Benedito Calixto

Benedito Calixto de Jesus (14 October 1853 – 31 May 1927) was a Brazilian painter.[1] His works usually depicted figures from Brazil and Brazilian culture, including a famous portrait of the bandeirante Domingos Jorge Velho in 1923,[2] and scenes from the coastline of São Paulo.[3] Unlike many artists of the time, Calixto's patron was an individual other than the state, who were "the most dependable source of patronage."[4]

Benedito Calixto
Benedito Calixto de Jesus - Auto-retrato
Assinatura de Benedito Calixto


Benedito Calixto de Jesus - Moagem de Cana - Fazenda Cachoeira - Campinas, 1830, Acervo do Museu Paulista da USP

Sugarcane crushing in Cacheira Farm in Campinas

Benedito Calixto - Anchieta e Nóbrega na cabana de Pindobuçu

Anchieta e Nóbrega na cabana de Pindobuçu

Benedito Calixto - Naufrágio do Sírio, 1907

The sinking of the SS Sirio


  1. ^ Peter G. Stone; Brian Molyneaux (1994). The Presented Past. Routledge. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-415-09602-7.
  2. ^ Ana Elena Puga (2008). Memory, Allegory, and Testimony in South American Theater. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-96119-6.
  3. ^ Brazilian art. University of Texas. 1976.
  4. ^ Richard McGee Morse (1974). From community to metropolis. Octagon Books. ISBN 978-0-374-95914-2.

Atibaia (or Estância de Atibaia) is a Brazilian municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The name is derived from an indigenous language called Tupi, and means "healthy water river". Its name has changed over time, from the primitive Tupi word Tybaia, to Thibaia, Atubaia, Thibaya, and finally the city's modern name, Atibaia.

Its strawberry crops are well known. These crops are cultivated mainly by Japanese descendants, since the city was a common Japanese immigrant center.

Bartolomeu de Gusmão

Bartolomeu Lourenço de Gusmão (December 1685 – November 18, 1724) was a Portuguese priest and naturalist, who was a pioneer of lighter-than-air airship design.

Brás Cubas

Brás Cubas (Porto, December 1507 — Porto, 1592) was a Portuguese nobleman, explorer and the founder of the village of Santos (a city today). The son of João Pires Cubas and Isabel Nunes, he was twice governor of the Captaincy of São Vicente (1545-1549 and 1555-1556).

He arrived in the Portuguese colony of Brazil in the year of 1531 with Martim Afonso de Sousa, the founder of the Captaincy of São Vicente. The region of Santos was already populated, but it was Brás Cubas who officially founded the village because in 1543, he founded the first Holy House of Mercy, which he called All Saints, a name that would pass to the village, the port of which was better located than the one in São Vicente. He was responsible for the transference of the harbor from Ponta da Praia to the city center, in the environs of Outeiro de Santa Catarina. Besides being the founder of Santos, he organized expeditions for the Crown and, afterwards, was also the governor of the Captaincy of São Vicente.

He was once the biggest land owner of the coastal region. In 1551, was named by John III of Portugal, the Provider and Accountant of the Incomes and Rights of the Captaincy; in the following year, he built the fort of São Filipe in the island of Santo Amaro. He had a memorable participation in the defense of the captaincy against the attacks of the native Tamoios, then allied to the French. Later, on the orders of the third general-governor Mem de Sá, he carried out expeditions through the interior in search of gold and silver. The accounts say he arrived as far as Chapada Diamantina in the outback of Bahia.

His attempts to enslave the natives resulted in a revolt that ended up by determining the appearance of the Tamoio Confederation, that could only be partially contained by the action of the jesuits Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta.

When he died, he was a nobleman of the Royal House and one of the most respected men in the captaincy. The title of alcaide-mor (mayor) of the village of Santos passed down to his son, Pêro Cubas.

In his epitaph, one can read that he discovered «gold and metals in 1560». In 1578, by the way, the news of the existence of gold and silver mines in São Paulo was current, according to an English subject who lived in Santos.


