Beechcraft Model 18

The Beechcraft Model 18 (or "Twin Beech", as it is also known) is a 6- to 11-seat,[2] twin-engined, low-wing, tailwheel light aircraft manufactured by the Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. Continuously produced from 1937 to November 1969 (over 32 years, a world record at the time), over 9,000 were built, making it one of the world's most widely used light aircraft. Sold worldwide as a civilian executive, utility, cargo aircraft, and passenger airliner on tailwheels, nosewheels, skis, or floats, it was also used as a military aircraft.[3][4][5]

During and after World War II, over 4,500 Beech 18s were used in military service—as light transport, light bomber (for China), aircrew trainer (for bombing, navigation, and gunnery), photo-reconnaissance, and "mother ship" for target drones—including United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) C-45 Expeditor, AT-7 Navigator, and AT-11 Kansan; and United States Navy (USN) UC-45J Navigator, SNB-1 Kansan, and others. In World War II, over 90% of USAAF bombardiers and navigators trained in these aircraft.[3][4][6]

In the early postwar era, the Beech 18 was the pre-eminent "business aircraft" and "feeder airliner". Besides carrying passengers, its civilian uses have included aerial spraying, sterile insect release, fish stocking, dry-ice cloud seeding, aerial firefighting, air-mail delivery, ambulance service, numerous movie productions, skydiving, freight, weapon- and drug-smuggling, engine testbed, skywriting, banner towing, and stunt aircraft. Many are now privately owned, around the world, with 240 in the U.S. still on the FAA Aircraft Registry in August 2017.[3][5][7][8]

Model 18
Beechcraft AT-7 advanced training plane (00910460 026)
Instructor and pilot in an AT-7 doing navigation training at Kelly Field, Texas
Role Trainer and utility aircraft
National origin United States
Manufacturer Beech Aircraft Corporation
First flight January 15, 1937
Introduction 1937
Primary users United States Army Air Forces
United States Navy
Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Produced 1937–1970
Number built 9,000+
Unit cost
D18S: US$78,050 in 1952[1]

Design and development

Beech18C-FSFHonFloats
Beech 18 on floats in Manitoba, 1986
Beechcraft AT-11 out over the West Texas prairies (00910460 103)
Beechcraft AT-11 over the West Texas prairies, around 1944
Beech 18h
Private Beech H18 with the optional tricycle undercarriage visiting Lannion, France

By the late 1930s, Beechcraft management speculated that a demand would exist for a new design dubbed the Model 18, which would have a military application, and increased the main production facilities. The design was mainly conventional for the time, including twin radial engines, all-metal semimonocoque construction with fabric-covered control surfaces, and tailwheel undercarriage. Less conventional was the twin-tailfin configuration. The Model 18 can be mistaken for the larger Lockheed Electra series of airliners, which closely resemble it. Early production aircraft were powered either by two 330-hp (250-kW) Jacobs L-6s or 350-hp (260-kW) Wright R-760Es. The 450-hp (336-kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985 became the definitive engine from the prewar C18S onwards. The Beech 18 prototype first flew on January 15, 1937.

The aircraft has used a variety of engines and has had a number of airframe modifications to increase gross weight and speed. At least one aircraft was modified to a 600-hp (447-kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 powerplant configuration. With the added weight of about 200 lb (91 kg) per engine, the concept of a Model 18 fitted with R-1340 engines was deemed unsatisfactory due to the weakest structural area of the aircraft being the engine mounts. Nearly every airframe component has been modified.

In 1955, deliveries of the Model E18S commenced; the E18S featured a fuselage that was extended 6 in (150 mm) higher for more headroom in the passenger cabin. All later Beech 18s (sometimes called Super 18s) featured this taller fuselage, and some earlier models (including one AT-11) have been modified to this larger fuselage. The Model H18, introduced in 1963, featured optional tricycle undercarriage. Unusually, the undercarriage was developed for earlier-model aircraft under an STC by Volpar, and installed in H18s at the factory during manufacture. A total of 109 H18s was built with tricycle undercarriage, and another 240 earlier-model aircraft were modified with this.[9][10]

Construction of the Beechcraft Model 18 ended in 1970 with a final Model H18 going to Japan Airlines. Through the years, 32 variations of the basic design had flown, over 200 improvement modification kits were developed, and almost 8,000 aircraft were built. In one case, the aircraft was modified to a triple tail, trigear, humpbacked configuration and appeared similar to a miniature Lockheed Constellation. Another distinctive conversion was carried out by Pacific Airmotive as the PacAero Tradewind. This featured a lengthened nose to accommodate the tricycle nosewheel, and the Model 18's twin tailfins were replaced by a single fin.[11]

