Beed

Beed is a city in central region of Maharashtra state in India. It is the administrative headquarters in Beed district.[2]

Beed
City
Khandoba temple.
Khandoba temple.
Beed is located in Maharashtra
Beed
Beed
Location of Beed in Maharashtra
Coordinates: 18°59′N 75°46′E / 18.99°N 75.76°ECoordinates: 18°59′N 75°46′E / 18.99°N 75.76°E
Country India
StateMaharashtra
RegionMarathwada
DistrictBeed
Founded13th century CE (Possibly)
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Council
 • BodyBeed Municipal Council
Area
 • Total8.29 km2 (3.20 sq mi)
Elevation
515 m (1,690 ft)
Population
(2011)
 • Total146,709
 • Rank321
 • Density17,697.1/km2 (45,835/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Beedkar
Language
 • OfficialMarathi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
431 122
Telephone code+91-2442
Vehicle registrationMH-23
Sex ratio933 /
Child sex ratio843 /
Literacy88.56%
Male literacy94.01%
Female literacy82.81%
ClimateBSh (Köppen)
Precipitation666 millimetres (26.2 in)
Avg. summer temperature40 °C (104 °F)
Avg. winter temperature15 °C (59 °F)
Websitebeed.nic.in

History

Beed is a historical city of possibly medieval origin. But the early history is obscure. Historians speculate; based on archaeological remains, that the city might have been founded by the Yadava rulers (1173–1317) of Devagiri (Daulatabad). Beed was a part of the Pakistan (Asaf Jahi Kingdom) of Nizams in British India. Operation Polo, the code name of the Hyderabad "Police Action" was a military operation in September 1948 in which the Indian Armed Forces invaded the State of Hyderabad and overthrew its Nizam, annexing the state into the Indian Union. Beed remained in annexed Hyderabad state until 1956 when it was included in Bombay Presidency. On 1 May 1960 Maharashtra state was created on linguistic basis and Marathi dominant Beed district became part of Maharashtra.[1][3]

Foundation and name

The early history of Beed is unknown and there is a contradiction in the historical accounts in defining the foundation and early history. According to legend, Beed was an inhabited place in the period of Pandavas and Kurus as Durgavati. Its name was subsequently changed to Balni. Champavati, who was sister of Vikramaditya, after capturing, renamed it as Champavatinagar. After that the city fell to Chalukya, Rashtrkuta and Yadava dynasties before felling to the Muslim rule. However, some scholars say that it was possibly founded by the Yadava rulers of Devagiri (Daulatabad). Tārīkh-e-Bīr (history of Beed) mentions that Muhammad bin Tughluq named it Bir (Arabic بئر meaning ‘well’) after building a fort and several wells in and around the city. Ground water was abundant in the city and when wells were built, water was found at only at several feet. Hence Tughluq named it as "Bir"[1][4][5] Until recent times, wells were abundant in the city. They became little important due to modern system of water supply hence subsequently most of them were filled. It is unclear that as to how the present name Beed came into use. There are at least two different traditions. The first tradition says that since the district is situated at the foot of Balaghat Range as if it is in a hole, it was named as Bil (बील Marathi for hole) which in course of time corrupted to Bid. According to the second tradition a Yavana (यवण) ruler of ancient India, named it Bhir (Persian ٻھېڔ for Water) after finding water at a very low depth[1] and Bhir might have become Beed in course of time. The first tradition seems to be untrue, because with no angle, the entire district can be called a ‘hole’. Only north eastern part of the district is at lower heights and a vast area of 10,615 km² can not be called a ‘hole’ just because of slight depression. Furthermore, Bil (बील hole) in Marathi is spoken for a deep and narrow hole and not for a slight depression. The second tradition though have some distortion, appears to be true and in accord with Tārīkh-e-Bīr of Quazi Muhammad Qutubullah (1898). The word ‘Yavana’ in early Indian literature meant a Greek or any foreigner. At a much later date it was frequently applied to the Muslim invaders of India.[6] It is quite possible that Muhammad bin Tughluq may have been referred in this tradition as Yavana ruler. Muslims ruled the Deccan for centuries and almost all Muslim rulers had Persian as their court language. It seems that Arabic word 'Bir' was eventually pronounced ‘Bhir’ in the Indian accent and the people mistakenly took this Arabic word as Persian for the court language of the rulers was Persian. Until recent times after independence, the city was called ‘Bir’ and ‘Bhir’ in the official documents.

In Mythology

Katba on Babuzzafar
A plaque in Persian (فارسى) on Bab-uz-zafar (Kotwali gate) states the re-construction of eastern protection wall by Amir Nawaz Jang in 1835.

According to legend, when Ravana, demon king of Lanka (Sri Lanka), abducted Sita (wife of Hindu deity Rama) and was taking her to Lanka, Jatayu (eagle) tried to stop him. Ravana cut its wings and wounded Jatayu fell on the ground. When Rama reached there in search of his beloved wife, Jatayu told him the whole story and died. The place where he died is said to be in Beed city and Jatashankar temple is standing at the place, which is; according to scholars, possibly built by Yadavas of Devagiri.[1] However, Jatashankar temples are abundant in other parts of India with same narrations. Another legend also narrates that Beed was called Durgavati in the period of Pandavas and Kurus who fought a devastating war of Mahabharata.