Calixto may refer to:

Calixto Bieito (born 1963), Spanish theater director known for "radical" interpretations of classic operas

Benedito Calixto (1853–1927), Brazilian painter

Renato Ribeiro Calixto (born 1988), Brazilian footballer

Calixto R. Catáquiz (born 1948), the incumbent mayor of San Pedro, Laguna, Philippines

Irineu Calixto Couto (born 1983), Brazilian footballer

Calixto García (1839–1898), general in three Cuban uprisings, part of the Cuban War for Independence

Calixto Garcia de Luna e Izquierdo, Spanish military man

Calixto Leicea (1909–2004), Cuban musician

Calixto Oyuela (1857–1935), Argentine poet and essayist

Calixto Pérez (born 1949), retired boxer from Colombia

Calixto Bravo Villaso (1790–1878), Mexican colonel, a cousin of Nicolás Bravo

Calixto Zaldivar (1904–1979), Member of the House of Representatives of the Philippines

Domingos Jorge Velho

Domingos Jorge Velho (1641–1705) was one of the most fierce and effective Portuguese bandeirantes. He was born in Santana de Parnaíba, captaincy of São Paulo, to Francisco Jorge Velho and Francisca Gonçalves de Camargo. He was responsible for the repression of several indigenous nations in Bahia and especially Piauí, which he is reputed to have been the first colonist to explore. His greater fame, however, is due to his conquest of the Quilombo dos Palmares, in the hinterland of Alagoas, on behalf of João da Cunha Souto Maior, governor of Pernambuco. Velho accepted the assignment and, in 1694, with an army of Indians and mamelucos, European Native American offspring, overran the fortified city of Macacos, on the Serra da Barriga mountain.According to the bishop of Olinda at the time, he did not speak Portuguese fluently but rather the língua geral, a Lingua franca based on Tupian languages spoken in Brazil at that time. John Manuel Monteiro, a specialist on the subject, in Os Negros da Terra, explains that Velho not only spoke Portuguese but was indeed literate: "Actually Domingos not only spoke but he also wrote in Portuguese, what would be highly unusual for a Tapuia [...] Domingos even wrote a letter to the Portuguese King, and his recognizable signature can be identified frequently in the civil registries of Santana de Parnaíba". Velho is reputed to have had several Indian concubines, but only married in old age.

He died in Piancó, captaincy of Paraíba.

His uncle of the same name was married to Izabel Pires de Monteiro: the Captain Salvador Jorge Velho and Simão Jorge Velho were born out of this union.

Exhibition of the centenary of the opening of the Ports of Brazil

The national commemorative Exhibition of the centenary of the opening of the Ports of Brazil, also known as Brazilian National Exposition of 1908 or the National Exposition of Brazil at Rio de Janeiro, marked a hundred years since the opening of the Brazilian ports acelebrated Brazil's trade and development. It opened in Urca, Rio de Janeiro on 11 August, stayed open for 3 months and received over 1 million visitors.

First Brazilian Republic

The First Brazilian Republic or República Velha (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʁeˈpublikɐ ˈvɛʎɐ], "Old Republic") is the period of Brazilian history from 1889 to 1930. The República Velha ended with the Brazilian Revolution of 1930 that installed Getúlio Vargas as a dictator.

Harry Forssell

Harry Forssell (October 1907 - September 15, 2006) was an Olympic breaststroke swimmer from Brazil, who participated at one Summer Olympics. He was also a politician.

Forssell lived in São Paulo until around age 20. He was a member of the Associação Atlética São Paulo, participating in swimming and water polo. He won the Travessia de São Paulo a Nado, contested on the Tietê River, several times, and broke Brazilian and South American records in the 100-metre and 200-metre breaststroke.

In 1927, he moved with his family to Itanhaém. The family wanted to invest in the cultivation and marketing of bananas, for the land and climate are extremely favorable for this. In 1930 Harry's mother, Lois Forssell, built the municipality's first factory making banana products.

State champion and one of the top freestyle swimmers in the country in the 1930s, Forssell got good results and was selected for the Brazilian team that participated in the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.

During the heats of the 200-meter breaststroke Forssell faced Johnny Weissmuller, world record holder, five-time Olympic champion and on-screen Tarzan. He did not win a medal but retains the distinction of having been the first man from Itanhaém to have participated in the Olympics.

After his achievements as a sportsman, Forssell ran for mayor of Itanhaém in 1947 and was the first mayor elected by direct vote of the people in the city's history. He took office in 1948, when all the assets of the prefecture were the penitentiary (which also functioned as chamber), a cart, and a donkey. The city had just four or five employees. Despite this precarious situation, Forssell oversaw construction of the Benedito Calixto school which replaced the old, crumbling elementary school, then still in use. The new school was inaugurated in December 1951. He enabled the arrival of the first public telephone in the municipality. It opened in 1949, with a call to the State Governor. During his government, city had emancipated. His first term was from 1948 to 1951.

