The Beijing Liao and Jin Dynasty City Wall Museum (Chinese: 北京辽金城垣博物馆) is a museum built over the ruins of Beijing's Liao and Jin dynasty (1115–1234) city wall. The museum is located in Yulin neighborhood, near Youanmenwai in Fengtai District of southwestern Beijing, near the north bank of the Liangshui River.
As of September 2017 the museum is closed for renovations, and is expected to reopen in May 2018.
|Liao and Jin City Wall Museum|
The Liao and Jin Dynasty City Wall Museum
|Type||Historical site, History museum|
|Public transit access||Public Bus|
During the 12th century, the city of Beijing was centered to the southwest of the present day metropolis in southern Xicheng District (formerly Xuanwu District) and Fengtai District. The city known as Zhongdu was the capital of the Jin Dynasty. In 1990, the remnants of a water gate in the city wall of Zhongdu was discovered at the site. The museum built over the water gate opened in 1995.
The museum's display space of 2,500 square meter is primarily underground. The remnants of the water gate, a wood and stone structure, is 43.4 m in length with a tunnel that is 21 m long and 7.7 m wide. The museum also showcases Liao and Jin era artifacts unearthed in and around Beijing.
Admission to the museum is free. The nearest city bus stops are Youanmenwai, 500 m to the east (Bus No. 19, 48, 72, 88, 377, 454, 474) and Daguanyuan (Grand View Garden) 800 m to the north (Bus No. 53, 59, 63, 84, 122, 458, 474, 717, 939, 特3, 特12, 运通102).
The Beijing Ming City Wall Ruins Park (Chinese: 北京明城墙遗址公园; pinyin: Běijīng Míng Chéngqiáng Yízhǐ Gōngyuán) is a park in Beijing with the longest and best preserved section of the city's Ming Dynasty city wall. The park is located 3 km (1.9 mi) from the city center and extends west from Chongwenmen to Dongbianmen and then north to near the Beijing Railway Station. The park features a 1.5 km (0.93 mi) section of the Ming city wall and the Southeast Corner Tower, which are over 550 years old and surrounded by green park space to the south and east. The park covers an area of 15.5 ha (38 acres), including 3.3 ha (8.2 acres) of fortifications and 12.2 ha (30 acres) of green space. Access to the corner tower and the ramparts atop the wall is available during business hours and require paying admission. The corner tower also houses the Red Gate Gallery. The rest of the park is free and open to the public at all times.History of Beijing
The city of Beijing has a long and rich history that dates back over 3,000 years. Prior to the unification of China by the First Emperor in 221 BC, Beijing had been for centuries the capital of the ancient states of Ji and Yan. During the first millennia of imperial rule, Beijing was a provincial city in northern China. Its stature grew in the 10th to the 13th centuries when the nomadic Khitan and forest-dwelling Jurchen peoples from beyond the Great Wall expanded southward and made the city a capital of their dynasties, the Liao and Jin. When Kublai Khan made Dadu the capital of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty (1279–1368), all of China was ruled from Beijing for the first time. From 1279 onward, with the exception of two interludes from 1368 to 1420 and 1928 to 1949, Beijing would remain as China's capital, serving as the seat of power for the Ming dynasty (1421–1644), the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912), the early Republic of China (1912–1928) and now the People's Republic of China (1949–present).List of Beijing landmarks
There are many landmarks in Beijing. The best-known ones include the Badaling stretch of the Great Wall of China, the Temple of Heaven, the Tian'anmen and the Forbidden City, a number of temples, hutongs and parks, relics of ages gone by.List of museums in China
As of 2013, there are 3,589 museums in China, including 3,054 state-owned museums (museums run by national and local government or universities) and 535 private museums. With a collection of over 20 million items, these museums hold more than 8,000 exhibitions every year and 160 million people visits. Some museums of cultural relics, such as the Museum of Qin Terracotta Warriors and Horses in Xi'an, have become internationally known tourist attractions. The government has exchanges of cultural relics exhibitions between museums and promotes the display and exchanges of legal non-governmental collections.Nanjing (Liao dynasty)
Nanjing was the name for modern Beijing during the Liao dynasty, when Khitan rulers made the city the southern capital. To distinguish Nanjing, which literally means "Southern Capital" in Chinese, from modern Nanjing in Jiangsu Province and Beijing Damingfu, the Northern Song Dynasty name for modern Daming County in Hebei Province, Chinese historians sometimes refer to Beijing during the Liao dynasty as Liao Nanjing (simplified Chinese: 辽南京; traditional Chinese: 遼南京; pinyin: Liáo Nánjīng). The Khitan rulers of the Liao acquired the city, then known as Youzhou, in the cession of the Sixteen Prefectures in 938 from the Later Jìn, one of the five shortlived dynasties that ruled northern China following the end of the Tang Dynasty. The city was officially renamed Nanjing, Youdu Fu (南京幽都府). In 1012, the city was renamed Nanjing, Xijin Fu (南京析津府). The city was also colloquially referred to at the time as Yanjing. In 1122, the city was captured by the Jurchen Jin dynasty and was officially renamed Yanjing, ending the use of Nanjing for what is today modern Beijing.
Museums in Beijing