Ben Greene

Ben Greene (28 December 1901 – October 1978) was a British Labour Party politician and pacifist. He was interned during the Second World War because of his fascist associations and appealed to the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords against his detention. In the leading case of Liversidge v. Anderson the Law Lords declined to interfere with ministerial discretion on matters of national security and thus refused to review his detention.

Early life

Greene was born in Brazil to a mother who had been born a German national, but moved with his family to England as a child, in 1908. He attended Berkhamsted School, where his uncle, Charles Greene, was headmaster and where his cousins, Graham Greene and Hugh Greene, were also pupils. He went up to Wadham College, Oxford, but became committed to the causes of the Labour Party and the Society of Friends (Quakers), and left without graduating. Until 1923 he worked with the Society of Friends, the Save the Children Fund and the American Relief Administration in humanitarian work in Eastern Europe.[1]

Greene was motivated to get involved in politics almost solely by his belief in pacifism.[2] He returned to London and during the United Kingdom general election, 1923 he worked for Clement Attlee in the Limehouse constituency, where he met John Beckett. In 1924 Greene joined the Independent Labour Party (ILP) and soon became its liaison with Ramsay MacDonald. He fought Basingstoke in the United Kingdom general election, 1924, but without success.[1] He often felt that Labour Party policies were at odds with his pacifism.[2]

Greene got married in 1925 and became a businessman, in England and abroad, while serving on Berkhamsted Urban District Council and on Hertfordshire County Council, and becoming a Justice of the Peace (JP) in 1937. He unsuccessfully contested Gravesend against Irving Albery in 1931 and 1935. He also continued with human rights work in the Saar and Germany. By 1938 he had become disillusioned with the Labour Party, perceiving it as being in the grip of Communists, and resigned from it.[2]

Fascist friends

Shocked by conditions in Germany, Greene formed the idea that Britain should co-operate with Nazi officials in order to facilitate the emigration of as many threatened Germans as possible. However, he fell under the influence of an English-born Nazi diplomat, Ernst Wilhelm Bohle, who was all too ready to exploit his naivety. Greene briefly joined the Peace Pledge Union, and started the Peace and Progress Information Service (PPIS) to publish information provided to him by Bohle. Greene tried to connect with anyone who was opposed to war, including fascists, and even joined the British Peoples Party (BPP), becoming its treasurer.[3]

In December 1939 Greene ghosted The Truth About the War for the BPP. Attlee saw a copy, and was shocked by its "pro-Hitler" tone and its claims that the Poles had been the authors of their own misfortunes.[4] Greene was a frequent speaker at anti-war meetings, and spoke of the "danger of Jewish and American capitalists".[5]

Detention

In early 1940 Lord Hampden, in his capacity as Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire, approached Maxwell Knight of MI5 and questioned Greene's suitability as a JP. Knight felt that he had no evidence on which to seek the removal of Greene from the post. At the same time Vernon Kell was calling for action against the BPP, in particular for Greene and Beckett's internment under Defence Regulation 18B.[5]

The order to detain Greene because of his "hostile associations" was signed on 22 May 1940 and Greene was arrested on 24 May.[6] The "Reasons for Order" cited Greene's membership of the BPP and the British Council for Christian Settlement in Europe, the content of his speeches, his association with Beckett, and his communications with the German government. It also alleged that he desired to establish a National Socialist regime with the assistance of the German Army and had harboured German agents.[7] The more specific "Statement of Case" revealed that these allegations had been made by Harold Kurtz.[8]

Kurtz was an MI5 agent who posed as a National Socialist German agent recently released from internment in Britain. Kurtz entrapped Greene with another MI5 agent, Gaertner, as witness, and alleged that Greene had helped him to avoid further internment and clandestinely communicate with Germany, and had told him ways of leaving the country undetected. Kurtz also claimed that Greene had told him that there were "men in this country ready to take over the government after a German victory, men trained in and filled with the proper spirit of National Socialism—a British National Socialism".[8]

Greene denied these allegations and claimed that he had reported Kurtz's suspicious behaviour to the police. The police denied Greene's claim.[9]

First hearing of the Advisory Committee

Greene challenged his detention at the Advisory Committee headed by A. T. Miller on 24 July. Though the committee was anxious to hear from the MI5 agents who had provided statements, MI5 refused to allow them to attend and the committee accepted the statements as "substantially accurate". Greene's detention was confirmed.[10]

The Lord Chancellor's Department was advised and Greene was informed on 10 October of the intention to remove him as a JP, though he was offered the face-saving alternative of resignation. Greene was removed as a JP on 8 November.[11]

