Beetroot

The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant,[1] usually known in North America as the beet and also known as the table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet. It is one of several of the cultivated varieties of Beta vulgaris grown for their edible taproots and their leaves (called beet greens). These varieties have been classified as B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Conditiva Group.[2]

Other than as a food, beets have use as a food colouring and as a medicinal plant. Many beet products are made from other Beta vulgaris varieties, particularly sugar beet.

Beetroot
Detroitdarkredbeets
Beetroot
SpeciesBeta vulgaris
SubspeciesBeta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris
Cultivar group'Conditiva' group
OriginSea beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima)
Cultivar group membersMany; see text.
Beetroot jm27942
Fruit and cross section, cultivar Chioggia
Beetroot jm27944
Fruit and cross section, yellow cultivar

Etymology

Beta is the ancient Latin name for beets,[3] possibly of Celtic origin, becoming bete in Old English around 1400.[4] Root derives from the late Old English rōt, itself from Old Norse rót.[5]

History

From the Middle Ages, beetroot was used as a treatment for a variety of conditions, especially illnesses relating to digestion and the blood. Bartolomeo Platina recommended taking beetroot with garlic to nullify the effects of "garlic-breath".[6]

During the middle of the 19th century, wine often was coloured with beetroot juice.[7]

Cultivars

Below is a list of several commonly available cultivars of beets. Generally, 55 to 65 days are needed from germination to harvest of the root. All cultivars can be harvested earlier for use as greens. Unless otherwise noted, the root colours are shades of red and dark red with different degrees of zoning noticeable in slices.

  • 'Albino', heirloom (white root)
  • 'Bull's Blood', heirloom[8]
  • 'Chioggia', heirloom (distinct red and white zoned root)[9]
  • 'Crosby's Egyptian', heirloom
  • 'Cylindra' / 'Formanova', heirloom (elongated root)[9]
  • 'Detroit Dark Red Medium Top', heirloom
  • 'Early Wonder', heirloom
  • 'Golden Beet' / 'Burpee's Golden', heirloom (yellow root)[9]
  • 'Perfected Detroit', 1934 AAS winner[10]
  • 'Red Ace' Hybrid
  • 'Ruby Queen', 1957 AAS winner[11]
  • 'Touchstone Gold' (yellow root)

Food

Beets-Bundle
A bundle of beetroot
Rote Bete eine Haelfte
Section through taproot
Gelbe Bete Randen Beetroot
Yellow beetroot

Usually the deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten boiled, roasted, or raw, and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilized beets or into pickles. In Eastern Europe, beet soup, such as borscht, is a popular dish. In Indian cuisine, chopped, cooked, spiced beet is a common side dish. Yellow-coloured beetroots are grown on a very small scale for home consumption.[12]

The green, leafy portion of the beet is also edible. The young leaves can be added raw to salads, whilst the mature leaves are most commonly served boiled or steamed, in which case they have a taste and texture similar to spinach. Those greens selected should be from bulbs that are unmarked, instead of those with overly limp leaves or wrinkled skins, both of which are signs of dehydration.

The domestication of beets can be traced to the emergence of an allele which enables biennial harvesting of leaves and taproot.[13]

Beetroot can be boiled or steamed, peeled, and then eaten warm with or without butter as a delicacy; cooked, pickled, and then eaten cold as a condiment; or peeled, shredded raw, and then eaten as a salad. Pickled beets are a traditional food in many countries.

A traditional Pennsylvania Dutch dish is pickled beet egg. Hard-boiled eggs are refrigerated in the liquid left over from pickling beets and allowed to marinate until the eggs turn a deep pink-red colour.

In Poland and Ukraine, beet is combined with horseradish to form popular ćwikła, which is traditionally used with cold cuts and sandwiches, but often also added to a meal consisting of meat and potatoes. Similarly in Serbia where the popular cvekla is used as winter salad, seasoned with salt and vinegar, with meat dishes. As an addition to horseradish, it is also used to produce the "red" variety of chrain, a popular condiment in Ashkenazi Jewish, Hungarian, Polish, Lithuanian, Russian, and Ukrainian cuisine.

Popular in Australian hamburgers, a slice of pickled beetroot is combined with other condiments on a beef patty to make an Aussie burger.