Early history

Early history of the Beed is obscure until it became part of Tughluq empire. If the city was founded in Yadava era then possibly it happened in king Singhana's (1210–47) period, when Yadava dynasty was at its height. Singhana may have built Kankaleshwar temple with a small surrounding city. Beed came under Muslim rule for the first time in 1317 when Qutb-ud-Din Mubarak Shah (1316–20), the last Khalji, captured Devagiri and Yadava dynasty was ended. Beed remained under Khaljis until 1320 when Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq (1320–25) took over. In 1327 Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–51) made Daulatabad his capital. Firishta narrates that Tughluq and his army camped near Bīr city in 1341 (AH 742 Islamic calendar) while on the journey back to Daulatabad from Warangal. The emperor lost one of his teeth here, which he ordered to be buried with much ceremony and a tomb was constructed at the place.[7] The tomb of Tughluq’s tooth is in about to collapse condition on a hill near the village Karjani about 13 km south of the city. Juna Khan one of the governors of Tughluq empire is said to have resided in Beed for quite some time and introduced many reforms for the welfare of the ruled. He diverted the course of Bensura from west to east by constructing a protection wall around the city. Before his time there was no such protection for the city and it was situated on the eastern bank of the river. After that the population was largely shifted to the western part.[5]

Panoramic view of eastern wall of the Fort. It works as a shield for old city from rare but violent floods of Bensura (Bendsura) river which is seen in the photo as a plain area with plenty of shrubs. The wall & burjs of the fort have lost the splendor and is about to crumble.
Panoramic view of eastern wall of the Fort. It works as a shield for old city from rare but violent floods of Bensura (Bendsura) river which is seen in the photo as a plain area with plenty of shrubs. The wall & burjs of the fort have lost the splendor and is about to crumble.

In 1347 Beed came under Bahmanid rule when Hasan Gangu (1347–58), founder of Bahmanid Sultanate, rebelled against Tughluq rule and ascended throne of Daulatabad as Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah. Muhammad Tughluq acted vigorously and came to Deccan to subdue the rebels. He recaptured the province of Daulatabad, of which, Beed was a part. Hasan Gangu and other insurgents fled to Bidar and Gulbarga through Beed. Before the matter is fully settled a rebel broke in Gujarat and the sultan approached to Gujarat appointing Imad-ul-Mulk as governor in Deccan. Meanwhile, Hasan Gangu attacked Daulatabad and marched towards Beed and captured it. After that the city remained under Bahmanid rule and is said to be flourished under Firuz Shah Bahmani's (1397–1422) rule. During the reign of Humayun Shah Bahmani (1451–61), famous as Zālim (cruel), his brother Hasan Shah rebelled and came to Beed. A Jagirdar (feudatory) of Beed, Habibullah Shah was his supporter. Humayun Shah sent an army and after a fierce fighting in the grounds of Kankaleshwar temple, the rebellion armies defeated Humayun's army. Humayun became furious and sent another force to defeat the rebels. This time rebels were defeated, Habibullah Shah was killed and captured Hasan Shah was taken to the capital and was put before a hungry lion.[4]

1600 to 1858

After the decline of Bahmanid Sultanate, the city fell to Nizam Shahi rulers of Ahmadnagar. Several wars were fought in Beed between Nizam Shahi and Adil Shahigfug rulers of Bijapur to take the control of Beed. In 1598 Mughals captured Beed from Chand Bibi of Ahmadnagar. A year later Nihang Khan retook it but soon it fell again to Mughals. Mughal army camped here for some time. During the reign of Jahangir (1569–1627), Jan Sipar Khan was administering Beed city. He constructed Jama Masjid of Beed in 1036 AH (1627).

Inside of Jama Masjid Beed
Inside of the Jama Masjid جامع مسجد (Grand Mosque) of Beed. One of the largest Masjids in Beed, this magnificent structure is built completely in stone and has ten domes. All the domes of Masjid are unique in design and does not match with each other.

