Beijing National Stadium

Beijing National Stadium, officially the National Stadium[3] (Chinese: 国家体育场; pinyin: Guójiā Tǐyùchǎng; literally: 'National Stadium'), also known as the Bird's Nest (鸟巢; Niǎocháo), is a stadium in Beijing. The stadium (BNS) was jointly designed by architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron of Herzog & de Meuron, project architect Stefan Marbach, artist Ai Weiwei, and CADG, which was led by chief architect Li Xinggang.[4] The stadium was designed for use throughout the 2008 Summer Olympics and Paralympics and will be used again in the 2022 Winter Olympics and Paralympics. The Bird's Nest sometimes has some extra temporary large screens installed at the stands of the stadium.

History

Beijing National Stadium 1
Bird's Nest in 2008

Located at the Olympic Green, the stadium cost US$428 million. The design was awarded to a submission from the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron in April 2003 after a bidding process that included 13 final submissions. The design, which originated from the study of Chinese ceramics, implemented steel beams in order to hide supports for the retractable roof; giving the stadium the appearance of a bird's nest. Leading Chinese artist Ai Weiwei was the artistic consultant on the project.[5] The retractable roof was later removed from the design after inspiring the stadium's most recognizable aspect. Ground was broken on 24 December 2003 and the stadium officially opened on 28 June 2008. A shopping mall and a hotel are planned to be constructed to increase use of the stadium, which has had trouble attracting events, football and otherwise, after the Olympics.[6]

Bidding

In 2001, before Beijing had been awarded the games, the city held a bidding process to select the best arena design. Multiple requirements including the ability for post-Olympics use, a retractable roof, and low maintenance costs, were required of each design.[7] The entry list was narrowed to thirteen final designs.[8] Of the final thirteen, Li Xinggang of China Architecture Design and Research Group (CADG), said after he placed the model of the "nest" proposal at the exhibition hall and saw the rival entries he thought to himself, "We will win this."[7] The model was approved as the top design by a professional panel and later exhibited to the public. Once again, it was selected as the top design.[7] The "nest scheme" design became official in April 2003.[7]

Design

Beijing National Stadium Interior 200709
Under construction in September 2007

Beijing National Stadium (BNS) was a joint venture among architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron of Herzog & de Meuron, project architect Stefan Marbach, artist Ai Weiwei, and CADG, which was led by chief architect Li Xinggang.[4] During their first meeting in 2003, at Basel, the group decided to do something unlike Herzog and de Meuron had traditionally designed. "China wanted to have something new for this very important stadium," Li stated.[4] In an effort to design a stadium that was "porous" while also being "a collective building, a public vessel",[9] the team studied Chinese ceramics.[10] This line of thought brought the team to the "nest scheme".[9] The stadium consists of two independent structures, standing 50 feet apart:[2] a red concrete seating bowl and the outer steel frame around it.[9]

In an attempt to hide steel supports for the retractable roof, required in the bidding process, the team developed the "random-looking additional steel" to blend the supports into the rest of the stadium.[9] Twenty-four trussed columns encase the inner bowl,[11] each one weighing 1,000 tons.[7] Despite the random appearance of the Stadium, each half is nearly symmetrical.[12] After a collapse of a roof at the Charles de Gaulle Airport,[7] Beijing reviewed all major projects. It was decided to eliminate the retractable roof, the original inspiration for the "nest" design,[7] as well as 9,000 seats from the design.[12] The removal of the elements helped to bring the project under the reduced construction budget of $290 million, from an original $500 million.[7] With the removal of the retractable roof, the building was lightened, which helped it stand up to seismic activity; however, the upper section of the roof was altered to protect fans from weather.[12] Enerpac was granted the contract to perform the stage lifting and lowering of the stadium roof as part of the construction process.[13] China National Electric Engineering Co. Ltd. CNEEC and China National Mechanical Engineering Company lifted and welded the steel structure. Due to the stadium's outward appearance, it was nicknamed "The Bird's Nest". The phrase was first used by Herzog & de Meuron, though the pair still believes "there should be many ways of perceiving a building."[9] The use is a compliment Li explained, "In China, a bird's nest is very expensive, something you eat on special occasions."[7]