In Northern Germany, beetroot is mashed with Labskaus or added as its side order. [14][15]

When beet juice is used, it is most stable in foods with a low water content, such as frozen novelties and fruit fillings.[16] Betanins, obtained from the roots, are used industrially as red food colourants, e.g. to intensify the colour of tomato paste, sauces, desserts, jams and jellies, ice cream, sweets, and breakfast cereals.[12]

Beetroot can also be used to make wine.[17]

A moderate amount of chopped beetroot is sometimes added to the Japanese pickle fukujinzuke for color.

Food shortages in Europe following World War I caused great hardships, including cases of mangelwurzel disease, as relief workers called it. It was symptomatic of eating only beets.[18]

Salad of grated beet and apple C IMG 4352

Salad of grated beetroot and apple

Christmas foods (5300034752)

Finnish rosolli

Rote Beete - sauer eingelegt (8987-89)

Sliced, pickled beetroot

Chrain3

Chrain with beetroot

Beet juice-01

Beetroot juice drink

Uncommon beetroot colours

Red, white, and golden beetroot

Nutrition

Beets, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy180 kJ (43 kcal)
9.56 g
Sugars6.76 g
Dietary fiber2.8 g
0.17 g
1.61 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
2 μg
0%
20 μg
Thiamine (B1)
3%
0.031 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
3%
0.04 mg
Niacin (B3)
2%
0.334 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
3%
0.155 mg
Vitamin B6
5%
0.067 mg
Folate (B9)
27%
109 μg
Vitamin C
6%
4.9 mg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
2%
16 mg
Iron
6%
0.8 mg
Magnesium
6%
23 mg
Manganese
16%
0.329 mg
Phosphorus
6%
40 mg
Potassium
7%
325 mg
Sodium
5%
78 mg
Zinc
4%
0.35 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water87.58g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Raw beetroot is 88% water, 10% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and less than 1% fat (see table). In a 100-gram amount providing 43 calories, raw beetroot is a rich source (27% of the Daily Value - DV) of folate and a moderate source (16% DV) of manganese, with other nutrients having insignificant content (table).[19]

Preliminary research

In preliminary research, beetroot juice reduced blood pressure in hypertensive animals,[20] so may have an effect on mechanisms of cardiovascular disease.[21][22] Tentative evidence has found that dietary nitrate supplementation such as from beets and other vegetables results in a small to moderate improvement in endurance exercise performance.[23]

Beets contain betaines, which may function to reduce the concentration of homocysteine,[24] a homolog of the naturally occurring amino acid cysteine. High circulating levels of homocysteine may be harmful to blood vessels, thus contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease.[25] As of 2008 this hypothesis is controversial as it has not yet been established whether homocysteine itself is harmful or is just an indicator of increased risk for cardiovascular disease.[25][26]

Other uses

Betanin, obtained from the roots, is used industrially as red food colorant, to improve the color and flavor of tomato paste, sauces, desserts, jams and jellies, ice cream, candy, and breakfast cereals, among other applications.[12]

The chemical adipic acid rarely occurs in nature, but happens to occur naturally in beetroot.

Safety

The red colour compound betanin is not broken down in the body, and in higher concentrations may temporarily cause urine or stools to assume a reddish colour, in the case of urine a condition called beeturia.[27] Although harmless, this effect may cause initial concern due to the visual similarity to what appears to be blood in the stool, hematochezia (blood passing through the anus, usually in or with stool) or hematuria (blood in the urine).[28]

Nitrosamine formation in beet juice can reliably be prevented by adding ascorbic acid.[29]