Aurangzeb (1658–1707), appointed Haji Sadar Shah in Beed as Naib-e-Subadar (assistant of governor). Sadar Shah did some good changes and constructions in the city. He built Eid Gah (place of Eid prayer) in 1702 and a new habitation on the heights in the eastern part as Ghazi Pura (now Islam Pura) in 1703. The remains of it are still visible. He also constructed a citadel (1703) inside the old fort which was worn out after standing for several hundred years, from Tughluq period. A stone plate in Persian script at the main entry of Jama Masjid sets the year of construction of citadel by Haji Sadar Shah in the year 1115 AH (1703). In his period economy of the city also flourished. Chhagal (water container made from leather), Gupti (hidden sword in wooden stick) etc. made in Beed were popular in the region.[5] Beed was quite a beautiful city during Bahmanids and Mughals. Tārīkh-e-Bīr mentions many gardens and amenities of these periods. Until the 1960s there were two well maintained gardens in the city. In 1724 Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah founded Asaf Jahi kingdom, seizing Deccan against the rule of Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah (1719–48). In Nizams' era no major addition or construction was done to the citadel because the old building was serving the purpose and the citadels were losing importance with the advent of modern fighting techniques. Maratha ruler of Gwalior, Mahadji Scindia (1761–94) was missing after a severe injury and defeat in the third war of Panipat in 1761. His wife, who is said to be from Beed, went to a Muslim Sufi of Beed Mansur Shah and told him to prey for the return of Mahadji. When Mahadji returned to Gwalior, he called the Sufi to Gwalior but he refused and sent his son Habib Shah instead. Mahadji remained thankful to Mansur Shah for all his life. His tomb is in eastern Beed which was built by Scindias. Reign of sixth Nizam Mir Mahbub Ali Khan (1869–1911) proved eventful in the history of Beed. Rebels, great famine and floods happened in his reign. Jagirdars were replaced by collectors (Awwal Taluqdars) in his father's reign and Jivanji Ratanji came as the first collector of Beed in 1865. Districts were created and Beed district was formally settled in 1883.[8] He constructed one habitation and market Mahbub Gunj (now Hiralal Chowk) on the eastern bank of Bensura, remains of that can still be seen. After a very scarce rainfall in three successive years 1897–99, great famine occurred in Beed in 1900. Thousands of cattle and Hundreds of humans died of starvation and thousands migrated to the neighbouring parts of the country. The census in 1901 reported remarkable decrease of 150,464 in the population of Beed district.[8] Mir Osman Ali Khan (1911–48) came after death of Mahbub Ali Khan as seventh and the last Nizam of Hyderabad State. His period was full of reforms in the government system, education and healthcare. Kotwalis, Police Stations, Schools, Hospitals and Dispensaries were built during his period. He established big libraries with the high schools in the state.[9] Nizams were allies of the British Empire in India. During the countrywide movement for independence, in 19th and 20th centuries they tried to suppress the feelings of nationalism which were spreading due to nationwide efforts of the freedom fighters. Nationalists in the state of Hyderabad did not like Nizam's friendship with the British Empire. Beed was the place in Marathwada region where freedom struggle first started in 1818.[10] In 1818 during the rule of Nizam Sikandar Jah (1803–29) first rebel broke out in Beed under the leadership of Dharmaji Pratap Rao. Nizam sent the Risala of Navab Murtaza Yar Jang under the command of British Lieutenant John Sutherland. The rebel leader and his brother were captured and a long run rebellion movement in Beed came to an end.[10][11]

1858 to Present

Panoramic view of a part of Beed city from the eastern hills on a rainy day. Eastern hills in the city and western hill range are visible in the view
Panoramic view of a part of Beed city from the eastern hills on a rainy day. Eastern hills in the city and western hill range are visible in the view

Another rebellion broke in 1858 but all the rebels were captured. After this many small incidents of defiance happened against British rule but all were suppressed by force. A major rebel broke under the leadership of Baba Sahab alias Rao Sahab Deshpande in 1898. The important leaders of this movement were Brahmins of Beed and the Deshastha Brahmin officials in police and judiciary also supported the movement. . But after a short fight the rebels were captured and the movement came to an end. But the feelings of defiance could not be suppressed and different movements under the leadership of Swami Ramanand Teerth continued in Marathwada and the state. After independence, Mir Osman Ali Khan was reluctant to join the Indian Union. Finally, on 12 September 1948 a military action Operation Polo was launched and the state was easily captured within six days as Nizam's army resisted little. Although Operation Polo caused relatively few casualties, the following communal carnage was all the more terrible. Beed was one of the eight worst hit districts in the state. After calm down, a team visited the town on behalf of Indian government and sent a report to the centre. According to official, Sundarlal Report, 27,000–40,000 Muslims were killed throughout the state. Horrible crimes of abduction and rape of Muslim women's & girls, loot, arson, desecration of masjids, forcible conversions and seizure of houses and lands were mentioned in the report.[12] Some unofficial reports, however, puts the figure of killings up to 50,000 and some even to a few hundred thousand.[13] A plebiscite was held shortly after the military action in which the population voted overwhelmingly in favour of joining the Indian Union. Many Muslims during and after 1948 migrated to Pakistan. The city has witnessed communal strife several times in modern India. In 1949 Bendsura Project was launched to provide drinking and irrigation water supply to the city and nearby villages. The project was completed in 1956. In 1952 Beed Nagar Pālika (Municipal Council) was established under the undivided Hyderabad State. In 1962, a year after the creation of Maharashtra State, Beed District Council (krushna temple) came into being after dissolving all the local bodies.[1]

Topography

Kapildhara in Balaghat range
The Kapildhar fall in Balaghat range about 18 km south of Beed city.