Construction

Construction of the stadium proceeded in several distinct phases, the first phase involving the construction of a concrete supporting structure upon the concrete foundations laid for the construction site. This was followed by the phased installation of the curved steel frame surrounding the stadium, which is largely self-supporting. This phased installation involved the interconnection of sections of the curved steel frame that were constructed in Shanghai and transported to Beijing for assembly and welding. The entire structure of interconnected sections was welded together as the primary means of interconnection used to assemble the entire surrounding nest structure. Upon removal of the supporting columns used for the purpose of expediting the assembly of the interconnecting sections, the completed nest structure as a whole settled approximately 27 cm to attain full stability before the interior design and construction of the stadium could be installed and completed.[14]

Completion

Ground was broken, at the Olympic Green,[15] for Beijing National Stadium on 24 December 2003.[16] At its height, 17,000 construction workers worked on the stadium.[17] Portraits of 143 migrant workers at the construction site were featured in the book Workers (Gong Ren) by artist Helen Couchman. On 1 January 2008, The Times reported that 10 workers had died throughout construction; despite denial from the Chinese government.[18] However, in a story the following week, Reuters, with the support of the Chinese government, reported that only two workers had died.[17] All 121,000 tons of steel were made in China. On 14 May 2008 the grass field of 7,811 square meters was laid in 24 hours.[19] The field is a modular turf system by GreenTech ITM. Beijing National Stadium officially opened at a ceremony on 28 June 2008.[20]

Features and events

The eastern and western stands of Beijing National Stadium are higher than northern and southern stands, in order to improve sightlines.[21] A 24-hour-per-day rainwater collector is located near the stadium; after water is purified, it is used throughout and around the stadium.[22][23] Pipes placed under the playing surface gather heat in the winter to warm the stadium and coldness in the summer to cool the stadium.[24] The stadium's design originally called for a capacity of 100,000 people; however 9,000 were removed during a simplification of the design. The new total of 91,000 was shaved further when 11,000 temporary seats were removed after the 2008 Olympics; bringing the stadium's capacity to 80,000.[1][25] The farthest seat is 460 feet (140 meters) from center field.[2][24] Temperature and airflow of every surface were optimized to increase ventilation.[24]

Beijing National Stadium hosted the Opening and Closing Ceremonies, athletic events, and football final of the 2008 Summer Olympics from 8 to 24 August 2008.[3] The stadium also hosted the Opening and Closing ceremonies and athletic events of the 2008 Summer Paralympics from 6 to 17 September 2008.[3] Though designed for track & field events of the Olympics, the stadium continues to host sporting events, such as football, afterwards.[12] A shopping mall and a hotel, with rooms overlooking the field, are planned to help increase use after the Olympics.[2] Li stated, "This will become the most important public space in Beijing."[2]

Although ignored by the Chinese media, design consultant Ai Weiwei has voiced his anti-Olympics views and distanced himself from the project, saying, "I've already forgotten about it. I turn down all the demands to have photographs with it," and that it is part of a "pretend smile" of bad taste.[26][27][28][29]

Football

On its first anniversary, 8 August 2009, the stadium hosted a performance of the opera Turandot, and the 2009 Supercoppa Italiana (Italian Super Cup) final, the traditional curtain raiser to the Italian football league season.[30] In August 2011, the Bird's Nest once again hosted the Supercoppa Italiana, the stadium's second in three years, and also in 2012.

The Beijing Guo’an football club was scheduled to play at the stadium, but later backed out of their agreement, citing the embarrassment of using an 80,000+ seat venue for games that routinely draw only slightly more than 10,000.[6][31]

In July 2010, the stadium hosted a friendly football match between Football League Championship team Birmingham City and Beijing Guoan as a part of Birmingham's pre-season trip to China, homeland of the club's owner Carson Yeung. Birmingham City recorded a 1–0 victory in the game.[32]

Arsenal and Manchester City played each other in the inaugural ‘China Cup’, a one-off match in Beijing’s played on 27 July 2012. Manchester City won the match with a score of 2–0.[33]

The Stadium was also used for the China PR national football team international matches during the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifiers, however Team Dragon hasn't played any matches since the opening of the stadium.

