Ben Bagdikian

Ben Haig Bagdikian[2] (January 30, 1920 – March 11, 2016) was an Armenian-American journalist, news media critic and commentator,[3] and university professor.

An Armenian Genocide survivor, Bagdikian moved to the United States as an infant and began a journalism career after serving in World War II. He worked as a local reporter, investigative journalist and foreign correspondent for The Providence Journal. During his time there, he won a Peabody Award and a Pulitzer Prize. In 1971, he received parts of the Pentagon Papers from Daniel Ellsberg and successfully persuaded the Washington Post to publish them despite objections and threats from the Richard Nixon administration. Bagdikian later taught at the University of California, Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism and served as its dean from 1985 to 1988.

Bagdikian was a noted critic of the news media.[4] His 1983 book The Media Monopoly, warning about the growing concentration of corporate ownership of news organizations, went through several editions and influenced, among others, Noam Chomsky. Bagdikian has been hailed for his ethical standards and has been described by Robert W. McChesney as one of the finest journalists of the 20th century.

Ben H. Bagdikian
Ben Bagdikian
Bagdikian in 1976
Ben-Hur Haig Bagdikian

January 30, 1920
Marash, Aleppo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire (present-day Kahramanmaraş, Turkey)
DiedMarch 11, 2016 (aged 96)
NationalityArmenian American
Alma materClark University
OccupationReporter, critic, professor
Years active1947–1990
Notable work
The Media Monopoly
AwardsPeabody Award (1950)
Military career
Allegiance United States
Service/branch Army Air Forces
Years of service1942−1946[1]
RankUS Air Force O2 shoulderboard.svg First lieutenant

Personal life


Ben-Hur Haig Bagdikian,[5][6] born in Marash, Ottoman Empire, on January 30, 1920, was the fifth and youngest child of Aram Toros/Theodore Bagdikian[7] (1882−1957) and Dudeh "Daisy" Uvezian (1886−1923).[8] He had four sisters.[9] His mother's family was well-off, while his father came from a peasant family. He did graduate work at the American University of Beirut.[7] The family was mostly based in Tarsus, where his father taught physics and chemistry at St. Paul's College in Tarsus, run by Boston Congregationalists.[6][10][7] His family knew English well.[11] His father also spoke Armenian, Turkish, Arabic, and the learned the Biblical languages.[12]

His family left Marash on February 9, 1920, just ten days after Ben was born. They left during the Armenian Genocide,[8] as Turkish forces reached the city, while the French retreated.[13] While escaping persecution, the infant was dropped in the snow in the mountains while the family was climbing, thinking he was dead, but was picked up only when he began to cry.[5][14] They arrived, first, in Boston and subsequently settled in Stoneham, Massachusetts. His father was a pastor at several Armenian churches in the Boston area (in Watertown, Cambridge) and Worcester. He had taken courses at the Harvard Divinity School and had been ordained.[15] His mother was diagnosed with tuberculosis almost immediately after arrival in Boston and died three years later, after spending some time hospitalized in sanitariums.[6][16]

Bagdikian was known throughout his life as Ben, though his baptismal name was Ben-Hur, after the Christian-themed historical novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ by Lew Wallace.[14] Bagdikian grew up during the Great Depression, which, according to Robert D. McFadden, enforced a "passion for social justice that shaped his reporting."[8] He described himself as an "Armenian overlaid by, of all things, the culture of New England Yankee."[14]


Due to his father's role, Bagdikian regularly attended sermons and "disliked the avenging God of the Old Testament and was outraged when Abraham was prepared to obey the order to sacrifice his son as a gesture of faith."[10] Later in adulthood, Bagdikian became a member of the First Unitarian Church of Providence, a Unitarian Universalist congregation in Rhode Island.[10]

Education and military service

Bagdikian initially aspired to become a doctor because of his mother's illness and his father's collection of books on pulmonary diseases that he read.[17] He graduated from Stoneham High School in 1937.[18] He thereafter attended Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts, as a pre-medical student.[10] He was editor of The Clark News, the college newspaper. He renamed it to The Clark Scarlet, based on the school's colors. The university president, Wallace Walter Atwood, suspected it was too closely associated with communism.[19][20] Having taken many chemistry courses he sought to apply for a job as a chemist upon graduating from Clark in 1941.[18][14] He had the opportunity to work as a lab assistant at Monsanto in Springfield, Massachusetts.[21]