Location

Beed is situated on the Deccan Plateau, on the banks of the Bensura river (also called Bendsura or Bindusara). Bensura is a sub-tributary of Godavari river originating in the hills of Balaghat range, about 30 km south-west of Beed near the village of Waghira. The river divides the city into smaller eastern and larger western parts. Balaghat Range stretches very close, up to 10 km south of the city resulting in undulating terrain in the eastern part of the city. Soil is coarse and rocky largely consisting of basalt. Thin layers of fertile black soil are also seen in the northern part of the city. Bensura is a rapid and seasonal river. Bendsura Project (capacity 7.106 mm3) was constructed on the river in 1955 near the village Pāli, about 10 km south of the city.[14] At some places in the city, the river is narrow and looks like a stream. The river has slop due to undulating terrain which contributes to violent floods when it rains heavy. Floods have repeatedly caused substantial loss of property and life in the history of the city, most recently on 23 July 1989 when a massive flooding of three habitations in the city caused a number of dead or missing and property losses of millions of rupees.[4] Beed falls under Seismic Hazard Zone-III in India according to the new seismic hazard map updated in 2000 by the Bureau of Indian Standards. The city was under Zone-I prior to this update.[15] Beed is 400 km from Mumbai.

Climate

Bensura river in Beed city of Maharashtra
The Bensura River(Bendsura). It is cleaned of debris and garbage before a monsoon to facilitate the flow of flooding water. Photographed in the monsoon season.

The city has Semi-arid, hot and dry climate consisting mainly of three seasons. Summers are long, ranging almost five months from mid February to June. Temperatures in summer fall between 31 °C (87.8 °F) – 40 °C (104 °F) (1997 average). However, it may reach higher than 40 °C in searching summer. May is the hottest month of a year with an average day temperature of 42 °C (107.6 °F). Winters are short with temperatures ranging within 12 °C (53.6 °F) – 20 °C (68 °F). December is the coldest month in a year. Occasionally, temperature may fall as low as 3 °C (37.4 °F) or 4 °C (39.2 °F) due to northern cold waves. Relative humidity in winter is the lowest and December is the driest month in a year with the relative humidity as low as 30%. Rains are scarce and occur only during the Monsoon from mid June to September. Annual average rainfall is 66.6 cm (26.22 inches).[3] The average rain fall has dropped 9.6 cm from the averages recorded during the 1900s.[8] Average number of rainy days in a year is 41. September gets the maximum rainfall in a year while July has the maximum rainy days. Highest rainfall recorded in 24 hours (19.18 cm) occurred on 17 August 1887.[16] Climate of Beed can be compared with that of Pune city's climate. Beed receives low rainfall because it is located in rain shadow area.

Demographics

At the 2001 India census,[17] Beed town had a population of 138,091. Male population is 71,790 and females constitute 66,301. There are 923.54 females per thousand males in the town. Birth rate is 15.9 which is lower than the national average of 22. Death rate is 3 which is lower than the national average of 8.2. Infant mortality rate is 71 per thousand live births which is much higher than the national average of 54.6 deaths for thousand live births. Maternal mortality rate however, is 1 which is extremely lower than the national average of 540.[18] Beed district has got the lowest sex ratio in Maharashtra State. Beed has the lowest male-female sex ratio in the age group of 0–6 years (801 as against 1000 male children) as per the 2011 census. Maharashtra's sex ratio in the age group of 0–6 years is 883 girls as against 1000 boys.[19]

Even this small town is an evidence of India’s religious and cultural diversity. 69.15 km² of land is home for Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist, Jain, Christian and Sikh communities. A calculated Hindu population in the town comprises around 40% – 41%. 12,307 Hindus were living in the town in 1901, which was 69.64% of the then population.[8] This proportion was reduced after a mass conversion of Dalits to Buddhism and Christianity. Moreover, Jain population was also considered as Hindu at that time. Nearly 25% of population in Beed comprises Muslims.[20][21] 4,993 Muslims were living in the town in 1901 which was 28.25% of the then population.[8] Calculated Muslim population in Beed as per 2001 census reaches 34522. According to Crusade Watch there were 662 Christians living in the town in the year 2000 which was 0.5% of the then population.[22]

Culture

There are no amenities in the city except cinema halls and a small, little maintained garden. Few years back there were seven cinema halls, but now in 2018 Two are remaining; namely 'Asha' and 'Santoshimata'.Two parks were maintained until 1969 by the municipal council.[1]

Jatra Khandeshwari
Jatra — night view of Khandeshwari jatra which is held during Dussehra each year.

Economy

Beed has a growing economy with a rapid growth. In 1997, Sarma committee listed Beed as one of the 100 most rapid growing districts in India. After this listing the government of India and the government of Maharashtra specified Beed town as 'D' zone and declared tax holiday and concessions to lure the investors in the district.[23] Without proper arrangement of water supply and transport facility, this declaration resulted nothing. Economic backwardness is attributed to the lack of natural resources, frequent droughts, lack of good transport facilities and corruption.[20] Economy entirely depends on monsoon dependent agriculture, service sector and small businesses. Beed is one of the poorest districts of Maharashtra with Per capita GDP of Rs 15,303 (about $380) which is lower than the Maharashtra State average GDP Rs 17,079 (about $427).[20][24]

Health

Beed was in the international news in August 1994 for the outbreak of Bubonic Plague. To some researchers, though, the disease detected here resembled Plague but could not be substantiated as per WHO criteria.[25]