Operational history

Beech18 on floats
Beechcraft 18 on floats

Production got an early boost when Nationalist China paid the company US$750,000 for six M18R light bombers,[12] but by the time of the U.S. entry into World War II, only 39 Model 18s had been sold, of which 29 were for civilian customers.[9][13] Work began in earnest on a variant specifically for training military pilots, bombardiers, and navigators. The effort resulted in the Army AT-7 and Navy SNB. Further development led to the AT-11 and SNB-2 navigation trainers and the C-45 military transport. The United States Air Force (USAF) Strategic Air Command had Model 18 variants (AT-11 Kansans, C-45 Expeditors, F-2 Expeditors (the "F" standing for "Fotorecon", short for "photographic reconnaissance"), and UC-45 Expeditors) from 1946 until 1951. From 1951 to 1955, the USAF had many of its aircraft remanufactured with new fuselages, wing center sections, and undercarriages to take advantage of the improvements to the civil models since the end of World War II. Eventually, 900 aircraft were remanufactured to be similar to the then-current Model D18S and given new designations, constructor's numbers, and Air Force serial numbers.[14] The USN had many of its surviving aircraft remanufactured, as well, these being redesignated as SNB-5s and SNB-5Ps. The C-45 flew in USAF service until 1963, the USN retired its last SNB in 1972, while the U.S. Army flew its C-45s until 1976. In later years, the military called these aircraft "bug smashers" in reference to their extensive use supplying mandatory flight hours for desk-bound aviators in the Pentagon.[15]

Beech 18s were used extensively by Air America during the Vietnam War; initially more-or-less standard ex-military C-45 examples were used, but then the airline had 12 aircraft modified by Conrad Conversions in 1963 and 1964 to increase performance and load-carrying capacity. The modified aircraft were known as Conrad Ten-Twos, as the maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) was increased to 10,200 lb (4,600 kg).[16][17] The increase was achieved by several airframe modifications, including increased horizontal stabilizer angle-of-incidence, redesigned undercarriage doors, and aerodynamically improved wingtips. Air America then had Volpar convert 14 aircraft to turboprop power, fitted with Garrett AiResearch TPE-331 engines; modified aircraft were called Volpar Turbo Beeches, and also had a further increase in MTOW to 10,286 lb (4,666 kg).[16]

Spar problems

The wing spar of the Model 18 was fabricated by welding an assembly of tubular steel. The configuration of the tubes in combination with drilled holes from aftermarket STC modifications on some of these aircraft have allowed the spar to become susceptible to corrosion and cracking while in service.[18] This prompted the FAA to issue an Airworthiness Directive in 1975, mandating the fitting of a spar strap to some Model 18s. This led, in turn, to the retirement of a large number of STC-modified Model 18s when owners determined the aircraft were worth less than the cost of the modifications. The corrosion on unmodified spars was not a problem; it occurred due to the additional exposed surface area created through the STC hole-drilling process. Further requirements have been mandated by the FAA and other national airworthiness authorities, including regular removal of the spar strap to allow the strap to be checked for cracks and corrosion and the spar to be X-rayed. In Australia, the airworthiness authority has placed a life limit on the airframe, beyond which aircraft are not allowed to fly.[19][20][21]

Variants

Manufacturer models

Unless otherwise noted, the engines fitted are Pratt & Whitney R-985 radials.

Model 18A
First production model with seating for two pilots and seven or eight passengers, fitted with Wright R-760E-2 engines of 350 horsepower (260 kW), MTOW: 6,700 lb (3,000 kg)[22][23]
  • Model S18A
Version of Model 18A capable of being fitted with skis or Edo 55-7170 floats; MTOW: 7,200 lb (3,300 kg)[23]
Model 18B
Improved model with increased range and useful load, fitted with 285 hp (213 kW) Jacobs L-5 engines[22][24][25]
  • Model S18B
Version of Model 18B capable of being fitted with skis or floats.
Model 18D
Variant with seating for two pilots and nine passengers, fitted with Jacobs L-6 engines of 330 horsepower (250 kW), MTOW: 7,200 lb (3,300 kg).[26]
  • Model S18D
Version of Model 18D capable of being fitted with skis or Edo 55-7170 floats, MTOW: 7,170 lb (3,250 kg)[13][26]
Model A18D
Variant of 18D with MTOW increased by 300 lb (140 kg) to 7,500 lb (3,400 kg), fitted with Pratt and Whitney R-985 engines with 450 hp each[26]
  • Model SA18D
Seaplane version of Model A18D, but same MTOW as S18D, fitted with Edo 55-7170 floats[26]
Model A18A
Version fitted with Pratt and Whitney R-985 engines of 450 horsepower (340 kW), MTOW: 7,500 lb (3,400 kg)[26]
  • Model SA18A
Seaplane version of Model A18A, fitted with Edo 55-7170 floats, MTOW: 7,170 lb (3,250 kg)[26]
Model 18R
Model with Pratt and Whitney R-985-A1 engines with dual-stage blower for increased power at higher operating altitudes, 450 horsepower (340 kW), seven built, one to Sweden as an air ambulance, six to Nationalist China as M18R light bombers[12][22]
Model 18S
Nine-passenger pre-World War II civil variant, served as basis for USAAF C-45C[2]
Model B18S
Nine-passenger pre-World War II civil variant, served as basis for USAAF F-2[2]
Model C18S
Variant of B18S with seating for eight passengers, and equipment and minor structural changes[27]
Model D18S
First post-World War II variant introduced in 1945, with seating for eight passengers and MTOW of 8,750 lb (3,970 kg), 1,035 built[28][29]
Model D18C
Variant with Continental R9-A engines of 525 horsepower (391 kW) and MTOW of 9,000 lb (4,100 kg), introduced in 1947, 31 built.[28][30]
Model E18S
Variant with redesigned wing and MTOW of 9,300 lb (4,200 kg); 403 built[28]
Model E18S-9700
Variant of E18S with MTOW of 9,700 lb (4,400 kg); 57 built[28]
Model G18S
Beech Model 18 (reg N45CF) arrives Fairford 7Jul2016 arp
A Model G18S arrives at the 2016 RIAT, England
Superseded E18S, MTOW of 9,700 lb (4,400 kg); 155 built[28][29]
Model G18S-9150
Lightweight version of G18, MTOW of 9,150 lb (4,150 kg); one built[28][29]
Model H18
Last production version, fitted with optional tricycle undercarriage developed by Volpar and MTOW of 9,900 lb (4,500 kg); 149 built, of which 109 were manufactured with tricycle undercarriage[9][28][29]