On 25 July 2016 Manchester City were scheduled to meet Manchester United as part of the 2016 International Champions Cup. However the game was cancelled due to heavy rain soaking the pitch, poor pitch conditions due to fungus and the pitch being relaid with turf.[34][35]

On 22 July 2017, Arsenal and Chelsea played against each other in a friendly match.

Other sports events

The stadium hosted the 2009 Race of Champions motor racing carnival.[36] In 2014 and 2015, the FIA Formula E Championship motor racing series hosted the Beijing ePrix at the Beijing Olympic Park.

On 1 November 2010, the IAAF announced that the 2015 World Championships in Athletics would take place at the Beijing National Stadium.[37]

On 29 July 2017, the stadium hosted Monster Jam and Speed Energy Formula Off-Road (Stadium Super Trucks) racing, marking the first Chinese race for both racing series. Chinese driver Li Ya Tao was among the ten drivers competing in the Stadium Super Truck race.[38]

On 4 November 2017, the stadium hosted the League of Legends World Championship 2017 Finals.[39]

Concerts

Jackie Chan was the first artist to hold a pop concert at the stadium on 2 April 2009.

American-Chinese pop star Leehom Wang held the first solo pop concert at the stadium on 14 April 2012.[40] Taiwanese band Mayday performed at the stadium for two nights from 29 to 30 April 2012. They were the first band ever to hold two-day concerts at the stadium. They came back to the stadium to held their three sold-out shows in August 2016 and two shows of their Mayday Life Tour in August 2017.

Korean pop artists under S.M. Entertainment including Kangta, BoA, TVXQ, Super Junior (Super Junior-M), Girls' Generation, SHINee, f(x), EXO, Zhang Liyin, and Tasty performed at the stadium for the first time on 19 October 2013 as part of the SMTown Live World Tour III.

In June 2014, DreamWorks' How To Train Your Dragon Live Spectacular opened in a 4,000 seat theatre built on land owned by the Beijing National Stadium.[41]

Pageants

In 4th quarter of 2017, this stadium is also open for both local & international pageant events.

Post-Olympics legacy

On 12 January 2009 the venue's owners announced plans for the stadium to anchor a shopping and entertainment complex. These plans, being developed by operator Citic Group, are projected to take three to five years to achieve. The stadium will also continue to function as a tourist attraction, while hosting sports and entertainment events.[31]

The National Stadium was intended to be a Monument of New China, expected to be visited by millions of tourists and showcased through an array of media representations.[42]

In spite of the lack of significant events, the stadium appears to be quite profitable, drawing some 20,000 to 30,000 people a day at the price of a 50 yuan admission.[43] In 2010 it was used as a snow theme park.[44] The venue costs approximately $9 million to maintain per year.[6][31]

The stadium was used for the finals of the 2017 League of Legends World Championship.[45] This included performances by Jay Chou.

The stadium is scheduled to be used for the opening and closing ceremonies of 2022 Winter Olympics and 2022 Winter Paralympics. It will be the only stadium to host both the Summer and Winter Olympics and Paralympics opening ceremonies.[6]