He served as a navigator (first lieutenant) in the United States Army Air Forces from May 1942 to January 1946.[1][8] He had volunteered to joined the Air Forces immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941.[22]


Bagdikian married Elizabeth (Betty) Ogasapian in 1942, with whom he had two sons: Aram Christopher "Chris" Bagdikian (1944−2015) and Frederick, Jr. "Eric" Bagdikian (born 1951). They divorced in 1972.[6][8] His second marriage, to Betty Medsger, a Washington Post reporter, ended in divorce as well.[5] His third wife was Marlene Griffith, whom he married in 1983.[6][8]


Bagdikian died at his home in Berkeley, California, on March 11, 2016, aged 96.[8][23] A memorial service was held at the Unitarian Universalist Church of Berkeley on June 2, 2016.[24]


Throughout his career, Bagdikian contributed to more than 200 national magazines and journals.[25]

During his college years Bagdikian worked as a reporter for the Worcester Gazette and Springfield Morning Union.[17][26] After World War II he briefly joined the staff of Flying Traveler, a magazine for private flying in New York.[27]

The Providence Journal

Bagdikian began working for the Providence Journal in 1947 as a reporter and Washington bureau chief. He also served as a local reporter. Bagdikian and Journal editor and publisher Sevellon Brown won a Peabody Award in 1951 for their "most exacting, thorough and readable check-up of broadcasts" of Walter Winchell, Drew Pearson, and Fulton Lewis, leading TV and radio commentators.[14][5] He was a member of the staff that received the 1953 Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting, Edition Time for coverage of a bank robbery in East Providence (including an ensuing police chase and hostage standoff) that resulted in the death of a patrolman.[28][8] Bagdikian later described the paper as one of the better papers, besides their pro-Republican and anti-union editorials.[29]

As a foreign correspondent in the Middle East, he covered the Suez Crisis in the fall of 1956 riding with an Israeli tank crew.[8] In 1957, Bagdikian covered the civil rights movement, especially the crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas.[30] In the fall of that year he traveled to the South with black reporter James "Jim" N. Rhea[28][14] to cover the widespread discontent of the whites with the Supreme Court order to desegregate public schools.[31]


Bagdikian began a freelance career after leaving the Providence Journal in 1961.[14] He researched media matters at the Library of Congress with the Guggenheim Fellowship he was awarded in 1961.[32][26] Subsequently, he was a Washington-based contributing editor of The Saturday Evening Post from 1963 to 1967. He also wrote for The New York Times Magazine when he focused on social issues, such as poverty, housing, migration. Bagdikian researched news media at the RAND Corporation in 1969–70 and published a book titled The Information Machines: Their Impact on Men and the Media in 1971․ Edwin B. Parker of Stanford University praised the report for its readability, and breadth and depth of Bagdikian's "perception of technological and economic trends and his insight into potential social and political consequences."[33]

The Washington Post

Bagdikian joined The Washington Post in 1970 and later served as its assistant managing editor and in 1972 its second ombudsman as a representative of the readers.[8][5]

In June 1971 Bagdikian, as the assistant managing editor for national news at the Post, met with Daniel Ellsberg, a military analyst, who passed him 4,000 pages of the Pentagon Papers, excerpts from which were published by The New York Times days earlier and halted by a federal judge.[5] While the Post lawyers and management were opposed,[34] Bagdikian argued strongly in favor of publication of the documents despite pressure from the Nixon administration not to on national security grounds.[8] Bagdikian famously stated: "the (only) way to assert the right to publish is to publish."[5][35][36][37][38] The first part was published by the Post on June 18, 1971.[39] William Rehnquist phoned Post executive editor Ben Bradlee and threatened him with prosecution if the publication of the documents was not stopped. In a landmark decision, the Supreme Court decided 6–3 that "to exercise prior restraint, the Government must show sufficient evidence that the publication would cause a 'grave and irreparable' danger."[5]

Just months after the publication of the Pentagon Papers Bagdikian became an undercover inmate at the Huntingdon State Correctional Institution, a maximum-security prison in Pennsylvania, to expose the harsh prison conditions.[8] With permission from the attorney general of Pennsylvania, he disguised himself as a murderer to observe the prison life without the knowledge of anyone inside the prison. He remained there for six days and his eight-part series on the conditions of the prison were published in the Post from January 29 to February 6, 1972.[40] He reported "widespread racial tension behind bars, outbursts of violence, open 'homosexualism' and an elaborate, yet fragile, code of etiquette." Bagdikian and Post reporter Leon Dash published the series first as a report in 1972 and later as a book (1976).[41][5]