Military versions

USAAC/USAAF Designations

C-45
Six-seat staff transport based on C18S;[27] 11 built[31][32]
C-45A
Eight-seat utility transport based on C18S;[27] 20 built[31]
RC-45A
Redesignation of all surviving F-2, F-2A, and F-2B aircraft by the USAF in 1948
C-45B
Based on C18S, but with modified internal layout; 223 ordered, redesignated UC-45B in 1943[27][32]
C-45C
Two Model 18S aircraft impressed into the USAAF, redesignated UC-45C in January 1943[2][22][33]
C-45D
Designation given to two AT-7 aircraft converted as passenger transports during manufacture, redesignated UC-45D in January 1943[33][34]
C45HcafAT7
C-45H/AT-7 CAF, Platte Valley Airpark, Hudson, CO, June 2007
C-45E
Designation given to two AT-7 and four AT-7B aircraft converted as passenger transports during manufacture, redesignated UC-45E in January 1943[33][34]
C-45F
Standardized seven-seat version based on C18S, with longer nose than preceding models;[27] 1,137 ordered, redesignated UC-45F[32]
C-45G
AT-7s and AT-11s remanufactured in the early 1950s for the USAF to similar standard as civil D18S with autopilot and R-985-AN-3 engines; 372 aircraft rebuilt[14][35]
TC-45G
Multiengine crew trainer variant of C-45G; AT-7s and AT-11s remanufactured in the early 1950s for the USAF to similar standard as civil D18S, 96 aircraft rebuilt[14][35]
C-45H
AT-7s and AT-11s remanufactured in the early 1950s for the USAF to similar standard as civil D18S, with no autopilot and R-985-AN-14B engines; 432 aircraft rebuilt[14][36]
TC-45H [28]
RC-45J [28]
In 1962, all surviving U.S. Navy SNB-5Ps were redesignated RC-45J.
TC-45J [28]
In 1962 all surviving U.S. Navy SNB-5s were redesignated TC-45J.
UC-45J [28]
Barksdale Global Power Museum September 2015 21 (Beechcraft AT-11 Kansan)
AT-11 at the Barksdale Global Power Museum
AT-7 Navigator
Navigation trainer based on C18S,[27] with an astrodome and positions for three students, powered by 450-hp Pratt & Whitney R-985-25 engines; 577 built[31][32]
AT-7A
Floatplane version of AT-7; six built[31]
AT-7B
Winterised AT-7; nine built[31]
AT-7C
Based on C18S[27] with R-985-AN3 engines; 549 built[31]
AT-11 Kansan
Bombing and gunnery trainer for USAAF derived from AT-7, fuselage had small, circular cabin windows, bombardier position in nose, and bomb bay; gunnery trainers were also fitted with two or three .30-caliber machine guns, early models (the first 150 built) had a single .30-cal AN-M2 in a Beechcraft-manufactured top turret, later models used a Crocker Wheeler twin .30-cal top turret, a bottom tunnel gun was used for tail gunner training, 1,582 built for USAAF orders, with 24 ordered by Netherlands repossessed by USAAF and used by the Royal Netherlands Military Flying School at Jackson, Mississippi.[37][38]
AT-11A
Conversion of AT-11 as navigation trainer; 36 converted[38]
CQ-3
Conversion of UC-45F, modified to act as drone control aircraft, redesignated as DC-45F in June 1948
Beechcraft F-2s in Alaska June 1941
F-2s in Alaska, 1941
F-2
Photo-reconnaissance version based on B18[2]
F-2A
Improved version
F-2B