Birds Nest at Night

The Beijing National Stadium at night during the Summer Olympics

Beijing Birds Nest Olympics track

Inside of the stadium during the 2008 Summer Olympics

Beijing National Stadium 2014 2

Interior view of the stadium

2008 Summer Olympics flame at Beijing National Stadium 1

2008 Summer Olympics flame

Beijing Birds Nest Closeup

Detail of the exterior

Bird's Nest Stadium Structure

Architectural detail of the stadium's exterior

Beijing National Stadium in the night

Beijing National Stadium at night

References

  1. ^ a b "Beijing National Stadium, Olympic Green". East Asia. Arup. Archived from the original on 6 June 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Pasternack 2008, pp. 98
  3. ^ a b c "The National Stadium". Competition Venues. The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Archived from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2008.
  4. ^ a b c Pasternack 2008, pp. 93
  5. ^ "China's New Faces: Ai Weiwei". BBC News. 3 March 2005. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d Demick, Barbara (22 February 2009). "Beijing's Olympic building boom becomes a bust". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2009.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lubow, Arthur (6 May 2006). "The China Syndrome". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  8. ^ "Presentation of Competation". Beijing Municipal Commission of Urban Planning. Archived from the original on 19 June 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Pasternack 2008, pp. 94
  10. ^ Pasternack 2008, pp. 93–4
  11. ^ Pasternack 2008, pp. 94, 7
  12. ^ a b c d Pasternack 2008, pp. 97
  13. ^ "The Engineer". Enerpac Helps the Beijing's 'Bird Nest' to Stand on its own two feet. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  14. ^ National Geographic Megastructures. Beijing National Stadium. April 8, 2014. [1].
  15. ^ Goldberger, Paul (2 June 2008). "Out of the Blocks". The Sky Line. The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  16. ^ "Milestones in the construction of the Bird's Nest". National Stadium. The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. 28 June 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2008.
  17. ^ a b Mulvenney, Nick; Alex Richardson (28 January 2008). "Beijing says 2 died in Bird's Nest construction". Reuters. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  18. ^ "China hushes up Olympic deaths". The Times. London. 20 January 2008. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  19. ^ "Asia's first mobile turf installed in world's biggest 'nest'". National Stadium. The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. 29 June 2008. Archived from the original on 26 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  20. ^ "Newly completed National Stadium welcomes guests". National Stadium. The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. 28 June 2008. Archived from the original on 26 August 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2008.
  21. ^ "Architect: After-Games use is taken into consideration". National Stadium. The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. 28 June 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  22. ^ "Bird's Nest welcomes rain". National Stadium. The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. 29 June 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  23. ^ "A green Bird's Nest". National Stadium. The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. 22 May 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  24. ^ a b c "Bird's Nest: Personalized design furnishes best experience for the audience". National Stadium. The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. 28 June 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  25. ^ "Boxes inside 'Bird's Nest'". National Stadium. The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. 29 June 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  26. ^ Cooper, Rafi (6 July 2008). "Cultural revolutionary". The Observer. Archived from the original on 9 July 2008. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  27. ^ "Artist behind Beijing's 'bird's nest' stadium boycotts Olympics". CBC News. 11 August 2007. Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  28. ^ "Stadium designer blasts China Olympics". Al Jazeera. 6 July 2008. Archived from the original on 17 August 2008. Retrieved 12 August 2008.
  29. ^ "Chinese architect slams Olympic 'pretend smile'". CNN. 13 August 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  30. ^ "Italian Supercoppa 2009 in Beijing". Italian-Calcio Blog. 24 December 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2008.
  31. ^ a b c "Beijing's Bird's Nest to anchor shopping complex". ABC News/Associated Press. 30 January 2009. Archived from the original on 14 August 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
  32. ^ "Birmingham enjoy friendly win". Italian-Calcio Blog. 21 July 2010.
  33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ "Manchester 'derby' friendly called off in Beijing". Sky Sports. 25 July 2015.
  35. ^ "Manchester derby in China cancelled due to weather and state of pitch". eurosport.com. 25 July 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  36. ^ "Race of Champions moves to Beijing". Autosport.com. Haymarket Publications. 16 April 2009. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
  37. ^ "Beijing selected to host 2015 World Championships". www.iaaf.org. IAAF. 20 November 2010. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  38. ^ "Stadium SUPER Trucks To Race In Beijing, China With Monster Jam". Speed Energy Formula Off-Road. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
  39. ^ "League of Legends 2017 International Events".
  40. ^ http://www.china.org.cn/video/2012-04/16/content_25154926.htm
  41. ^ http://en.damai.cn/event/tickets_69144/
  42. ^ Kang, Jaeho; Traganou, Jilly (2011). "The Beijing National Stadium as Media-space". Design and Culture. 3 (2).
  43. ^ "China tourists twig to Beijing's Bird's Nest". uk.Reuters.com. Reuters UK. 22 April 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
  44. ^ "In pictures: Bird's Nest winter wonderland". BBC News. 5 January 2010. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  45. ^ "LoL Esports". www.lolesports.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.