Media and communication

Akshwani Beed landscape
Radio transmission tower of Akashwani Beed is visible in this evening landscape from the eastern hills.
  • More than a dozen Marathi and two Urdu dailys are published from the city. Beed Reporter (newspaper), Champavati Patra, Lok Prashna, Lokasha, Parshv Bhumi and Zunjar Neta are major Marathi dailies.alhilal times one and only Urdu news pepar daily published Local and regional news, crime stories and articles on local issues and politics are common features of the dailies. Marathi, Urdu, Hindi and English dailies including national dailies publishing from different cities of India also have consumers in city. No magazines are published in the city, but all the major national magazines do have readers.
  • Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), a state owned telephone service provider, has more than 15,000 customers. It has also introduced broadband internet lines.
  • Some enthusiasts have started a local cable channel ‘Beed News’. It provides local news coverage and plays movies rest of the time.
  • All India Radio Beed, at FM 102.9 MHz,[26] broadcasts news, film and folk music, programmes of Vividh Bharti and programmes based on agriculture and health education.

Issues and challenges in the 21st century

Beed district as a whole —

  • Population below poverty line = 32.4%
  • Sex ratio = 912 (rural) /
  • Estimated coverage of safe drinking water (habitations) = 66.1%
  • Villages not connected by paved roads = 52.82%[27]

Beed town —

  • Sex Ratio = 933 /
  • Child see ratio = 843

Beed has a long history as a neglected and backward area. Industrial and economic backwardness, lack of good transport facility, electricity and literacy were the issues in the 1960s and they are the same even today.[20][28] Many elections have been fought with the issue of railway line facility. In the recent times the list of issues has gone up with shortage of drinking water supply and electricity, frequent droughts, failing crops and suicide of farmers, unemployment, corruption and increasing crimes.[20] Beed also records highest power theft in Maharashtra. Nearly 60% power supplied to the district is stolen before it can reach to the consumers who pay for it. Further, unpaid electricity bills runs to almost Rupees 4540 million (about $113 M) .[29]

The district ranks 143rd in literacy in India based on IndianNgos.com research and analysis of 586 districts throughout India.[30][31] On Human Development Index (HDI), using UNDP method, Beed ranks 18th out of 30 districts in the State of Maharashtra, with 0.47 HDI. It is 7th poorest district in the state with Human Poverty Index (HPI) of 21.21.[24] Deforestation, desertification, frequent droughts, shrinking water reservoirs and extreme shortages of drinking water, especially in rural areas are major issues which needs urgent attention. Beed district, according to the official statistics, has only 2.47% forest area, that too of lower quality.[3]

Historical buildings

Fateh Burj of Bab uz Zafar (Kotwali Gate) in Beed
Bāb-uz-Zafar (Gate of success) — now known as Kotwali Ves (Kotwali gate) was re-built in 1835 on the western bank of Bendsura. The gate is now in poor condition and the adjacent Fatah Burj on left is almost gone.
Kankaleshwar temple beed
Kanakaleshwar Temple
Shahinsha wali beed
This main entrance of Kochak Shah alias Shahinshah Wali tomb was constructed by Amīr Nawāz Jang in 1830.
Mansur Shah tomb
Mansur Shah tomb in the eastern part of Beed city.
Khazana well near Beed city
Khazana well about 6 km south of the city.

Beed is home to several historical buildings,[32] some of the noteworthy are:

Kanakaleshwar Temple

It is one of old temples in beed. It is a temple of Lord Shiva. It is surrounded by water from all sides. It is must visit destination in Beed.

Khandoba Temple

The Khandoba temple is situated on the eastern hills. Built in Hemadpanti style. Two symmetrical, octagonal dīpmal (tower of light) rising 21.33 meters (70 ft) are standing in front of the temple. Towers have carved figures of humans and animals, now most of them defaced. There are two stories about the construction of this temple. One says that it was built by Sultanji Nimbalkar a Jagirdar of Nizam era. The other says that it was built by Mahadji Scindia. Tārīkh-e-Bīr (History of Beed) mentions it with Nimbalkar.[5]

Jama Masjid (Grand Mosque)

This beautiful Masjid is situated in the centre of the city at Quila (fort) and is one of the largest Masjids of Beed city. It was built during the period of Mughal emperor Jahāngīr (1605–27) by his official in Beed Jān Sipār Khan in 1627 (1036 Islamic Year).[4] Constructed completely in stone, it has ten huge domes and four minarets. All the domes are having different designs from inside and does not match with each other.