Bagdikian left the Post in August 1972 after clashing with Bradlee "as a conduit of outside and internal complaints."[5][42]

UC Berkeley

Bagdikian wrote for the Columbia Journalism Review from 1972 to 1974.[8] He taught at University of California, Berkeley from 1976 until his retirement in 1990. He taught courses such as Introduction to Journalism and Ethics in Journalism.[43] He was the dean of the UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism from 1985 to 1988.[8][14] He was named Professor Emeritus upon departure.[44]

Media criticism

In an interview with PBS's Frontline Bagdikian stated that while the First Amendment allows newspapers to print anything, especially unpopular things, newspapers have an implied moral obligation to be responsible, because of their power on popular opinion and because the First Amendment was "framed with the supposition that there would be multiple sources of information."[46]

Bagdikian was an early advocate of in-house critics, or ombudsmen in newspapers, who he believed, would "address public concerns about journalistic practices."[5] He described the treatment of news about tobacco and related health issues as "one of the original sins of the media," because "for decades, there was suppression of medical evidence ... plain suppression."[46] Bagdikian criticized the wide use of anonymous sources in news media, the acceptance of government narratives by reporters, particularly on "national security" grounds.[8] Bagdikian formulated a law, dubbed the Bagdikian Law of Journalism: "The accuracy of news reports of an event is inversely proportional to the number of reporters on the scene."[8]

He was a harsh critic of TV news and the celebrity status of news anchors, which he argued, was the "worst thing that can happen to a journalist." He noted, "The job of the celebrity is to be observed, to make sure others learn about him or her, to be the object of attention rather than an observer."[8] Bagdikian stressed the importance of local media. He argued that only locally based journalism can adequately report the local issues and candidates, otherwise "voters become captives of the only alternative information, paid political propaganda, or no information at all."[45] Regarding online journalism, Bagdikian stated that although there is "lots of junk on it, but it’s still an outlet for an independent with no money but plenty of ingenuity and skill, like It’s not controlled by the corporations. Not yet."[14]

Bagdikian was a regular New York Times reader, and appreciated The Nation, The Progressive, alternative radio, The New York Review of Books; he also read Time and Newsweek to "get a view of the total picture most magazine readers are getting." He also occasionally read the National Review and The Weekly Standard "to know what the right is thinking." Bagdikian recommended The Nation, The Progressive and Newsweek for those who wanted to stay informed but have limited time to do so.[14]

In 1987 Bagdikian testified on the effects of profit on news reporting before the House Energy Subcommittee on Communications and Technology, along with economist John Kenneth Galbraith.[47] Both Galbraith and Bagdikian voiced their concerns about the takeover of TV networks by large corporations.[48]


Bagdikian's first book, In the Midst of Plenty: The Poor in America, was published in 1964 by Beacon Press and covered various categories of poverty in America, including the poor in Appalachia, the elderly in Los Angeles, men in flophouses in Chicago, and others.[14] His studies at the RAND Corporation produced two books: The Information Machines: Their Impact on Men and the Media and The Effete Conspiracy and Other Crimes by the Press, published by Harper & Row in 1971 and 1972, respectively.[49]

His memoir, Double Vision: Reflections on My Heritage, Life and Profession, was published by Beacon Press in 1995.[8][50]

The Media Monopoly

In 1983 Bagdikian authored a widely cited and acclaimed work,[51] The Media Monopoly, which was published by Beacon Press after it was rejected by Simon & Schuster.[52][53] Richard E. Snyder, Simon & Schuster's president, was, according to Bagdikian, "vehemently opposed to the manuscript, because, among other reasons, [Snyder] felt it made all corporations look bad."[54] The book describes the increasing concentration of the media in the US in the hands of corporate owners, which, he argued, threatened freedom of expression and independent journalism. He wrote that some 50 corporations controlled what most people in the United States read and watched.[8] Bagdikian argued that "media power is political power."[55] The book went into 5 more editions—in 1987, 1990, 1993, 1997, 2000. In 2004, The New Media Monopoly was published, essentially the 7th edition of the original.[14] In 2000 Bagdikian stated, "Every edition has been considered by some to be alarmist and every edition ends up being too conservative."[56] In this latest version, Bagdikian wrote that the number of corporations controlling most of the media decreased to 5: Disney, News Corporation, Time Warner, Viacom, and Bertelsmann.[57] He argued, "This gives each of the five corporations and their leaders more communications power than was exercised by any despot or dictatorship in history."[8]