See also

References

  1. ^ "beet". def. 1 and 2. also "beet-root". Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) © Oxford University Press 2009
  2. ^ "Sorting Beta names". Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. The University of Melbourne. Archived from the original on 2013-04-15. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
  3. ^ Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866453 (hardback), ISBN 9780521685535 (paperback). pp 70
  4. ^ "Beet". Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper. 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  5. ^ https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/root
  6. ^ Platina De honesta voluptate et valetudine, 3.14
  7. ^ Nilsson et al. (1970). "Studies into the pigments in beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. rubra L.)"
  8. ^ "Baby Bulls Blood Beets Information". Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  9. ^ a b c Stebbings, Geoff (2010). Growing Your Own Fruit and Veg For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781119992233. Retrieved 31 July 2018 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ "AAS Beet Perfected Detroit". Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  11. ^ "AAS Beet Ruby Queen". Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  12. ^ a b c Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden; CTA, Wageningen.
  13. ^ Pin, Pierre A.; Zhang, Wenying; Vogt, Sebastian H.; Dally, Nadine; Büttner, Bianca; Schulze-Buxloh, Gretel; Jelly, Noémie S.; Chia, Tansy Y. P.; Mutasa-Göttgens, Effie S. (2012-06-19). "The Role of a Pseudo-Response Regulator Gene in Life Cycle Adaptation and Domestication of Beet". Current Biology. 22 (12): 1095–1101. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.04.007. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 22608508.
  14. ^ SPIEGEL Online on Labskaus in Hamburg (German), Der Spiegel
  15. ^ Labskaus mit Rote-Bete-Salat (German), recipe at NDR
  16. ^ Francis, F.J. (1999). Colorants. Egan Press. ISBN 1-891127-00-4.
  17. ^ Making Wild Wines & Meads; Pattie Vargas & Rich Gulling; page 73
  18. ^ MacMillan, Margaret Olwen (2002) [2001]. "We are the League of the People". Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World (1st U.S. ed.). New York: Random House. p. 60. ISBN 0375508260. LCCN 2002023707. Relief workers invented names for things they had never seen before, such as the mangelwurzel disease, which afflicted those who lived solely on beets.
  19. ^ "Nutrient data for beets, raw per 100 g". United States Department of Agriculture, National Nutrient Database, release SR-28. 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  20. ^ Lundberg, J.O.; Carlström, M.; Larsen, F.J.; Weitzberg, E. (2011). "Roles of dietary inorganic nitrate in cardiovascular health and disease". Cardiovasc Res. 89 (3): 525–32. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvq325. PMID 20937740.
  21. ^ Hobbs, D. A.; Kaffa, N.; George, T. W.; Methven, L.; Lovegrove, J. A. (2012). "Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects". British Journal of Nutrition. 108 (11): 2066–2074. doi:10.1017/S0007114512000190. PMID 22414688.
  22. ^ Siervo, M.; Lara, J.; Ogbonmwan, I.; Mathers, J. C. (2013). "Inorganic Nitrate and Beetroot Juice Supplementation Reduces Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Journal of Nutrition. 143 (6): 818–826. doi:10.3945/jn.112.170233. PMID 23596162.
  23. ^ McMahon, Nicholas F.; Leveritt, Michael D.; Pavey, Toby G. (6 September 2016). "The Effect of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation on Endurance Exercise Performance in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Sports Medicine. doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0617-7. PMID 27600147. dietary NO3− supplementation such as nitrate-rich vegetable sources or beetroot juice
  24. ^ Pajares, M. A.; Pérez-Sala, D (2006). "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: Just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism?" (PDF). Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 63 (23): 2792–803. doi:10.1007/s00018-006-6249-6. PMID 17086380.
  25. ^ a b A.D.A.M., Inc., ed. (2002). Betaine. University of Maryland Medical Center.
  26. ^ Potter, K.; Hankey, G. J.; Green, D. J.; Eikelboom, J. W.; Arnolda, L. F. (2008). "Homocysteine or Renal Impairment: Which is the Real Cardiovascular Risk Factor?". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 28 (6): 1158. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.108.162743.
  27. ^ Frank, T; Stintzing, F. C.; Carle, R; Bitsch, I; Quaas, D; Strass, G; Bitsch, R; Netzel, M (2005). "Urinary pharmacokinetics of betalains following consumption of red beet juice in healthy humans". Pharmacological Research. 52 (4): 290–7. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2005.04.005. PMID 15964200.
  28. ^ "Urine color". Mayo Clinic, Patient Care and Health Information, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  29. ^ Kolb E, Haug M, Janzowski C, Vetter A, Eisenbrand G (1997). "Potential nitrosamine formation and its prevention during biological denitrification of red beet juice". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 35 (2): 219–24. doi:10.1016/s0278-6915(96)00099-3. PMID 9146735. Retrieved 2015-06-06.

Media related to Beetroot at Wikimedia Commons

Beetroot (album)

Beetroot is the fourth album by the English band Cast, released on 30 July 2001. From the album, only one single was released, "Desert Drought", which reached #45 in the UK Singles chart.

Beeturia

Beeturia is the passing of red or pink urine after eating beetroots or foods colored with beetroot extract or beetroot pigments. The color is caused by the excretion of betalain (betacyanin) pigments such as betanin. The coloring is highly variable between individuals and between different occasions, and can vary in intensity from invisible to strong. The pigment is sensitive to oxidative degradation under strongly acidic conditions. Therefore, the urine coloring depends on stomach acidity and dwell time as well as the presence of protecting substances such as oxalic acid. Beeturia is often associated with red or pink feces.