US Navy Designations

Beechcraft SNB-1 Kansan front quarter view
SNB-1 Kansan
Beechcraft SNB-2 Navigator in flight
SNB-2 Navigator
JRB-1
Photographic aircraft, based on the C18S,[27] fitted with fairing over cockpit for improved visibility, 11 built[39]
JRB-2
Light transport, based on the C18S;[27] 15 built[39]
JRB-3
Photographic version, similar to C-45B; 23 built[39]
JRB-4
Utility transport version, equivalent to UC-45F'; 328 built.[39]
JRB-6 [28]
SNB-1
Similar to AT-11;[40] 110 built[41]
SNB-2
Navigation trainer[40] similar to AT-7, 299 built
SNB-2C
Navigation trainer[40]
SNB-2H
Ambulance conversion[40]
SNB-2P
Photo-reconnaissance trainer[40]
SNB-3
Navigation trainer
SNB-3Q
Electronic counter-measures trainer
SNB-5 [28]
SNB-2s and SNB-2Cs were remanufactured, and designated SNB-5.
SNB-5P [28]
Photo-reconnaissance trainer

RAF/RCAF Lend-lease Designations

Expeditor I
C-45Bs supplied to the RAF under Lend-Lease.
Expeditor II
C-45Fs supplied to the RAF and Royal Navy under Lend-Lease
Expeditor III
C-45Fs supplied to the RCAF under Lend-Lease

Post-war RCAF designations

C-45Ds delivered between 1951 and 1952.[42]

Expeditor 3N
navigation trainer - 88 built[43]
Expeditor 3NM
navigational trainer that could be converted to a transport - 59 built[44]
Expeditor 3NMT
3NM converted to a transport aircraft - 67 built[45]
Expeditor 3NMT(Special)
navigation trainer/personnel transport - 19 built[46]
Expeditor 3TM
transport with fittings so it could be converted to a navigation trainer - 44 built[43]
Expeditor 3TM(Special)
modified RCAF Expeditors used overseas in conjunction with Project WPB6 - three built.[47]

Conversions

Beech E-18
PacAero Tradewind
Conrad 9800
Modification increasing the gross weight to 9,800 pounds with a single piece windshield [48]
Dumod I
Executive conversion with Volpar tricycle landing gear, new wing tips, enlarged fight deck and refurbished 6–7 seat cabin with larger windows. Originally named Infinité I. 37 converted by 1966.[49]
Dumod Liner
Stretched airliner conversion. Similar to Dumod I but with forward fuselage stretched by 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m), allowing up to 15 passengers to be carried. Originally named Infinité II.[49]
Hamilton HA-1
conversion of a TC-45J aircraft
Hamilton Little Liner
Modification of D18S with aerodynamic improvements and new, retractable tailwheel, capable of carrying 11 seats[50]
Hamilton Westwind
Turboprop conversions with various engines
N432U
Hamilton Westwind III conversion at an airfield in Tennessee
Hamilton Westwind II STD
Stretched conversion powered by two 840-hp PT6As, and with accommodation for up to 17 passengers.[51]
Hamilton Westwind III
two 579-hp PT6A-20s or 630-hp PT6A-27s or 630-hp Lycoming LTS101s.
Hamilton Westwind IV
two 570-hp Lycoming LTP101s or 680-hp PT6A-28s or 750-hp PT6A-34s or 1020-hp PT6A-45s
PacAero Tradewind
Conversion of Beech D18S/C-45 to five- to 11-seat executive transport with single fin by Pacific Airmotive
SFERMA-Beechcraft PD.18S
Modification of Beech 18S powered by two Turboméca Bastan turboprops.[52]
Volpar (Beechcraft) Model 18
Conversion of Model 18 with nosewheel undercarriage[53][54]
Volpar (Beechcraft) Super 18
Volpar (Beechcraft) Turbo 18
Beech Model 18s fitted with the Volpar MkIV tricycle undercarriage and powered by two 705-hp Garrett TPE331-1-101B turboprop engines, flat-rated to 605 hp (451 kW), driving Hartzell HC-B3TN-5 three-bladed, reversible-pitch, constant-speed feathering propellers[54]
Volpar (Beechcraft) Super Turbo 18
2x 705 hp (526 kW) Garrett TPE331
Volpar (Beechcraft) C-45G
C-45G aircraft modified with tricycle undercarriage
Volpar (Beechcraft) Turboliner
15-passenger version of the Turbo 18 with extended fuselage, powered by 2 705-hp Garrett TPE331-1-101Bs[55]
Volpar (Beechcraft) Turboliner II
Turboliners modified to meet SFAR 23[55]

Operators

Civil

As of 2012, the Beechcraft Model 18 remains popular with air charter companies and small feeder airlines worldwide.