The book became a "standard text for many college classes"[58] and, according to Neil Henry, a classic that, along with Manufacturing Consent by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, is the "most widely cited scholarly work about the effects of economics on modern news media practices, including market and political pressures that determine news content."[59] The book was criticized by some for alleged bias and inaccuracies.[60] The Christian Science Monitor, though noting such problems, declared that it is a "groundbreaking work that charts a historic shift in the orientation of the majority of America's communications media—further away from the needs of the individual and closer to those of big business."[61]

Political views

Bagdikian was a self-proclaimed advocate for social justice.[4] He described the McCarthy era as "very reactionary."[29] In 1997 Bagdikian opined that "criticizing capitalism has never been a popular subject in the general news."[62] In the 2000 U.S. presidential election Bagdikian endorsed Ralph Nader, the Green Party candidate. He was a founding member of the grassroots network Armenians for Nader. He stated: "I think Ralph Nader has already powerfully defined the issues in this campaign and has had influence on the positions of both major party candidates."[63] He argued that "there's a natural hostility among corporate organizations toward Nader, because they see him as the person who's embarrassed them endlessly and sees them as part of the national political problem."[64]

He appeared on KPFK along with Serj Tankian and Peter Balakian on April 24, 2005 to talk about the Armenian Genocide.[65]

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) had a 200-page file on Bagdikian spanning from 1951 to 1971. One document described him as well known in FBI files as a "writer who has criticized the FBI in the past. He has made snide remarks relative to" FBI director J. Edgar Hoover and "some of his work has been described [specifically, by Hoover] as 'utter bunk'."[66] When Bagdikian requested all his FBI record under the Freedom of Information Act in 1975, the FBI withheld records on the part he played in the Pentagon Papers case. They were not released until 2018.[67]

Legacy and recognition

C. Edwin Baker describes Bagdikian as "probably the most quoted, certainly one of the most acute, commentators on media ownership."[68] Arthur S. Hayes, Fordham University professor, wrote in his 2008 book Press Critics Are the Fifth Estate that Bagdikian has been "farsighted, inspirational, influential, long lasting, and a forerunner."[69][5] Sociologist Alfred McClung Lee praised Bagdikian as having the virtues of both an investigative journalist and a participant-observing social scientist.[70] Robert D. McFadden of The New York Times called Bagdikian "a celebrated voice of conscience for his profession, calling for tougher standards of integrity and public service in an era of changing tastes and technology."[8] Edward Wasserman, the dean of the UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism at the time of his death, Bagdikian was a "major figure in 20th century US journalism and journalism education, and we’re all his beneficiaries."[71][26] Jeff Cohen, the founder of the media watch group Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) stated:

From Day One, no journalist more influenced FAIR’s standard media critique than Ben Bagdikian. The first edition of his Media Monopoly was our bible.[72]

Robert W. McChesney, who cites Bagdikian as one of the strongest influences on him, called Bagdikian one of the finest journalists of the 20th century.[73] McChesney argued that Bagdikian was "certainly accorded more respect by working journalists" than Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, the authors of Manufacturing Consent, due to their perceived radicalism, in contrast to Bagdikian's liberal views.[74] Progressive journalist and writer John Nichols, writing for the Nation, called Bagdikian a "pioneering media reformer."[45] He said of Bagdikian in an interview with Democracy Now!:

He was our great inspiration. [...] If you were to ask Noam Chomsky and so many other folks who have really identified the challenges of media today, they all go back to Bagdikian, this incredible journalist, an Armenian-American immigrant who became the best in his field and then stepped out of his field, became a critic and a commentator, and essentially said, "Look, this monopolization is going to put so much power in a handful of corporate elites that we will begin to lose journalism." Clearly, that has happened.[75]

The Pentagon Papers controversy at the Washington Post was recounted in the 2017 Steven Spielberg film The Post, where Bagdikian was played by Bob Odenkirk.[76]