External links

Coordinates: 39°59′30″N 116°23′26″E / 39.99167°N 116.39056°E

Preceded by
Spiros Louis Olympic Stadium
Athens
Summer Olympics
Opening and Closing Ceremonies (Beijing National Stadium)

2008
Succeeded by
Olympic Stadium
London
Preceded by
Spiros Louis Olympic Stadium
Athens
Summer Olympics
Football Finals (Beijing National Stadium)

2008
Succeeded by
Wembley Stadium
London
Preceded by
Spiros Louis Olympic Stadium
Athens
Olympic Athletics competitions
Main Venue

2008
Succeeded by
Olympic Stadium
London
Preceded by
Luzhniki Stadium
Moscow
World Championships in Athletics
Main Venue

2015
Succeeded by
Olympic Stadium
London
Preceded by
Staples Center
Los Angeles
League of Legends World Championship
Final Venue

2017
Succeeded by
Incheon Munhak Stadium
Incheon
Preceded by
Pyeongchang Olympic Stadium
Pyeongchang
Winter Olympics
Opening and Closing Ceremonies (Beijing National Stadium)

2022
Succeeded by
TBA candidates: Stadio Giuseppe Meazza, Milan or Friends Arena, Solna
2008 Summer Paralympics

The 2008 Summer Paralympic Games (Chinese: 第十三屆残疾人奥林匹克运动会), the 13th Paralympics, took place in Beijing, China from September 6 to 17, 2008. As with the 2008 Summer Olympics, equestrian events were held in Hong Kong and sailing events in Qingdao.

3,951 athletes from 146 countries took part, the largest number of nations ever (ten more than the 2004 Games in Athens). Five countries competed for the first time. China fielded more athletes than any other country. The slogan for the 2008 Paralympics was the same as the 2008 Summer Olympics, "One World, One Dream" (simplified Chinese: 同一个世界 同一个梦想; traditional Chinese: 同一個世界 同一個夢想 Pinyin Tóng yīge shìjìe tóng yīge mèngxiǎng, lit. "One World, One Dream"). China dominated the medal count, finishing with 89 gold medals and 211 total medals, more than double the next-ranked NPC in both cases.

339 Paralympic records and 279 world records were broken.International Paralympic Committee (IPC) President Philip Craven declared the Games "the greatest Paralympic Games ever."Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Paralympics; it would then become the first city ever to host both a Summer and Winter Games.

2009 Supercoppa Italiana

The 2009 Supercoppa Italiana was a match played by the 2008–09 Serie A winners Internazionale and 2008–09 Coppa Italia winners Lazio. It took place on 8 August 2009 at the Beijing National Stadium in Beijing, China. Lazio won the match 2–1 to earn their third Supercoppa title. This edition was the first time the Supercoppa Italiana was held in China, with China becoming the fourth country to host the competition.

2014 Superclásico de las Américas

The 2014 Superclásico de las Américas – Copa Doctor Nicolás Leoz was the 3rd edition of the Superclásico de las Américas. The match was played at Beijing National Stadium in Beijing, China. This was the first time the competition had taken place on foreign soil.Brazil won 2–0 with both goals scored by Diego Tardelli, while Argentina's Lionel Messi had a penalty saved by goalkeeper Jefferson.

2015 World Championships in Athletics – Men's 20 kilometres walk

The men's 20 kilometres walk at the 2015 World Championships in Athletics was held at the Beijing National Stadium on 23 August.

2015 World Championships in Athletics – Men's 50 kilometres walk

The men's 50 kilometres walk at the 2015 World Championships in Athletics was held at the Beijing National Stadium on 29 August.

2015 World Championships in Athletics – Women's 20 kilometres walk

The women's 20 kilometres walk at the 2015 World Championships in Athletics was held at the Beijing National Stadium on 28 August.

Athletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's 10,000 metres

The Men's 10,000 metres at the 2008 Summer Olympics took place on August 17 at the Beijing National Stadium.The race was dominated by the Ethiopian and Kenyan teams along with Tadese of Eritrea. With 200m remaining, Bekele pulled away from the rest of the field with a final lap of 53.42 seconds, winning his second 10,000m Olympic gold medal.

Athletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's 20 kilometres walk

The men's 20 kilometres walk at the 2008 Summer Olympics took place on 16 August at the Beijing National Stadium.The qualifying standards were 1:23:00 (A standard) and 1:24:30 (B standard).

Athletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's 5000 metres

The Men's 5000 metres at the 2008 Summer Olympics took place on 20 and 23 August at the Beijing National Stadium.The qualifying standards were 13:21.50 (A standard) and 13:28.00 (B standard).

Athletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's 50 kilometres walk

The men's 50 kilometres walk at the 2008 Summer Olympics took place on August 22 at the Beijing National Stadium.The qualifying standards were 4:00:00 (A standard) and 4:07:00 (B standard).

Athletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's discus throw

The men's discus throw event at the 2008 Summer Olympics took place on 16–19 August at the Beijing National Stadium.The qualifying standards were 64.50 m (211.61 ft) (A standard) and 62.50 m (205.05 ft) (B standard).

Athletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's javelin throw

The men's javelin throw event at the 2008 Summer Olympics took place on 21 and 23 August at the Beijing National Stadium. The qualification mark was set at 82.50 metres.

The qualifying standards were 81.80 m (268.37 ft) (A standard) and 77.80 m (255.25 ft) (B standard).

Athletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's pole vault

The men's pole vault at the 2008 Summer Olympics took place on 20 and 22 August at the Beijing National Stadium.The qualifying standards were 5.70 m (18.7 ft) (A standard) and 5.55 m (18.21 ft) (B standard).

Athletics at the 2008 Summer Paralympics - Women's 4x100 metre relay T53-T54

The women's 4x100m T53-54 event at the 2008 Summer Paralympics took place at the Beijing National Stadium on 16 September. There were no heats in this event.

The event was won by the team representing China (CHN).

Athletics at the 2008 Summer Paralympics – Women's 100 metres T52

The women's 100m T52 event at the 2008 Summer Paralympics took place at the Beijing National Stadium on 15 September. There were no heats in this event.

Athletics at the 2008 Summer Paralympics – Women's 200 metres T52

The women's 200m T52 event at the 2008 Summer Paralympics took place at the Beijing National Stadium on 11 September. There were no heats in this event.

Olympic Stadium

Olympic Stadium is the name usually given to the main stadium of an Olympic Games.

An Olympic stadium is the site of the opening and closing ceremonies. Many, though not all, of these venues actually contain the words Olympic Stadium as part of their names.

Olympic Stadium may also be named a multi-purpose stadium which hosts Olympic sports.In the case of the Summer Olympic Games, athletics competitions and the football final are traditionally held in the Olympic Stadium. Exceptions to this have occurred though at the 1900, 1996 and 2016 Summer Olympics as well as at the 2010 and 2018 Summer Youth Olympic Games.

Early Winter Olympic Games often used figure skating venues as focal points. These were often designated as the Olympic Stadium, usually hosting the opening and closing ceremonies.

A number of stadiums have been used in more than one Olympics, in those cities that have held the Games more than once.

Lysgårdsbakken was the main stadium of a Winter Olympics and a Winter Youth Olympic Games (YOG). Bergiselschanze was the main stadium of two Winter Olympics and one Winter YOG. Olympiahalle jointly shared the Olympic Stadium role with Bergiselschanze during the two Winter Olympics, but not during the Winter YOG. Only one stadium, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, has been the main stadium of two Summer Olympics (and it will be a main stadium a third time during the 2028 games). In addition to the inaugural Summer Olympics, Panathinaiko Stadio was also the main stadium of the only Intercalated Games held. In 2022 Beijing National Stadium will join these in being the main stadium at two Olympics, but with a special distinction: it will become the only stadium to have been such at both a Summer and a Winter Olympics.

