyclones and flotation columns, fluid transportation and filtration systems used in the industry.

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