Awards and honors

Bagdikian received honorary degrees, among others, from[25] Brown University (Doctor of Humane Letters, 1961),[80] Clark University (Doctor of Letters, 1963),[19] Berkeley Citation from University of California, Berkeley (equivalent of an honorary degree, 1990),[81][26] University of Rhode Island (Doctor of Letters, 1992).[82] He was the commencement speaker of the 1972 Journalism Convocation of Northwestern University.[83]

The fellowship program of the progressive magazine Mother Jones is named for Bagdikian due to his "professional record, his personal integrity, and his commitment to social justice."[84]

Bagdikian was inducted into the Rhode Island Heritage Hall of Fame on October 30, 2016. According to the board he had "long and significant ties to Rhode Island."[85]


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External links

Beacon Press

Beacon Press is an American non-profit book publisher. Founded in 1854 by the American Unitarian Association, it is currently a department of the Unitarian Universalist Association.

Bob Odenkirk

Robert John Odenkirk (born October 22, 1962) is an American actor, comedian, writer, director, and producer. He is best known for his role as smooth-talking lawyer Saul Goodman/Jimmy McGill on the AMC crime drama series Breaking Bad and its spin-off Better Call Saul, and for the HBO sketch comedy series Mr. Show with Bob and David, which he co-created and starred in with fellow comic and friend David Cross.From the late 1980s to 1990s, Odenkirk worked as a writer for television shows Saturday Night Live and The Ben Stiller Show, winning two Emmys for his work. He also wrote for Late Night with Conan O'Brien, Get a Life, and acted in a recurring role as Agent Stevie Grant in The Larry Sanders Show. In the early 2000s, Odenkirk discovered the comedy duo Tim & Eric and produced their television series Tom Goes to the Mayor and Tim and Eric Awesome Show, Great Job! He directed three films, Melvin Goes to Dinner (2003), Let's Go to Prison (2006), and The Brothers Solomon (2007). He was also an executive producer of the sketch comedy show The Birthday Boys, developing the show with the comedy group after seeing their work at the Upright Citizens Brigade Theatre in Los Angeles. In 2015, he and David Cross reunited, along with the rest of the Mr. Show cast, for W/ Bob & David on Netflix. Odenkirk co-wrote, produced and starred in the Netflix original film Girlfriend's Day which was released in 2017.

The success of Breaking Bad and Better Call Saul led to acting work in high-profile projects, such as Nebraska, directed by Alexander Payne, Fargo, written by Noah Hawley, The Post, directed by Steven Spielberg, and Disney/Pixar's Incredibles 2, written and directed by Brad Bird.

Corporate media

Corporate media is mass media production, distribution, ownership, and funding which is dominated by corporations and their CEOs. It is sometimes used as a pejorative term in place of mainstream media, which tends to also be used as a derisive term, to indicate a media system that does not serve the public interest.

Gravel v. United States

Gravel v. United States, 408 U.S. 606 (1972), was a case regarding the protections offered by the Speech or Debate Clause of the United States Constitution. In the case, the Supreme Court of the United States held that the privileges and immunities of the Constitution's Speech or Debate Clause enjoyed by members of Congress also extend to Congressional aides, but not to activity outside the legislative process.

James Madison Award

The James Madison Award is administered by the American Library Association, which describes the award:

The award named for President James Madison was established in 1989 and is presented annually on the anniversary of his birth to honor individuals or groups who have championed, protected and promoted public access to government information and the public's right to know at the national level.

James Madison Freedom of Information Award

The James Madison Freedom of Information Award is a San Francisco Bay Area honor given to individuals and organizations who have made significant contributions to the advancement of freedom of expression, particularly freedom of information (as in freedom of information legislation and open government).

The award is intended to reflect the spirit of former U.S. statesman and president James Madison, traditionally regarded as the "Father of the United States Constitution" and primary author behind the George Mason-inspired United States Bill of Rights, and in particular the First Amendment.

The award goes to media and community organizations, journalists, students, and citizens from the nine-county Bay Area who have defended public access to government meetings, public records, and court proceedings, or who have furthered other more general issues of freedom of expression and information.

List of Armenian Americans

This is a list of notable Armenian-Americans, including both original immigrants who obtained American citizenship and their American descendants.