He ran for the office of Alderman and served from 1952 to 1955.

He ran again for mayor in 1959 and was re-elected. His second term ran from 1960 to 1963.

In 2004 his son John Carlos Neto Forssell was also elected mayor of Itanhaém.

Forssell died of natural causes at the Regional Hospital of Itanhaém on September 15, 2006, at 98 years of age. In his honor, the Educational Complex and Sports Hall was named for him.

Joseph of Anchieta

José de Anchieta y Díaz de Clavijo, S.J. (Joseph of Anchieta) (19 March 1534 – 9 June 1597) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary to the Portuguese colony of Brazil in the second half of the 16th century. A highly influential figure in Brazil's history in the first century after its European discovery, Anchieta was one of the founders of São Paulo in 1554 and of Rio de Janeiro in 1565. He is the first playwright, the first grammarian and the first poet born in the Canary Islands, and the father of Brazilian literature. Anchieta was also involved in the religious instruction and conversion to the Catholic faith of the Indian population. His efforts along with those of another Jesuit missionary, Manuel da Nóbrega, at Indian pacification were crucial to the establishment of stable colonial settlements in the colony.

With his book Arte de gramática da língua mais usada na costa do Brasil, Anchieta became the first person to provide an orthography to the Old Tupi language most commonly spoken by the indigenous people of Brazil.

Anchieta is commonly known as "the Apostle of Brazil". He was canonized by Pope Francis on 3 April 2014. He was the second native of the Canary Islands, after Peter of Saint Joseph Betancur, also a missionary to Latin America, declared a saint by the Catholic Church. Anchieta is also considered the third saint of Brazil.

José Bonifácio de Andrada

José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈzɛ buniˈfasju dʒi ɐ̃ˈdɾadɐ i ˈsiwvɐ], 13 June 1763 – 6 April 1838) was a Brazilian statesman, naturalist, professor and poet, born in Santos, São Paulo, then part of the Portuguese Empire. He was one of the most important mentors of Brazilian independence, and his actions were decisive for the success of Emperor Pedro I. He supported public education, was an abolitionist and suggested that a new national capital be created in Brazil's underdeveloped interior (effected over a century later as Brasília). His career as naturalist was marked by the discovery of four new minerals.

List of shipwrecks in 1906

The list of shipwrecks in 1906 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during 1906.

Martim Afonso de Sousa

Martim Afonso de Sousa (c. 1500 – 21 July 1564) was a Portuguese fidalgo, explorer and colonial administrator.Born in Vila Viçosa, he was commander of the first official Portuguese expedition into mainland of the colony of Brazil. Threatened by the presence of French ships along the coast of Brazil, the Portuguese crown in December 1530 sent a fleet with 400 people led by Martim Afonso de Sousa to establish control and explore. His mission was to place Portuguese markers as far south as the River Plate estuary, but he was shipwrecked there.

Upon return to São Vicente and Santos, in 1532 he led troops guided by the native inhabitants and by earlier Portuguese settlers such as João Ramalho up the Serra do Mar mountains to the area near the future village of São Paulo. On the high plateau, he founded the town of Santo André. He also established a sugar mill near the coast at São Vicente, with sugarcane brought from the Portuguese Cape Verde islands. In both activities, Afonso de Sousa established a pattern followed by Portuguese colonizers and Brazilians for long afterward: the "entradas" and "bandeiras" – or explorations and raids into the interior – and the production of sugar along the coast for export.

Sousa was the first Royal Governor of Brazil. He settled in the north-east region of the modern country.

Afonso de Sousa also acquired Diu, in India for Portugal in 1535. From 1542 to 1545 he was governor of Portuguese India.

He died in Lisbon in 1564.

Proclamation of the Republic (Brazil)

The Proclamation of the Republic (Portuguese: Proclamação da República do Brasil) was a military coup d'état that established the First Brazilian Republic on 15 November 1889. It overthrew the constitutional monarchy of the Empire of Brazil and ended the reign of Emperor Pedro II.

The proclamation of the Republic took place in Rio de Janeiro, then capital of the Empire of Brazil, when a group of military officers of the Brazilian Army, led by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, staged a coup d'état without the use of violence, deposing Emperor Pedro II and the President of the Council of Ministers of the Empire, the Viscount of Ouro Preto.