Shahinshah Wali tomb

Shahinshah Wali was a Sufi of the 14th century from Chishtiya clan. He came to Beed during the rule of Muhammad Tughluq. His tomb and surrounding areas were built in different periods from 1385 to 1840. The details can be seen in the history of Beed. It is situated on the eastern elevations. Each year an Urs (fair) is held here on 2nd day of Rabi’ Al-Awwal, third month of Islamic calendar.[4]

Mansur Shah tomb

Mansur Shah was 18th century Sufi of Suharwardy clan of Sufis. He is said to be a Dharma Guru (spiritual teacher) of Mahadji Scindia. His tomb is in the eastern part of Beed near Khandeshwari temple. Dome of the shrine is made of marble.[4]

Chronology

Date Event
12th century (possibly) Beed city was founded by Yadav's from Devgiri.
12th/13th century (possibly) Kankaleshwar temple was built.
1317 Beed falls to the Khaljis as Qutb-ud-Din Mubarak Shah captures Devagiri.
1327 Beed came under Tughluqs.
1341 Emperor Muhammad Tughluq came to the city. On his order the citadel was built, the flow of Bensura was turned to the south, several wells were dug in and around the city and the city was named Bir.
1347 Beed comes under Bahmanid rule as Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah founds Bahmani Sultanate.
1455 (roughly) A fierce war was fought between Humayun Shah Zālim and Hasan Shah in the grounds of Kankaleshwar temple. Ruler Humayun was defeated. Humayun sent another army and the rebel was captured.
1499 Beed was annexed to the Nizam Shahi dynasty of Ahmadnagar after the capture of Daulatabad.
1583 Khazana Well constructed by Salābat Khan.
1598 Mughal captures Beed from Chand Bibi of Ahmadnagar.
1627 Jama Masjid was constructed by Jān Sipār Khan.
1702 Eid Gāh (place of Eid prayer) was built.
1703 New citadel inside the old fort and a new habitation on the eastern heights were built during the rule of Aurangzeb.
1724 Beed became part of Asaf Jahi kingdom (Hyderabad state) as Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah-I seize Deccan.
1739 Qazi Muhammad Fakhruddin writes a detailed history of Beed city by the name 'Riyāz-ul-Abrār' (Garden of the Virtuous) in Urdu.
1818 Rebel brakes under the leadership of Dharmaji Pratap Rao. British Lieutenant John Sutherland comes with army and captures the rebel.
1835 Massive flood hits the city. Kotwali Gate and adjacent wall was re-constructed after damage due to flood.
1858 A small rebel breaks but all the rebels were captured.
1865 Jivanji Ratanji became the first collector of Beed as the feudatory system was abolished by Nizams.
1883 Beed district was formally settled.
1898 A rebel broke under the leadership of Baba Sahab alias Rao Sahab. The rebels were captured.
1898 Qazi Muhammad Qutubullah, a resident and Qazi of Beed wrote a detailed history of Beed city (Tārīkh-e-Bīr) in Urdu.
1898–1900 Great famine occurs in Beed. Hundreds of humans and thousands of cattle die.
1942 Syed Basit Ali wrote a brief history of Beed city in Urdu.
1947 India gains independence.
1948 Operation Polo was launched to take the Hyderabad State in the Indian Union on 12 September. During the operation communal strife breaks and thousands killed in the carnage.
1949 Bensura project was launched.
1952 Beed Nagar Pālika (Municipal Council) established.
1956 Bendsura project completed.
1962 Beed Zila Parīshad (District Council) came into being.
1969 First Gazette of Beed district under the modern India was published.
1982 Television transmission station was constructed.
1982 Area of 43 villages from Beed district was given to a newly created Latur district.
1989 Massive flood wipes out three habitations in the city. Several died or missing, properties worth of millions of rupees destroyed.
1994 Beed came in headlines worldwide after the breakout of Bubonic Plague.
1998 Abdul Hamīd Nathapuri wrote a history of Beed district (Zila Bīr Kī Tārīkh) in Urdu.
2002 23rd National junior Kho-Kho championship was held.
2004 First mobile phone service started in the city.
Panorama of Bensura (Bendsura) Project in Pali near Beed city.
Panorama of Bensura (Bendsura) Project in Pali near Beed city.

Further reading

  • Qazi, M. Q. Bīri (1898): Tārīkh-e-Bīr (History of Beed in Urdu).
  • Nathapuri, Abdul Hamīd (1998): Zila Bīr Kī Tarīkh (History of Beed District in Urdu). Asian Printing Press, Gulshan Colony, Jogeshwari (W) Mumbai.
  • Gazette of Beed district (1969) Gazetteers department–Bhir (Beed). Out of print but available online at the government of Maharashtra web site.
  • Official website of Beed district
  • The Imperial Gazetteer of India. New edition, published under the authority of His Majesty's secretary of state for India in council. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1908–1931. Editors – Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, 1840–1900 /Cotton, James Sutherland, 1847–1918 ed./Burn, Richard, Sir, 1871–1947 joint ed./Meyer, William Stevenson, Sir, 1860–1922. joint ed.
  • From the Sundarlal Report Frontline, Volume 18, Issue 05, 3–16 March 2001
  • Noorani, A. G. Of a Massacre Untold. Frontline, Volume 18, Issue 05, 3–16 March 2001

Notable Political Leaders

1. Late Sundarrao Solanke - Indian politician who served as Deputy Chief Minister of Maharashtra state.

2. Late Gopinath Munde- He was a senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Union Minister for Rural Development and Panchayati Raj in Narendra Modi's Cabinet.