Beta vulgaris

Beta vulgaris (beet) is a plant which is included in Betoideae subfamily in the Amaranthaceae family. It is the economically most important crop of the large order Caryophyllales. It has several cultivar groups: the sugar beet, of greatest importance to produce table sugar; the root vegetable known as the beetroot or garden beet; the leaf vegetable known as chard or spinach beet; and mangelwurzel, which is a fodder crop. Three subspecies are typically recognised. All cultivars fall into the subspecies Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris. The wild ancestor of the cultivated beets is the sea beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima).

Betanin

Betanin, or Beetroot Red, is a red glycosidic food dye obtained from beets; its aglycone, obtained by hydrolyzing away the glucose molecule, is betanidin. As a food additive, its E number is E162.

The color of betanin depends on pH; between four and five it is bright bluish-red, becoming blue-violet as the pH increases. Once the pH reaches alkaline levels betanin degrades by hydrolysis, resulting in a yellow-brown color.

Betanin is a betalain pigment, together with isobetanin, probetanin, and neobetanin. Other pigments contained in beet are indicaxanthin and vulgaxanthins.

Borscht

Borscht (English: (listen)) is a sour soup common in Eastern Europe and across Russia. The variety most often associated with the name in English is of Ukrainian origin, and includes beetroots as one of the main ingredients, which gives the dish its distinctive red color. It shares the name, however, with a wide selection of sour-tasting soups without beetroots, such as sorrel-based green borscht, rye-based white borscht and cabbage borscht.

Borscht derives from an ancient soup originally cooked from pickled stems, leaves and umbels of common hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium), a herbaceous plant growing in damp meadows, which lent the dish its Slavic name. With time, it evolved into a diverse array of tart soups, among which the beet-based red borscht has become the most popular. It is typically made by combining meat or bone stock with sautéed vegetables, which – as well as beetroots – usually include cabbage, carrots, onions, potatoes and tomatoes. Depending on the recipe, borscht may include meat or fish, or be purely vegetarian; it may be served either hot or cold; and it may range from a hearty one-pot meal to a clear broth or a smooth drink. It is often served with smetana or sour cream, hard-boiled eggs or potatoes, but there exists an ample choice of more involved garnishes and side dishes, such as uszka or pampushky, that can be served with the soup.

Its popularity has spread throughout Eastern Europe and the former Russian Empire, and – by way of migration – to other continents. In North America, borscht is often linked with either Jews or Mennonites, the groups who first brought it there from Europe. Several ethnic groups claim borscht, in its various local guises, as their own national dish consumed as part of ritual meals within Eastern Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, and Jewish religious traditions.

Borș (bran)

Borș is a liquid ingredient used in Romanian and Moldovan cuisine to make traditional sour soup called also borș or ciorbă. This ingredient consists of wheat or barley bran, sometimes sugar beet, fermented in water - a slightly yellowish, sour liquid, which can also be drunk as such. The word has thus two different, if related meanings.

The word borș is used by Ukrainian and Russian borshch or borscht, but it has a different meaning: the traditional Ukrainian borshch is a beetroot soup, which Romanians generally call borș de sfeclă roşie (red beetroot borscht) or borș rusesc (Russian borscht), while in Romanian cuisine the word "borș" is used for an entire category of sour, hearty soups, prepared usually with the synonymous ingredient "borș". In fact, Romanian gastronomy uses with hardly any discrimination the Romanian word ciorbă ("soup"), borș or, sometimes, zeamă ("juice") or acritură (based on the word for "sour" and meaning coming from it). In Moldavia region (nowadays, Western Moldavia, Moldova, and Bukovina), where Romanians lived in closest contact with Ukrainians and Russians, the word borș means simply any sour soup.Romanian "borș" soup recipes can include various kinds of vegetables and any kind of meat, including fish. "Borș/ciorbă de perişoare" (a broth with meatballs) is quite common. One ingredient required in all recipes by Romanian tradition is lovage leaves, which has a characteristic flavour and significantly improves the soup's aroma.