A number, including both the Panathinaiko Stadio and the Vélodrome de Vincennes, have hosted events at subsequent Olympics. The London Games of 2012 were not opened and closed at the rebuilt Wembley Stadium, the site of the 1948 Olympic Stadium, but instead at a new stadium in Stratford. Wembley was, however, the venue for some 2012 Olympic football matches. Likewise, the Melbourne Cricket Ground, which was the centrepiece stadium for the 1956 games, later hosted the first games of the Sydney 2000 football tournament. Lake Placid's 1930 Olympic Stadium was utilized in the 1980 Lake Placid games as the speed skating venue. Olympiahalle hosted figure skating and short-track speed skating during the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics. Stockholm Olympic Stadium hosted equestrian events for the 1956 Summer Olympics (while the 1956 games were held in Melbourne, Australia, quarantine restrictions prevented equestrian events from being held domestically, thus Stockholm, Sweden hosted the 1956 equestrian competitions).

Supercoppa Italiana

The Supercoppa Italiana (Italian for Italian Super Cup) is an annual football competition usually held the week before the season begins in Italy. It is contested by the winners of the Serie A and the Coppa Italia in the previous season, as a curtain raiser to the new season. If the same team wins both the Serie A and Coppa Italia titles in the previous season, the Supercoppa is contested by the Serie A winner and the Coppa Italia runner-up, in essence becoming a rematch of the previous year's Coppa Italia final.

Venues of the 2008 Summer Olympics

For the 2008 Summer Olympics, a total of thirty-seven venues were used, thirty-one in Beijing, and six outside Beijing.

The 2008 Summer Olympic Games were held in Beijing, China from 8 to 24 August 2008.[n 1] A total of 11,028 athletes from 204 NOCs (countries) participated in 302 events in 28 sports held in 37 competition venues. Events took place at eleven pre-existing venues, twelve new venues constructed for the Olympics, and eight temporary venues that were removed following the games. In addition, six venues outside Beijing hosted events, two of which were newly built for the Olympics.

Beijing won its bid to host the 2008 Olympics on 13 July 2001. The first new venues to begin construction were the Beijing National Stadium, Beijing National Aquatics Center, Beijing Shooting Range Hall, and the Laoshan Velodrome, where major work commenced in December 2003. By May 2007, construction had begun at all of the Beijing venues for the games. Approximately RMB¥13 billion (US$1.9 billion) was spent to build and renovate the venues.Several of the venues were located at the Olympic Green Olympic Park. The largest venue at the games in terms of seating capacity was the Beijing National Stadium, also known as the Bird's Nest, which could at the time hold 91,000 spectators and was the site for the opening and closing ceremonies. The smallest venue in terms of seating capacity was the temporary Laoshan Mountain Bike Course, which had seating for 2,000 spectators.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinBěijīng Guójiā Tǐyùchǎng
Wade–GilesPěichīng Kwóchiā T'ǐyǜch'ǎng
Yale RomanizationBěijīng Gwójyā Tǐyùchǎng
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationBàk gìng Gwok gà Tái yuhk chèuhng
JyutpingBak1ging1 Gwok3gaa1 Tai2juk6coeng4
Southern Min
Hokkien POJPak-kiaⁿ Kok-ka Thái-io̍k-tiûⁿ
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinNiǎo Cháo
Wade–GilesNiǎo Ch'áo
Yale RomanizationNyǎu Cháu
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationNíuh Chàauh
JyutpingNiu5 Caau4
Southern Min
Hokkien POJChiáu Châu
New venues
Existing venues
Temporary venues
Venues outside Beijing
Beijing Cluster
Yanqing Cluster
Zhangjiakou Cluster
Notable buildings and structures in Beijing from the modern era
Ten Great Buildings
Olympic Green
Tiananmen Square
Museums
Transportation
CBD
Other government buildings
Others
Current
Former

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