American Armenians are people born, raised, or who reside in the United States, with origins in the country known as Armenia, which ranges from the Caucasian mountain range to the Armenian plateau. There has been sporadic emigration from Armenia to the U.S. since the late 19th century, with the biggest influx coming after the Armenian Genocide of the early 20th century. The largest community is based in Los Angeles; however, other sizeable communities exist in Boston, Detroit and the New York metropolitan area.

Statistics from the United States 2000 Census, 385,488 Americans indicated either full or partial Armenian ancestry.

List of Peabody Award winners (1950–1959)

Peabody Award winners and honorable mentions.

Lists of Armenians

This is a list of notable Armenians.

Los Angeles Crusade (1949)

The Los Angeles Crusade of 1949 was the first great evangelistic campaign of Billy Graham. It was organized by the Christian group Christ for Greater Los Angeles. The campaign was scheduled for three weeks, but it was extended to eight weeks. During the campaign Graham spoke to 350,000 people, by the end, 3,000 of them decided to convert to Christianity. It was subsequently described as the greatest revival since the time of Billy Sunday. After this crusade Graham became a national figure in the United States.

Massachusetts Historical Society

The Massachusetts Historical Society is a major historical archive specializing in early American, Massachusetts, and New England history. It is located at 1154 Boylston Street in Boston, Massachusetts and is the oldest historical society in the United States, having been established in 1791.

The Society's building was constructed in 1899 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. In 2016, The Boston Landmarks Commission designated it a Boston Landmark.

Shadows of Liberty

Shadows of Liberty is a 2012 British documentary film directed by Canadian filmmaker Jean-Philippe Tremblay. The documentary examines the impact of corporate media and concentration of media ownership on journalism and the news. It is based on the book The Media Monopoly by Ben Bagdikian. The film’s title is borrowed from a Thomas Paine quote: "When men yield up the privilege of thinking, the last shadow of liberty quits the horizon."

The film portrays the U.S. media, including the major TV networks, as controlled by fewer and larger conglomerates that exercise extraordinary political social and economic power. It is structured around 14 vignettes that allege censorship at the U.S. networks, including the 1996 TWA 800 air disaster controversy and Nike sweatshops in Asia. It also alleges how the investigation of these stories have cost the jobs, and in some cases the lives, of investigating journalists (as suggested by the case of Gary Webb who committed suicide in 2004. It features interviews with journalists, activists and academics including Amy Goodman, Danny Glover, Julian Assange, Dan Rather, David Simon, Norman Solomon, Robert Baer, Roberta Baskin, Robert W. McChesney, Daniel Ellsberg, Chris Hedges and Kristina Borjesson.

Speech or Debate Clause

The Speech or Debate Clause is a clause in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 6, Clause 1). The clause states that members of both Houses of Congress

...shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their attendance at the Session of their Respective Houses, and in going to and from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

The intended purpose is to prevent a President or other officials of the executive branch from having members arrested on a pretext to prevent them from voting a certain way or otherwise taking actions with which the President might disagree.

A similar clause in many state constitutions protects members of state legislatures in the United States. Legislators in non-U.S. jurisdictions may be protected by a similar doctrine of parliamentary immunity.

Steve Linde

Steve Linde is a former editor-in-chief of The Jerusalem Post (2011-2016) and since 2017 serves as editor-in-chief of The Jerusalem Report.Linde was born in Harare, Zimbabwe, on April 23, 1960, and grew up in Durban, South Africa. As a 15-year-old, he attended a four-month "ulpan" study program at Jerusalem’s Kiryat Moriah, which he said "cemented my love of Israel forever." He matriculated in 1977 from Carmel College in Durban, where he was head boy and earned an honors blazer with colors in academics, athletics, rugby and debating. After a one-year program at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem's Rothberg International School, he received a bachelor's degree in Journalism and Media Studies from Rhodes University, where he won a scholarship from the Daily Dispatch newspaper. He went on to complete graduate degrees in sociology from the University of Kwazulu-Natal in Durban, and journalism from the University of California at Berkeley. He wrote his sociology thesis on the emergence of Mohandas Gandhi as a charismatic leader in South Africa (under the supervision of Fatima Meer), and his journalism thesis on the homeless in Berkeley (under the supervision of Ben Bagdikian and Bernard Taper).