Childhood Memories (song)

"Childhood Memories" was the fourth single to be released by British Sea Power. It is a much more downtempo track than previous releases and feature keyboards heavily. Acoustic guitar is prominent throughout the track. Despite its low chart position and not being included on any album (reducing the numbers who know the song), it is a live favourite and is still a regular in the band's setlists. The lyrics contrast with childlike structure of the music, dealing with meltdown of Nuclear power plant. This track was previously known as "Memories of Childhood!". The 7" release was wrongly labeled as having "Favours in the Beetroot Fields" as the flipside, whereas it is actually "Strange Communication". It peaked at a lowly number 90 on the UK Singles Chart.

Cuisine of Lesotho

Basotho (people of Lesotho) cuisine features African traditions and British influence. Lesotho is surrounded by South Africa and it shares culinary practices with its neighbor. Lesotho's food culture features potato, seafood, rice and vegetables. Corn-based dishes include mealie pap, a maize porridge. There are also stews made with peanuts. British desserts can be found. Basotho cuisine tends to include sauces, but is generally less spicy than other African countries. Beetroot and carrot salads are common side dishes.Other traditional foods include:

Oxtail stew

Curries

Kebabs

Fry's Turkish Delight

Fry's Turkish Delight is a chocolate sweet made by Cadbury. It was launched in the UK in 1914 by the Bristol chocolate manufacturer J. S. Fry & Sons and consists of a rose-flavoured Turkish delight surrounded by milk chocolate. The Fry's identity remained in use after Fry & Sons merged with Cadbury in 1919.

In Australia and New Zealand the range of "Turkish" products released by Cadbury has expanded to include mini Easter eggs, ice-cream, sectioned family block chocolate bars, and small versions used in boxed chocolates. In the UK, Cadbury also manufacture the Dairy Milk Turkish, using dairy milk chocolate with a slightly different Turkish centre, in the familiar block bar form.

As of August 2010 production of Fry's Turkish Delight (along with other products such as Fry's Peppermint Cream, Crunchie etc.) for the UK market is based in Poland. They also now contain no artificial colours (changed from E129 Allura Red AC to natural E160a carotenes and E162 Beetroot Red.) In New Zealand they are still made with artificial colours.

Fusilli

Fusilli [fuˈzilli] are a variety of pasta that are formed into corkscrew or helical shapes. The word fusilli presumably comes from fuso ("spindle"), as traditionally it is "spun" by pressing and rolling a small rod over the thin strips of pasta to wind them around it in a corkscrew shape.In addition to plain and whole wheat varieties, as with any pasta, other colours can be made by mixing other ingredients into the dough, which also affects the flavour, for example, beetroot or tomato for red, spinach for green, and cuttlefish ink for black.

The term fusilli is also used to describe a short, extruded, twisted pasta known as rotini in the United States.

Gajar ka halwa

Gajar ka halwa (Hindi: गाजर का हलवा), also known as gajorer halua, Gajrela, Gajar Pak, and Carrot halwa is a carrot-based sweet dessert pudding from the Indian subcontinent. It is made by placing grated carrots in a pot containing a specific amount of water, milk and sugar and then cooking while stirring regularly. It is often served with a garnish of almonds and pistachios. The nuts and other items used are first sautéed in ghee, a South Asian clarified butter.The dessert is traditionally eaten during all of the festivals in India, mainly on the occasion of Diwali, Holi, Eid al-Fitr and Raksha Bandhan. It is served hot during the winter.

Gravlax

Gravlax or gravlaks is a Nordic dish consisting of raw salmon, cured in salt, sugar, and dill. Gravlax is usually served as an appetizer, sliced thinly and accompanied by hovmästarsås (literally "maitre d'hôtel sauce", also known in Sweden as gravlaxsås and in Denmark as rævesovs, literally "fox sauce"), a dill and mustard sauce, either on bread or with boiled potatoes.

Jellied veal

Jellied veal (or veal brawn, Swedish: kalvsylta) is a cold cut dish made from veal, sometimes pork, stock, onion and spices such as allspice, bay leaf and white pepper. It is eaten cold from the fridge. Often with potatoes and pickled beetroot or sliced on crisp bread. It is a traditional dish for Christmas in Sweden. Jellied veal is considered as one of the few remaining dishes from the original Swedish Christmas smorgasbord.

Kiwiburger

The Kiwiburger is a hamburger sold at McDonald's restaurants in New Zealand. It consists of a four-ounce (113 g) beef patty, griddle egg, beetroot, tomato, lettuce, cheese, onions, mustard, and tomato sauce on a toasted bun. The burger was introduced in 1991, but was withdrawn from the main menu in 2004. It has since returned several times on a limited-time promotional basis.