Military

World operators of the Beechcraft Model 18
Military Model 18 operators
Beech18RCAF
Beechcraft C-45 Expeditor in RCAF Air Transport Command markings
Swiss Air Force Beechcraft Model 18
C-45 as used by the Swiss Air Force for civilian aerial photography missions
Beechcraft UC-45F 00910460 118
Beechcraft UC-45F in flight
 Argentina
 Bolivia
 Brazil
 Canada
 Chile
 Colombia
 Costa Rica
 Côte d'Ivoire
 Dominican Republic
 Ecuador
 El Salvador
 France
 Guatemala
 Haiti
 Honduras
 Indonesia
 Iran
 Italy
 Japan
 Mexico
 Netherlands
 Nicaragua
 Niger
 Nigeria
 Paraguay
 Peru
 Philippines
 Portugal
 Somalia
 South Africa
 South Vietnam
 Spain
 Sri Lanka
 Sweden
  Switzerland
 Taiwan
 Thailand
 Tonga
 Turkey
 United Kingdom
 United States
 Uruguay
 Venezuela
 Zaire

Aircraft on display

Argentina

  • AT-11A 3495 - at the Museo Nacional de Aeronáutica de Argentina in Buenos Aires.[72]
  • C-45H 5621 - at the Museo Nacional de Aeronáutica de Argentina in Buenos Aires.[73]
  • C-45H AF-555 - at the Museo Nacional de Aeronáutica de Argentina in Buenos Aires.[74]
  • H18S c/no. BA-752 (former LV-JFH) - at the Museo Nacional de Aeronáutica de Argentina in Buenos Aires.[75]

Australia

Belgium

Brazil

Canada

Chile

India

  • D18S VT-CNY former aircraft of the Raja of Mayurbhanj and later sold to Coal India Limited- at the Hotel Mayfair Lagoon in Bhubaneswar, Orissa.[96]

Italy

Malta

Netherlands

New Zealand

Portugal

Spain

Turkey

United Kingdom

United States

Specifications (UC-45 Expeditor)

Beech C45 Silh 110kB

Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II.[134]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2 pilots
  • Capacity: 6 passengers
  • Length: 34 ft 3 in (10.44 m)
  • Wingspan: 47 ft 8 in (14.53 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 9 in (2.97 m)
  • Wing area: 349 sq ft (32.4 m2)
  • Empty weight: 5,420 lb (2,458 kg)
  • Gross weight: 7,500 lb (3,402 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-985-AN-1 "Wasp Junior" radial engines, 450 hp (340 kW) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 225 mph (362 km/h, 196 kn)
  • Range: 1,200 mi (1,900 km, 1,000 nmi) at 160 mph (260 km/h; 140 kn) and 5,000 ft (1,500 m)
  • Service ceiling: 26,000 ft (7,900 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,850 ft/min (9.4 m/s)