Linde immigrated to Israel in 1988 and served in the IDF Artillery Corps. He was a popular radio broadcaster for 21 years (1990-2011), working as an editor, reporter, news reader and for five years as director of English News at Kol Yisrael (Israel Radio). He was at The Jerusalem Post for 20 years (1997-2017), doing stints as night editor, news editor, managing editor and editor-in-chief. Under his five-year editorship, the newspaper boosted its international stature, launching annual conferences in New York for its American readership and in Jerusalem for the foreign diplomatic corps posted in Israel. At the Jerusalem Post Diplomatic Conference in 2013, which Linde called the highlight of his career, he interviewed Israel's Ninth President Shimon Peres in front of an audience of diplomats, VIP guests and journalists at the Daniel Herzliya Hotel. At the Fifth Annual Jerusalem Post Conference in New York on May 22, 2016, when he handed over to his successor, Yaakov Katz, Linde interviewed actor Michael Douglas and media personality Dr. Ruth Westheimer at the New York Marriott Marquis before an audience of some 1,500 people. He has served as a judge for the Israeli schools' Debating Matters Competition, the Sia'h VaSig Harry Hurwitz Public Speaking Competition and the Sylvan Adams Nefesh B'Nefesh Bonei Zion Prize for outstanding English-speaking immigrants to Israel.

The Post (film)

The Post is a 2017 American historical political thriller film directed and produced by Steven Spielberg, and written by Liz Hannah and Josh Singer. It stars Meryl Streep as Katharine Graham, the first female publisher of a major American newspaper, and Tom Hanks as Ben Bradlee, the executive editor of The Washington Post, with Sarah Paulson, Bob Odenkirk, Tracy Letts, Bradley Whitford, David Cross, Bruce Greenwood, Carrie Coon, Alison Brie, and Matthew Rhys in supporting roles. Set in 1971, The Post depicts the true story of attempts by journalists at The Washington Post to publish the Pentagon Papers, classified documents regarding the 30-year involvement of the United States government in the Vietnam War.

Principal photography began in New York City in May 2017. The film premiered at the Newseum in Washington, D.C. on December 14, 2017, and went into limited release in the United States on December 22, 2017. It entered wide release on January 12, 2018, and grossed $179 million worldwide.

The film received positive reviews: critics praised the performances—particularly those of Streep, Hanks, and Odenkirk—and the film's references and allusions to the presidencies of Richard Nixon and Donald Trump. The Post was chosen by the National Board of Review as the best film of 2017 and was named as one of the top 10 films of the year by Time and the American Film Institute. The Post was nominated for Best Picture and Best Actress (for Streep) at the 90th Academy Awards, and received six nominations at the 75th Golden Globe Awards: Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Director, Best Actress – Drama (for Streep), Best Actor – Drama (for Hanks), Best Screenplay, and Best Original Score.

The Providence Journal

The Providence Journal, nicknamed the ProJo, is a daily newspaper serving the metropolitan area of Providence, Rhode Island, and is the largest newspaper in Rhode Island. The newspaper was first published in 1829 and is the oldest continuously-published daily newspaper in the United States. The newspaper has won four Pulitzer Prizes.

The Journal bills itself as "America's oldest daily newspaper in continuous publication", a distinction that comes from the fact that The Hartford Courant, started in 1764, did not become a daily until 1837 and the New York Post, which began daily publication in 1801, had to suspend publication during strikes in 1958 and 1978.The paper's history has reflected the waxing and waning of newspaper popularity throughout the United States.

UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism

The UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism is a graduate professional school on the campus of University of California, Berkeley. It is among the top graduate journalism schools in the United States, and is designed to produce journalists with a two-year Master of Journalism (MJ) degree.

The program is located in UC Berkeley's North Gate Hall, near the intersection of Euclid and Hearst Avenues in Berkeley, CA. As of January 1, 2013, it is being served by dean Edward Wasserman, a former Knight professor of journalism ethics at Washington and Lee University. Wasserman replaced professor Neil Henry, who stepped down from his dean position in August 2011 for medical reasons. Most courses offered by the school are on the graduate level, with few official courses for undergraduates. The school enrolls approximately 100 students; 50 first-year and 50 second-year students, and is one of the smallest academic units on the campus of UC Berkeley.

The school serves host to, or sponsors, a number of events. Notable speakers from around the world have shared their insights on current events in the media. Recent speakers have included Bill Clinton, Al Gore, Robert McNamara, Hans Blix, George Soros, Cokie Roberts, Paul Krugman, Dan Rather, Bob Woodruff, Ira Glass and Robert Krulwich.

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