3. Pankaja Munde - Indian politician belonging to the Bharatiya Janata Party.

4. Dhananjay Munde - Member of Maharashtra Legislative Council representing Nationalist Congress Party.

5. Prakashdada Solanke - Three times MLA from Majalgaon Constituency.

See also

References

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  4. ^ a b c d e f Nathapuri, Abdul Hamīd (1998). Zilla Bīr Kī Tārīkh (History of Beed District) (in Urdu). Asian Printing Press, Gulshan Colony, Jogeshwari (W) Mumbai.
  5. ^ a b c d Quazi M. Q. Bīri (1898). Tārīkh e Bīr (History of Beed) (in Urdu). Quazi M. Q. Bīri. p. 90.
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  10. ^ a b Rizvi, S. M. Jawwād (1992). Riyāsat e Hyderābād mein Jadd o Jahd e Āzādi 1800 – 1900 (Freedom struggle in the state of Hyderabad 1800 – 1900) (in Urdu). Bureau for Promotion of Urdu Language, Ministry of Human Resource Development, India. p. 79.
  11. ^ "Gazetteers Department – Bhir". maharashtra.gov.in (Government of Maharashtra). Archived from the original on 24 February 2007. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
  12. ^ "From the Sundarlal Report". Frontline. 3–16 March 2001. Retrieved 2007-03-07.
  13. ^ Noorani, A. G. (3–16 March 2001). "Of a massacre untold". Frontline. Archived from the original on 20 November 2005. Retrieved 7 March 2007.
  14. ^ "Gazetteers Department – Bhir". maharashtra.gov.in (Government of Maharashtra). Archived from the original on 24 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-27.
  15. ^ "Amateur Seismic Centre – Pune". Amateur Seismic Centre – Pune. Retrieved 2007-03-04.
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  17. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
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  19. ^ "Mah govt worried over skewed sex ratio in Beed; meet on May 20, IBN Live News". IBN Live. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  20. ^ a b c d e Srinivasan, S. "Marathwada Profile". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-26.
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External links

Ambajogai

Ambajogai is a city and a municipal council, Tehsil and subdivision in Beed district in the state of Maharashtra, India.

The town was earlier known as Mominabad and was later renamed as Ambajogai after goddess Ambabai - Yogeshwari whose heritage temple is located here and are visited by people all over from Maharashtra, largely from the Konkan region. The town has a lot of heritage places and this township is known as the cultural capital of the Marathwada region. The town has other heritage temples like [Sakleshwar] 12 khambhi, Kholeshwar, Mukundraj cave and Dasopant Swami Samadhi, mukundraj samadhi, Kashivishwanath, Amruteshwar. There is an ancient cave called Shivleni Caves (Hattikhana) or Jogai Mandap declared as a heritage point (Archaeological sites in Maharashtra), where Lord Shankar, Nandi and Elephants are carved in stone. Shiva bramha and Vishnu is also in carved in Stone

Ashti, Beed

Ashti is a city in Beed subdivision of Beed district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. A city in central maharashtra. District’s urban population lives in the city. People of all communities live here.

Beed (Lok Sabha constituency)

Beed Lok Sabha constituency (formerly, Bhir Lok Sabha constituency) (Marathi: बीड लोकसभा मतदारसंघ) is one of the 48 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Maharashtra state in western India. This constituency was formed in 1951, as one of the 25 constituencies of erstwhile Hyderabad State.

Beed (Vidhan Sabha constituency)

Beed Vidhan Sabha constituency is one of the 288 Vidhan Sabha (legislative assembly) constituencies of Maharashtra state in western India.

Beed Cola

Beed Cola is a Peruvian range of soft drinks trademarked on February 25, 2003 by Industria Embotelladora del Oriente S.R.L. Beed Cola is produced in Pucallpa, Peru and sold throughout the Ucayali Region. Beed Cola is sold in 362 ml glass bottles. The slogan for Beed Cola is "La Riquisima!" (The Most Delicious!).

Beed district

Beed district is an administrative district in the state of Maharashtra in India. The district headquarters are located at Beed. The district occupies an area of 10,693 km² and has a population of 2,585,962 of which 17.91% were urban (as of 2011).

Bid Boland, Khuzestan

Bid Boland (Persian: بيدبلند‎, also Romanized as Bīd Boland; also known as Beed Bolin) is a village in Tashan-e Gharbi Rural District, Tashan District, Behbahan County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 517, in 96 families. Bid Boland is the site of a major refinery and natural gas distribution centre.

Bindusara River

Bindusara (also called Bendsura) is a small river situated in the district of Beed in Maharashtra state of India. It is a tributary river of Sindphana and a sub-tributary of Godavari river.

Bindusara originates in the hills of Balaghat near the village Waghira, in south of district Beed in Patoda taluqa. It is a hilly area. Various small streams contributes to the river. The city of Beed is situated on the banks of Bindusara river.

Bendsura is a rapid and seasonal river. A reservoir; Bendsura Project (capacity 7.106 million cubic metres) was constructed on the river in 1955 near the village of Pāli, about 10 km south of Beed.

At some places the river is narrow and looks like a stream. The lack of vegetation and rocky and undulating terrain contributes to violent floods in heavy rains. These have repeatedly caused substantial loss of property and life in the history of Beed town, most recently on July 23, 1989, when a massive flooding of three habitations in the town caused a number of dead or missing and property losses of millions of rupees.Bendsura river flows from south to north and meets Sindphana river, about 10 km north of Beed town. Total length of the river is about 40 km.