See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Aircraft Exhibits". Beechcraft Heritage Museum. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Beech B18 Series Type Certificate." Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: August 8, 2008.
  3. ^ a b c "Beechcraft D18S Twin Beech." National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Retrieved: December 17, 2014.
  4. ^ a b "Fact Sheet: Beech C-45H Expeditor." National Museum of the U.S. Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. Retrieved: August 5, 2017.
  5. ^ a b "Twin Beech: The 1930's airplane that set Beech Aircraft Corporation on a course towards 50 years of success" Flying Magazine, February 1982, pp. 26-30, Retrieved: August 5, 2017
  6. ^ "Fact Sheet: Beech AT-11 Kansan." National Museum of the U.S. Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. Retrieved: August 5, 2017.
  7. ^ Bauschspies, James S. and William E. Simpson, "Research and Technology Program Perspectives for General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft", NASA Contract NASW-3554 for NASA, Sept. 1982, N83-17454#. Retrieved: Dec. 18, 2014. (In particular, see: Table 2.4 "COMMUTER CARGO FLEET IN 1981 - TOP TEN AIRCRAFT MODELS - NUMBER IN FLEET," which notes Beech 18 units are more than the next two aircraft combined (Convair 500/680 and Douglas DC-3), and more than the next three general aviation aircraft combined.
  8. ^ "Beech 18" FAA Aircraft Registry. Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: August 5, 2017.
  9. ^ a b c "Model 18 Specifications." Beechcraft Heritage Museum. Retrieved: August 24, 2008.
  10. ^ "Some of the Differences Between the Models and Modifications of the Beech 18". twinbeech.com. September 30, 2006. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  11. ^ "Beechcraft 3NMT Expeditor." Canadian Museum of Flight. Retrieved: August 13, 2012.
  12. ^ a b "Beechcraft page." Aerofiles. Retrieved: August 12, 2008.
  13. ^ a b "S18D." Beechcraft Heritage Museum. Retrieved: August 12, 2008.
  14. ^ a b c d "C-45H." Beechcraft Heritage Museum. Retrieved: August 24, 2008.
  15. ^ O'Rourke, G.G, CAPT USN. "Of Hosenoses, Stoofs, and Lefthanded Spads." United States Naval Institute Proceedings, July 1968.
  16. ^ a b "Air America: Beech/Volpar Turbo Beech 18". University of Texas at Dallas, 2006. Retrieved: August 5, 2017.
  17. ^ Deakin, John. "Pelican's Perch #75:Those Dreadful POHs (Part 1)". AVweb, November 9, 2003. Retrieved: August 12, 2008.
  18. ^ Ramey, Taigh. "Spar concerns." Twinbeech.com. Retrieved: December 17, 2014.
  19. ^ Ramey, Taigh. "Vintage Aircraft: Things to Consider when Buying a Twin Beech Project." Twinbeech.com, Stockton, California. Retrieved: August 24, 2008.
  20. ^ "FAA Airworthiness Directive No. AD 75-27-09. Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: August 24, 2008
  21. ^ "CASA Airworthiness Directive No. AD/BEECH 18/17." Archived 2008-08-01 at the Wayback Machine CASA. Retrieved: August 24, 2008.
  22. ^ a b c d "USA Warplanes C-45 page." uswarplanes.net. Retrieved 24 August 2008.
  23. ^ a b "Beech 18A Series Type Certificate." Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: August 9, 2008.
  24. ^ "Beech 18 (C-45F)." Archived 2009-01-14 at the Wayback Machine AircraftWorldDirectory.com. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  25. ^ McKillop, Jack. "Beech JRB Expedition (sic), Beech SNB Kansan and Navigator". microworks.ne. Retrieved: August 28, 2008.
  26. ^ a b c d e f "Beech 18D/A18 Series Type Certificate." Federal Aviation Administration.Retrieved: August 8, 2008.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Beech C18S Type Certificate." Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: August 12, 2008.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n FAA Beech D18/E18/G18/H18 Series Type Certificate.. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
  29. ^ a b c d "Aircraft Serial Number Lists 1945–2008." Archived 2009-04-11 at the Wayback Machine Hawker Beechcraft. Retrieved: August 8, 2008.
  30. ^ "Beech 18". Airliners.net. Retrieved: August 8, 2008.
  31. ^ a b c d e f Donald 1995, p. 7.
  32. ^ a b c d Swanborough and Bowers 1963, p. 36.
  33. ^ a b c Baugher, Joe. "USAAF 1942 Serial Number List." USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers–1908 to Present. Retrieved: June 11, 2011.
  34. ^ a b Baugher, Joe. "USAAF 1943 Serial Number List." USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers–1908 to Present. Retrieved: June 11, 2011.
  35. ^ a b Baugher, Joe. "USAF 1951 Serial Number List." USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers–1908 to Present. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  36. ^ Baugher, Joe. "USAF 1952 Serial Number List." USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers–1908 to Present. Retrieved: August 24, 2008.
  37. ^ Donald 1995, pp. 7–8.
  38. ^ a b Swanborough and Bowers 1963, p. 37.
  39. ^ a b c d Swanborough and Bowers 1976, p. 41.
  40. ^ a b c d e Swanborough and Bowers 1976, p. 42.
  41. ^ Swanborough and Bowers 1976, p. 44.
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Bibliography

  • Bridgeman, Leonard, ed. “The Beechcraft Expeditor.” Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946. ISBN 1-85170-493-0.
  • Bridgeman, Leonard. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1951–52. London: Samson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd., 1951.
  • Donald, David, ed.American Warplanes of World War II. London: Aerospace, 1995. ISBN 1-874023-72-7.
  • Griffin, John A. Canadian Military Aircraft Serials & Photographs 1920 - 1968. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, Publication No. 69-2, 1969.
  • Mesko, Jim. "The Rise...and Fall of the Vietnamese AF". Air Enthusiast, August–November 1981, No. 16. pp. 1–12, 78–80. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Mondey, David. American Aircraft of World War II (Hamlyn Concise Guide). London: Bounty Books, 2006. ISBN 978-0-7537-1461-4.
  • Ogden, Bob. Aviation Museums and Collections of North America. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 2007. ISBN 0-85130-385-4.
  • Pettipas, Leo. Canadian Naval Aviation 1945-1968. L. Pettipas/Canadian Naval Air Group, Winnipeg: 1986. ISBN 0-9692528-0-3
  • Swanborough, F. Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Military Aircraft since 1909. London: Putnam, 1963.
  • Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. London: Putnam, 1976. ISBN 0-370-10054-9.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1961–62. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1961.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1965–66. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1965.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1967–68. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1967.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976–77. London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1976. ISBN 0-354-00538-3.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83. London: Jane's Publishing Company, 1982. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2.
  • United States Air Force Museum Guidebook. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1975.

External links

Air Saint-Pierre

Air Saint-Pierre is a French airline based in Saint-Pierre, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, a French overseas collectivity. The airline operates scheduled services between the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon-Langlade and to Canada. Its main base is Saint-Pierre Airport, from which it serves six destinations. In addition to the collectivity's other airport, Miquelon Airport, it serves five airports in Canada. The airline operates a fleet of an ATR 42 for international services and a Reims-Cessna F406 on the inter-island service.