Greene's appeal

Greene's brother Edmund sought legal advice from Oswald Hickson, who had been active in internment cases from a liberal rather than a fascist motive. Hickson wrote to the Advisory Committee to protest that the "Reasons for Order" gave no particulars of the persons who had made the allegations against Greene. The committee spurned Hickson's approach, so he applied for a writ of habeas corpus. The application was heard by the Divisional Court on 21 May 1941. Greene represented himself.[12] The court dismissed Greene's application, but expressed concern about the technical errors in the drafting of the detention order and criticised the Home Secretary. It also suggested a rehearing of Greene's case.[13]

Greene appealed to the Court of Appeal while the Home Office reissued the order and the "Reasons", naming Kurtz and Gaertner as the sources of the allegations.[14] The appeal was heard by Lords Justice of Appeal Scott, MacKinnon and Goddard on 15 to 16 July. They rejected the appeal on 30 July.[14] Scott delivered the judgment of the court.[15] The court ruled that it was not able to question the discretion of the Home Secretary, honestly exercised.[16]

Greene appealed to the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords and his case was joined with that of another detainee, Robert Liversidge. The case was heard as Liversidge v. Anderson and the decision of the Court of Appeal was upheld on 3 November.[17]

Second hearing of the Advisory Committee

A second hearing by the Advisory Committee was convened in November. The committee rejected Kurtz's allegations, as having been discredited, and accepted Greene's undertaking not to hinder the war effort and to avoid contact with Beckett and Hastings Russell, 12th Duke of Bedford. Greene's detention order was revoked on 9 January 1942.[18]

A remedy for Greene

Greene sued for damages for libel and for false imprisonment. The purported libel was in the "Reasons for Order", a document protected by privilege, and to succeed in his claim for false imprisonment Greene would have to have proved that the Home Secretary made the detention order with no honest belief in the facts stated in it.[19] Hickson withdrew the action before the final judgment and costs of £1,243 were awarded against Greene. Though proceedings were started to bankrupt Greene, these were never brought to court.[20]

Later life

Greene continued to be involved in right-wing politics. He left the BPP to form the English Nationalist Association.[20]

References

  1. ^ a b Simpson (1992) p. 341.
  2. ^ a b c Simpson (1992) p. 342.
  3. ^ Simpson (1992) p. 343.
  4. ^ Simpson (1992) p. 344.
  5. ^ a b Simpson (1992) p. 345.
  6. ^ Simpson (1992) p. 346.
  7. ^ Simpson (1992) p. 347.
  8. ^ a b Simpson (1992) p. 348.
  9. ^ Simpson (1992) p. 349.
  10. ^ Simpson (1992) pp. 349–351.
  11. ^ Simpson (1992) pp. 351–352.
  12. ^ Simpson (1992) p. 357.
  13. ^ Simpson (1992) p. 360.
  14. ^ a b Simpson (1992) p. 361.
  15. ^ R v. Secretary of State for Home Affairs, ex parte Greene [1942] 1 KB 87
  16. ^ Simpson (1992) pp. 361–362.
  17. ^ Simpson (1992) pp. 362–363.
  18. ^ Simpson (1992) pp. 367–370.
  19. ^ Simpson (1992) p. 372.
  20. ^ a b Simpson (1992) p. 375.

Bibliography

  • Lewis, Jeremy (2010). Shades of Greene: One Generation of an English Family. Jonathan Cape.
  • Simpson, A. W. B. (1992). In the Highest Degree Odious: Detention without Trial in Wartime Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-825775-9.
6th Saturn Awards

The 6th Saturn Awards was the sixth ceremony in which media properties and personalities related to the science fiction, fantasy and horror which were released in the year 1978 were awarded by the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films. The ceremony was held on February 24 of 1979.

Basingstoke (UK Parliament constituency)

Basingstoke is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the U.K. Parliament. With the exception of a 1923-1924 Liberal Party MP, since modern creation in 1885 it has elected Conservative MPs, so has been a Conservative safe seat. The closest it came to a non-Conservative victory was in 2001, when they were returned with a three-figure majority. The current MP is Maria Miller.

Benjamin Greene (disambiguation)

Benjamin Greene (1780–1860) was the founder of the Greene King brewing business.

Benjamin Greene may also refer to:

Ben Greene (1901–1978), British Labour Party activist and pacifist

Benjamin Greene (politician) (1764–1837), American politician from Maine

Benjamin Buck Greene (1808–1902), Governor of the Bank of England

Benjamin Franklin Greene (1817–1895), third senior professor and first director of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Benjamin Tyler Greene (born 1983), American baseball player

British People's Party (1939)

The British People's Party (BPP) was a British far-right political party founded in 1939 and led by ex-British Union of Fascists (BUF) member and Labour Party Member of Parliament John Beckett.