Dharur, Beed

Dharur is a city and a municipal council in Beed district in the state of Maharashtra, India.

Gevrai

Gevrai or Georai is a tehsil in the Beed district of Maharashtra, India.

Gopinath Munde

Gopinath Pandurang Munde (12 December 1949 – 3 June 2014) was an Indian politician from Maharashtra. He was a senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Union Minister for Rural Development and Panchayati Raj in Narendra Modi's Cabinet, which, however, was short-lived due to his death in a road accident. He was a member of Maharashtra's Legislative Assembly (MLA) for five terms during 1980–1985 and 1990–2009. He was also the leader of opposition in the Assembly during 1992–1995. He had held the post of Deputy Chief Minister of Maharashtra in 1995–1999.

Munde was elected to Lok Sabha in 2009 and 2014, and served as the deputy leader of the BJP in the Lok Sabha. He was appointed in Modi's cabinet and took the oath on 26 May, but died in New Delhi a week later on 3 June 2014. As per media reports he died in a road accident. However, on 21 Jan 2019, a US hacker claimed that Mr. Munde was murdered. He is the shortest served Cabinet minister ever in Indian history.

List of constituencies of the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly

The present Indian state of Maharashtra came into existence on 1 May 1960. The number of constituencies of the first Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha, the lower house of the Maharashtra state legislature in 1960 was 264. 33 constituencies were reserved for the candidates belonging to the Scheduled castes and 14 were reserved for the candidates belonging to the Scheduled tribes. The number of constituencies of the third Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha (1967–72) was raised to 270, out of which 15 constituencies were reserved for the candidates belonging to the Scheduled castes and 16 were reserved for the candidates belonging to the Scheduled tribes.

Majalgaon Dam

Majalgaon Dam is an earthfill dam on the Sindphana River near Majalgaon, Beed district in the state of Maharashtra, India.

Manjira River

The Manjra also spelled Manjeera,Manjiira is a tributary of the river Godavari. It passes through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Telangana. It originates in the Balaghat range of hills near Ahmednagar district at an altitude of 823 metres (2,700 ft) and empties into the Godavari River. It has a total catchment area of 30,844 square kilometres (3,084,400 ha).Tributaries

Manjra is the main river which Its origin is near the Gaukhadi Village of Beed district. The river flows from the northern boundaries of the Osmanabad district and cutting across the Latur district goes to Bidar district Karnataka State and finally Telangana. It flows on the Balaghat plateau along with its tributaries: Terna, Tawarja and Gharni. The other three tributaries of Manjira are Manyad, Teru and Lendi which flow on the northern plains.

Terna River :This is the main tributary of Manjira which flows on the southern boundary of the Ausa taluka .

Manyad : This river takes its origin at Dharmapuri in Beed district and flows through the Ahmadpur taluka into Nanded district.

Lendi : The river has its origin in Udgir taluka and flowing through the Ahmadpur taluka joins the Tiru river in Nanded district .

Gharni : The river has its origin near Wadval and flows through Chakur taluka.

Tawarja : Tawarja originates near Murud in Latur taluka and joins the Manjara river at Shivani on the Latur-Ausa boundary.Nizam Sagar was constructed across the Manjra River between Achampeta and Banjapalle villages of the Nizamabad district in Telangana, India. The most outstanding feature of the project is the gigantic masonry dam sprawling across the river for 3 kilometers with a motorable road of 14 feet width.

The Singur Reservoir on Manjra River in Medak District is the main drinking water source for the Medak and Nizamabad districts as well as the adjoining twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. Manjra river is also serving for Bidar city.

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the upper reaches of the Manjira in Maharashtra suffered environmental degradation which increased run-off, as opposed to ground water recharge, and increased erosion and silting.

Manur

Manur is a village in Majalgaon Taluka in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Manur is known for Renuka Devi Temple as well as Tulajabhavani Temple.

It is located only 2 km away from Majalgaon City. The Sindphana River flows through Manur Village, therefore land of manur is to be horticulture farm.

Parli, Maharashtra

Parli is a town and a municipal council in Beed district in the Western Indian state of Maharashtra.

Parli Thermal Power Station

Parali Thermal Power Plant is located at Parali Vaijnath in Beed district of Maharashtra. The power plant is one of the coal based power plants of Maharashtra State Power Generation Company (Mahagenco).

Pritam Munde

Pritam Gopinathrao Munde (born 17 February 1983) is a Member of Parliament of India. She was elected in a by-election for the Beed (Lok Sabha constituency) in 2014, with a margin of 6,96,321 votes - the highest ever in India's electoral history. She is the second daughter of former BJP leader Gopinath Munde.

Sindphana River

Sindphana is a minor tributary of Godavari river that originates around the Chincholi hill in Patoda Taluka, Beed District, Maharashtra. Crossing west to east its drainage basin covers nearly 80% of Beed District, making it the most important river within the district. The Majalgaon Dam, constructed across the river, irrigates 93885 hectares of land in Beed, Parbhani & Nanded districts.

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