A provisional government was established that same day, 15 November, with Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca as President of the Republic and head of the interim Government.

Ricardo Brennand Institute

The Ricardo Brennand Institute (in Portuguese Instituto Ricardo Brennand, IRB) is a cultural institution located in the city of Recife, Brazil. It is a not-for-profit private organization, inaugurated in 2002 by the Brazilian collector and businessman Ricardo Brennand. It comprises a museum, an art gallery, a library and a large park.The Institute holds a permanent collection of historic and artistic objects of diversified provenience, ranging from Early Middle Ages to 20th century, with strong emphasis in objects, documents and artwork related to Colonial and Dutch Brazil, including the world's largest assemblage of paintings by Frans Post.The Institute also houses one of the largest collections of armory in the world, with 3,000 pieces, the majority of which were produced in Europe and Asia between the 14th and 19th centuries. The library has over 62 thousand volumes, ranging from 16th to 20th century, including a collection of brasiliana and other rare items.

SS Sirio

SS Sirio was an Italian merchant steamer that had a shipwreck off the eastern Spanish coast on August 4, 1906, causing the deaths of at least 150 Italian and Spanish emigrants bound for Argentina. The shipwreck gained notoriety because the captain, Giuseppe Piccone, abandoned ship at the first opportunity. The wreck had a profound effect on communities in northern Italy and was remembered in popular songs of the era.

São Paulo Museum of Sacred Art

The São Paulo Museum of Sacred Art (Portuguese: Museu de Arte Sacra de São Paulo) a museum dedicated to the collection and display of sacred art of Brazil. It is located in the Luz neighborhood of São Paulo in the left wing of the Luz Monastery, a religious institution founded in 1774 by Frei Galvão. The monastery is the only colonial building of the eighteenth century in São Paulo to preserve its original building elements, materials and structure. The monastery was listed as an architectural monument of national importance in 1943 by the National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage (IPHAN) and subsequently by the State of São Paulo Council for the Defense of the Historical, Archaeological, Artistic and Touristic Heritage (CONDEPHAAT).The museum was founded in 1970 and is maintained jointly by the State Government of São Paulo and the Archdiocese of São Paulo. The collection includes Brazilian and foreign works sacred works dating from the sixteenth century, and includes works by noted artists such as Aleijadinho, Agostinho da Piedade, Agostinho de Jesus, Valentim da Fonseca e Silva, Manoel da Costa Ataíde, José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior, and Benedito Calixto.

The Artistic-Cultural Collection of the Governmental Palaces of the State of São Paulo

The Artistic-Cultural Collection of the Governmental Palaces of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, aims to document, preserve and divulge circa 3,500 works of art of great artistic and cultural significance, which belong to the state's heritage. These works of art are located in the historical buildings of the Palácio dos Bandeirantes (Bandeirantes Palace, which is the seat of the government of São Paulo and the governor’s official residence), the Palácio do Horto (Horto Palace, the summer residence), in the city of São Paulo, and the Palácio Boa Vista (Boa Vista Palace, the winter residence), in Campos do Jordão.

The first pieces of the collection were acquired in the late Sixties, praising specially Brazilian art paintings, Baroque imagery, and artistic furniture, eclectic styles of chinaware, silver works and ornamental objects. Since then, new acquisitions have been made either by contests or donations.

The Artistic-Cultural Collection of the Paulist Palaces, as an institution that preserves the public heritage, promotes the public access to works of art of significant importance to the History of Brazilian art through exhibitions of paintings, sculptures, drafts, prints and objects. By doing this, the Collection intends to widen the production of artistic knowledge, promoting workshops with artists, guided tours, seminars and lectures on the exhibitions' themes.

The Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida

The Cathedral Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady Aparecida (Portuguese: Catedral Basílica Santuário Nacional de Nossa Senhora Aparecida) is a prominent Roman Rite Catholic basilica in Aparecida, Brazil. It is dedicated to Our Lady of Aparecida, (a variant of the Immaculate Conception) as the principal Patroness of Brazil. Nossa Senhora da Conceição Aparecida roughly translates to Our Lady of Conception Who Appeared. It is the second largest church in the world, after St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.


Tropeiro is the designation given to troop and commissions drivers of horse, cattle and mule moving between commercial regions and consumer centers in Brazil from the 17th century.

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