Burgess Meredith

Oliver Burgess Meredith (November 16, 1907 – September 9, 1997) was an American actor, director, producer, and writer. Active for more than six decades, Meredith has been called "a virtuosic actor" and "one of the most accomplished actors of the century". A lifetime member of the Actors Studio by invitation, he won several Emmys, was the first male actor to win the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor twice, and was nominated for two Academy Awards.He established himself as a leading man in Hollywood with critically acclaimed performances as George Milton in Of Mice and Men (1939), Ernie Pyle in The Story of G.I. Joe (1945), and the narrator of A Walk in the Sun (1945).

Meredith was known later in his career for his appearances on The Twilight Zone and for portraying arch-villain The Penguin on the 1960s TV series Batman and boxing trainer Mickey Goldmill in the Rocky film series. For his performances in The Day of the Locust (1975) and Rocky (1976), he received nominations for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. He later starred in the comedy Foul Play (1978) and the fantasy film Clash of the Titans (1981). He narrated numerous films and documentaries during his long career, including Twilight Zone: The Movie (1983)."Although those performances renewed his popularity," observed Mel Gussow in The New York Times, "they represented only a small part of a richly varied career in which he played many of the more demanding roles in classical and contemporary theater—in plays by Shakespeare, O'Neill, Beckett and others."

Conveyer (band)

Conveyer is an American metalcore band from Eau Claire, Wisconsin. The band started making music in 2011. They self released their first album, Worn Out in 2013, and studio album, When Given Time to Grow, in 2015, through Victory Records. Their former vocalist, Carter Daniels, left the band in 2014, and he was replaced by Danny "Big D" Adams from Indiana.

The band released their new record "No Future" on June 23, 2017 via Victory Records. The band recorded at Silver Bullet Studios with Greg Thomas (Misery Signals, Shai Hulud, With Honor) and Chris Teti (The World Is a Beautiful Place & I Am No Longer Afraid to Die).

Day of Vengeance (band)

Day of Vengeance is an American Christian hardcore punk and metalcore band from Bradenton, Florida. The band started making music in 2009. Their membership is Josiah Hughes, Steven Spahn, and Richard Tosch. The band released an extended play, Day of Vengeance, in 2011, with Red Cord Records. They released three studio albums, He Who Has Ears, in 2010, Star Breather, in 2012, and, Crutchless, in 2013, all these were with Red Cord Records.

Fourplay (film)

Fourplay (also known as Londinium) is a romantic comedy film released in 2001.

G. B. Greene Jr.

George Benjamin "Ben" Greene Jr. (April 20, 1914 – August 15, 1998) was an American Air Force major general who was commander of Lackland Military Training Center, Air Training Command, and Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas. In the dual capacity he was responsible for the operation of one of the largest installations in the Air Force as well as for the direction of a wide range of training functions at the base.

Greene was born in Laurens, South Carolina, in 1914. After graduating from high school in Anderson, South Carolina, he attended Clemson University, obtaining his bachelor of science degree in 1935.

He was appointed a second lieutenant in the Organized Reserve Corps, June 4, 1935, enlisted as an aviation cadet in January 1937, and completed flying training and received his pilot wings at Kelly Field, Texas, in January 1938.

Greene was then assigned to the 8th Pursuit Group, Langley Field, Virginia, as a pilot and group engineering officer. He became commander of the 35th Pursuit Squadron in December 1941 and moved with it to the Pacific Theater of Operations, serving in New Guinea. He flew 68 combat missions totaling 200 combat hours, all in fighter aircraft, and destroyed three enemy aircraft in air-to-air combat, four on the ground, and one on the water.

Greene was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross by General Douglas MacArthur for extraordinary heroism displayed over New Guinea on April 30, 1942. He received the Silver Star for gallantry in action over Port Morseby, New Guinea, and was awarded the Air Medal for meritorious achievement while participating in aerial flights in the Southwest Pacific area.

Upon his return to the United States in 1943, Greene assumed command of the 423d Reconnaissance Group at De Ridder, Louisiana. In September 1943 he was transferred to Drew Field, Florida, as Assistant A-3 (Operations) for the 3d Fighter Command and later was assigned to the Third Air Force as deputy director of operations and training. In 1946 the Third Air Force became the Tactical Air Command with headquarters at Langley Field, and he served as assistant chief of staff, A-3, of TAC until October 1947.

Greene next was assigned to the 6th Fighter Wing in the Canal Zone as assistant chief of staff, A-3 (Operations). From August 1948 to August 1950 he served with the Caribbean Air Command. His next assignment took him to Stewart Air Force Base, New York, where he served with the Eastern Air Defense Forces.