The airline was founded in 1964 and originally flew in cooperation with Eastern Provincial Airways. The first aircraft was a Piper Aztec, which was put into service to a service to Sydney, Nova Scotia. During the 1970s the airline variously took into use Beechcraft Model 18 and Hawker Siddeley HS 748. Flights to Miquelon were introduced in 1979 and to Montreal two years later. A Piper Chieftain was bought in that year. ATR 42s were introduced in 1994 and services Moncton, New Brunswick and St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador were introduced in the following years.

Alberta Aviation Museum

The Alberta Aviation Museum is a museum in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is located on-site at the former Edmonton City Centre (Blatchford Field) Airport on the southwest corner of the field (11410 Kingsway Avenue).The museum operates daily except for Christmas Day, Boxing Day and New Years Day.

Beechcraft

Beechcraft is a brand of Textron Aviation since 2014. Originally, it was a brand of Beech Aircraft Corporation, an American manufacturer of general aviation, commercial, and military aircraft, ranging from light single-engined aircraft to twin-engined turboprop transports, business jets, and military trainers. Beech later became a division of Raytheon and later Hawker Beechcraft before a bankruptcy sale turned its assets over to Textron (parent company of Beech's cross-town Wichita rival, Cessna Aircraft Company).

Gujarat Beechcraft incident

The Gujarat Beechcraft incident was an event during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. On 19 September that year an American F-86 Sabre jet fighter of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) shot down an Indian-registered civilian Beechcraft Model 18 twin-engine light aircraft. Balwantrai Mehta, who at the time was the chief minister of the Indian state of Gujarat, was killed in the attack along with his wife, three members of his staff, a journalist and two crew members.Qais Hussain, a PAF flying officer during the 1965 war, was the pilot who fired on the civilian aircraft under orders from his superiors. In August 2011 he wrote to Farida Singh, the daughter of the deceased civilian pilot, via email, expressing his condolences.

Jacobs R-830

The Jacobs R-830 or L-5 is a seven-cylinder, air-cooled, radial engine for aircraft manufactured in the United States, production started in 1935.

Kansan

A Kansan is a native resident of the State of Kansas. Kansan may also refer to:

Kansan glaciation

List of Kansan people

University Daily Kansan, the student newspaper of the University of Kansas

AT-11 Kansan and SNB-1 Kansan, military and naval variants respectively of the Beechcraft Model 18 twin engine airplane

Linha Aérea Transcontinental Brasileira

Linha Aérea Transcontinental Brasileira S.A. was a Brazilian airline formed in 1944 and that started scheduled flights in 1946. In 1951 it was sold to Real Transportes Aéreos, which incorporated the airline the following year.

Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior

The Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior, more commonly known as the Lockheed 12 or L-12, is an eight-seat, six-passenger all-metal twin-engine transport aircraft of the late 1930s designed for use by small airlines, companies and wealthy private individuals. A smaller version of the Lockheed Model 10 Electra, the Lockheed 12 was not popular as an airliner but was widely used as a corporate and government transport. Several were also used for testing new aviation technologies.

Midstate Airlines

Midstate Airlines (a.k.a. Mid-State Airlines, a.k.a. Midstate Air Commuter (MAC)) was an airline with its headquarters in Stevens Point, Wisconsin.It was founded by Roy P. Shwery in 1964 and provided air service out of Marshfield, Wisconsin (home to Marshfield Clinic), and Central Wisconsin Airport (CWA). The airline originally operated a fleet of Beechcraft Model 18 aircraft, and later, four Beech 99's. The airline originally flew from Marshfield, to Wisconsin Rapids, to Milwaukee, and onto Chicago. (Central Wisconsin Airport serves the communities of Stevens Point, Wausau, Marshfield, and Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, and the smaller suburbs—Mosinee, Plover, and Rosholt—with long runways that accommodated large jet aircraft).

By the early 1970s, Midstate also was serving Hayward and Ashland, Wisconsin from the Central Wisconsin Airport and Ashland from the Minneapolis - St. Paul International Airport. One of its most fondly-remembered features was the 6:00 PM "Champagne Flight" out of O'Hare, destined for Ashland via Milwaukee, the CWA, and Hayward. Shortly after takeoff from Milwaukee, the passengers were invited to open a cooler put on board in Milwaukee and prepared by Midstate's President's wife. Typically, in the cooler were a few soft drinks, beers, Wisconsin cheese, Pringle's Newfangled Potato Chips, plastic cups and . . . one or two bottles of champagne. Somehow, this ice-breaker generated an informality and good feeling for nearly everyone on board.

In 1977 Midstate switched to 19-passenger Swearingen Metroliners.

On January 15, 1979, a Metroliner landed in Wisconsin Rapids, hydroplaned, swerved, and collided with a snowbank, resulting in 11 injuries (2 pilots, 9 passengers). Damage to the aircraft was substantial. Correction: snow storm with low visibility and no injuries.