Knipp

Knipp (in the Hanover area: Calenberger Pfannenschlag) is a type of sausage made by mixing meat with grains (Grützwurst) related to Pinkel which comes from the Bremen and Lower Saxony regions of Germany.

Knipp is made from oat groats, pork head, pork belly, pork rind, liver and broth and seasoned with salt, allspice and pepper. Knipp is usually sold in roughly 30 cm (12 in) long and 10–15 cm (3.9–5.9 in) thick sausages as a Stange ("stick") or Rolle ("roll"). The smoked sausage is sold and consumed having been roasted, either just with bread, or with roast or boiled potatoes and gherkins, sweet and sour pumpkin, apple sauce (Apfelmus) and beetroot or even cold or hot on wholemeal bread. Sometimes crispy, fried slices of Beutelwurst are served with Knipp – this dish is known in Low Saxon as Knipp un Büddelwust.

In the Lüneburg Heath, Knipp is made with Heidschnucke meat and is known as Heidjer Knipp.

In Oldenburg, Knipp is called Hackgrütze.

For a long time, Knipp was seen as 'poor man's food'.

Manto Tshabalala-Msimang

Dr. Mantombazana 'Manto' Edmie Tshabalala-Msimang (née Mali) (9 October 1940 – 16 December 2009) was a South African politician. She was Deputy Minister of Justice from 1996 to 1999 and controversially served as Minister of Health from 1999 to 2008 under President Thabo Mbeki. She also served as Minister in the Presidency under President Kgalema Motlanthe from September 2008 to May 2009.

Her emphasis on treating South Africa's AIDS epidemic with easily accessible vegetables such as garlic and beetroot, rather than with antiretroviral medicines, was the subject of international criticism. These policies led to the deaths of over 300,000 South Africans.

Murături

Murături are the pickled vegetables of the Romanian and Moldovan cuisine. Murături are an assortment of vegetables or fruits that are pickled using brine, or vinegar. Examples of foodstuffs they are made out of are beetroot, cucumber, green tomatoes (gogonele), carrots, cabbage, bell peppers, melons, mushrooms, turnips, celery, and cauliflower.

Red velvet cake

Red velvet cake is traditionally a red, red-brown, mahogany, maroon, crimson or scarlet colored chocolate layer cake, layered with white cream cheese or ermine icing. Common modern red velvet cake is made with red dye; the red color was originally due to non-Dutched, anthocyanin-rich cocoa.Common ingredients include buttermilk, butter, cocoa, vinegar, and flour. Beetroot or red food coloring may be used for the color.

Sorrel soup

Sorrel soup is a soup made from water or broth, sorrel leaves, and salt. Varieties of the same soup include spinach, garden orache, chard, nettle, and occasionally dandelion, goutweed or ramsons, together with or instead of sorrel. It is known in Ashkenazi Jewish, Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Armenian, Polish, Russian and Ukrainian cuisines. Its other English names, spelled variously schav, shchav, shav, or shtshav, are borrowed from the Yiddish language, which in turn derives from Slavic languages, like for example Belarusian шчаўе, Russian and Ukrainian щавель, shchavel, Polish szczaw. The soups name comes ultimately from the Proto-Slavic ščаvь for sorrel. Due to its commonness as a soup in Eastern European cuisines, it is often called green borscht, as a cousin of the standard, reddish-purple beetroot borscht. In Russia, where shchi (along with or rather than borscht) has been the staple soup, sorrel soup is also called green shchi. In old Russian cookbooks it was called simply green soup.Sorrel soup usually includes further ingredients such as egg yolks or whole eggs (hard boiled or scrambled), potatoes, carrots, parsley root, and rice. A variety of Ukrainian green borscht also includes beetroot. In Polish, Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian cuisines, sorrel soup may be prepared using any kind of broth instead of water. It is usually garnished with smetana (an Eastern European variety of sour cream). It can also be a kosher food. It may be served either hot or chilled.

Sorrel soup is characterized by its sour taste due to oxalic acid (called "sorrel acid" in Slavic languages) present in sorrel. The "sorrel-sour" taste may disappear when sour cream is added, as the oxalic acid reacts with calcium and casein. Some may refer to sorrel flavor as "tannic," as with spinach or walnuts.

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