In August 1951, he went to New Castle County Airport, Delaware, as commander of the 113th Fighter Interceptor Wing and later commanded the 4710th Defense Wing. In August 1952 he entered the Air War College at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, and after graduation in July 1953 he was assigned as commander of the 4708th Defense Wing at Selfridge Air Force Base, Michigan

He became deputy chief of staff for personnel, Air Defense Command, in July 1956; and he was named chief of staff of ADC in July 1959. Moving to Ramstein Air Base, Germany, in August 1960, he became deputy commander of the Seventeenth Air Force. In August 1961 he was named deputy chief of staff for operations at Headquarters, U.S. Air Forces in Europe, Wiesbaden, Germany.

Greene returned to the United States and became director of military personnel, Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, at U.S. Air Force Headquarters in July 1963. He moved to the U.S. Air Force Military Personnel Center at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas, in July 1965,to become the assistant deputy chief of staff/personnel for military personnel, the new designation for the military functions which had been moved from Washington to Randolph.

In July 1967, he was assigned as commander of the Lackland Military Training Center, Air Training Command, and as commander of Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. He retired August 1, 1970. He later died in 1998.His decorations include the Distinguished Service Medal, Distinguished Service Cross, Silver Star, Legion of Merit and the Air Medal.

Gravesend (UK Parliament constituency)

Gravesend was a county constituency centred on the town of Gravesend, Kent which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1868 until it was abolished for the 1983 general election. It is most notable for being a bellwether, with the winner of Gravesend (and its successor Gravesham) winning every election from 1918 through to the present day except for 1929, 1951, and 2005.

Magic (1978 film)

Magic is a 1978 American psychological horror film starring Anthony Hopkins, Ann-Margret and Burgess Meredith. The film, which was directed by Richard Attenborough, is based on a screenplay by William Goldman, who also wrote the novel upon which it was based. The score was composed by Jerry Goldsmith.

Mike Binder

Mike Binder (born June 2, 1958) is an award winning American film director, screenwriter, producer, and actor.

Oswald Hickson

Oswald Squire Hickson (2 April 1877 – 9 January 1944) was an English lawyer, particularly known for his work in defamation litigation and in human rights cases during World War II.

As a youth, Hickson played cricket for Northamptonshire in 1897 and 1898 in the Minor Counties Championship. He was educated at University College, London and admitted as a solicitor in 1902. He started work in London and helped build the reputation of the firm Oswald Hickson, Collier and Co..During World War II, Hickson came to act for a number of people interned in England under Defence Regulation 18B, most famously Ben Greene, whose appeal against detention was ultimately rejected by the House of Lords in the landmark case of Liversidge v. Anderson (sic). Greene's brother, Edward, described Hickson: "He rather reminded me of a character out of Dickens; big fellow, huge fellow, hair standing all on end."Greene was eventually released when MI5 agent provocateur Harald Kurtz, who had given the key evidence against him, was exposed, largely through Hickson's efforts.He served on the Lord Chancellor's committee to report on the Law of Defamation.

Richard Schreder

Richard E. Schreder (25 September 1915 – 2 August 2002) was an American naval aviator and sailplane developer, responsible for design and development of the HP/RS-series kit sailplanes marketed from 1962 until about 1982. Schreder also founded and ran Airmate, a successful drafting supplies company.

Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor

The following is a list of Saturn Award winners and nominees for Best Supporting Actor (in a film). Burgess Meredith, Ian McKellen and Andy Serkis are the only actors that have won the award twice, while only Javier Bardem and Heath Ledger have won both the Saturn Award and the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for the same performance.

Schempp-Hirth Standard Austria

The Standard Austria was a single-seat aerobatic glider that was originally designed and built in Austria from 1959 but production was moved in 1962 to Schempp-Hirth in Germany.

Schleicher ASW 12

The ASW 12, initially known as the AS 12, is a single-seat Sailplane of glass composite construction. The wing is shoulder mounted and it has a T-tail. It is essentially a developed production version of the Akaflieg Darmstadt D-36.

Wally Scott

Wallace Aiken Scott (July 4, 1924 – February 8, 2003) was an American aviator and author, a holder of several international sailplane records, and a multi-time recipient of the Lewin B. Barringer trophy awarded for the longest, free-distance, sailplane flight of each year made in the United States. Over 36 years Wallace Wally Scott increased the distance flown in a sailplane.Scott became a pioneer of free-distance, straight-out, soaring flight and won 4 Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI)-certified, world soaring records, 20 Lewin B. Barringer Trophies, and numerous other awards and honors, including induction into the Soaring Hall of Fame in 1965.Scott flew various sailplanes more than 300,000 miles while twice winning the transcontinental Smirnoff Sailplane Derby race, the longest sailplane race in the world. On July 26, 1970, he and Ben Greene co-set the world distance record of 716.95 miles, both flying ASW-12 sailplanes.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.