In its heyday, Midstate operated a fleet of 19 Metroliners and added six Fokker F27 50-passenger turboprop aircraft in 1984 (which required a flight attendant and a certificate modification under FAA part 121 rules), and flew to 15 cities in Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Chicago O'Hare airport.

The airline was purchased from Shwery by Sentry Insurance of Stevens Point, and subsequently resold to CEO and investor Bryce Appleton in 1986.

In 1986, Midstate subleased Fokker F27 aircraft to Chicago Air, a start-up carrier operated a regional service out of Chicago Midway International Airport. Midstate provided maintenance services to Chicago Air out of Central Wisconsin. However, Chicago Air went into bankruptcy the same year, and Appleton purchased what remained of the Midstate's assets from Sentry Insurance. The Chicago O'Hare takeoff and landing slots were sold off and Appleton continued to operate the Swearingen Metroliners, establishing a hub in Milwaukee. However, the airline continued to cut back service, providing charter, ceasing operations in 1989.

No. 411 Squadron RCAF

No. 411 "City of York" Squadron RCAF was a Second World War Royal Canadian Air Force squadron that operated as part of RAF Fighter Command in Europe with the Supermarine Spitfire.

Norcanair

Norcanair was the name of a Canadian airline that existed from 1947 to 1987, and again briefly in the early 1990s and from 2001 to 2005.

Otis Redding

Otis Ray Redding Jr. (September 9, 1941 – December 10, 1967) was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, arranger, and talent scout. He is considered one of the greatest singers in the history of American popular music and a seminal artist in soul music and rhythm and blues. Redding's style of singing gained inspiration from the gospel music that preceded the genre. His singing style influenced many other soul artists of the 1960s.

Redding was born in Dawson, Georgia, and at the age of 2, moved to Macon, Georgia. Redding quit school at age 15 to support his family, working with Little Richard's backing band, the Upsetters, and by performing in talent shows at the historic Douglass Theatre in Macon. In 1958, he joined Johnny Jenkins's band, the Pinetoppers, with whom he toured the Southern states as a singer and driver. An unscheduled appearance on a Stax recording session led to a contract and his first single, "These Arms of Mine", in 1962.

Stax released Redding's debut album, Pain in My Heart, two years later. Initially popular mainly with African-Americans, Redding later reached a wider American pop music audience. Along with his group, he first played small shows in the American South. He later performed at the popular Los Angeles night club Whisky a Go Go and toured Europe, performing in London, Paris and other major cities. He also performed at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967.

Shortly before his death in a plane crash, Redding wrote and recorded his iconic "(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay" with Steve Cropper. The song became the first posthumous number-one record on both the Billboard Hot 100 and R&B charts. The album The Dock of the Bay was the first posthumous album to reach number one on the UK Albums Chart. Redding's premature death devastated Stax. Already on the verge of bankruptcy, the label soon discovered that the Atco division of Atlantic Records owned the rights to his entire song catalog.

Redding received many posthumous accolades, including the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. In addition to "(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay," "Respect" and "Try a Little Tenderness" are among his best-known songs.

Ransome Airlines

Ransome Airlines was a regional airline from the United States, headquartered at Northeast Philadelphia Airport near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1967, it operated feeder flights on behalf of different mainline carriers via specific airline brands for most of its existence: as Allegheny Commuter (1970-1982), Delta Connection (1984-1987), Pan Am Express (1987-1991) and finally Trans World Express (1991-1995).

SNB

SNB may refer to:

Sandy Bridge, Intel's processor microarchitecture

Beechcraft SNB, Beechcraft Model 18, a twin engine prop driven airplane

National Security Service (Uzbekistan), transliterating its Cyrillic initials СНБ

The Sacred Name Broadcaster, a monthly religious publication of the Assemblies of Yahweh

Sacred Name Bibles, Bibles which contain the Sacred Name

Santa Fe Depot (San Bernardino), Amtrak station code SNB

Sbor národní bezpečnosti, a national police in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic from 1945 to 1991

Service New Brunswick, a crown corporation in the Canadian province of New Brunswick

Sharon Ní Bheoláin, Irish newscaster

Sunday Night Baseball, a weekly broadcast of Major League Baseball on ESPN

Swiss National Bank, the central bank of Switzerland

Symphony New Brunswick, a classical music organization

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TAS – Transportes Aéreos Salvador Ltda. was a Brazilian airline founded in 1949. In 1962 it was sold and incorporated to Sadia Transportes Aéreos.

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Toa Airways (東亜航空, Tōa Kōkū) was a Japanese airline and the predecessor of Japan Air System. Founded on November 30, 1953, it merged with Japan Domestic Airlines on May 15, 1971, to form Toa Domestic Airlines, which went on to become Japan Air System.

UC-45

UC-45 may refer to:

SM UC-45, a World War I German coastal minelaying submarine

Beechcraft Model 18, an airplane with a United States military designation of "UC-45"

Beechcraft, Raytheon and Hawker Beechcraft aircraft
Beechcraft designation
Military
Drone
Hawker business jet line
Designation sequences for this aircraft:

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