Beech marten

The beech marten (Martes foina), also known as the stone marten, house marten or white breasted marten, is a species of marten native to much of Europe and Central Asia, though it has established a feral population in North America. It is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN on account of its wide distribution, its large population, and its presence in a number of protected areas.[1] It is superficially similar to the pine marten, but differs from it by its smaller size and habitat preferences. While the pine marten is a forest specialist, the beech marten is a more generalist and adaptable species, occurring in a number of open and forest habitats.[2]

Beech marten
Steinmarder (cropped)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Mustelidae
Genus: Martes
M. foina
Binomial name
Martes foina
(Erxleben, 1777)
Beech Marten area
Beech marten range


Its most likely ancestor is Martes vetus, which also gave rise to the pine marten. The earliest M. vetus fossils were found in deposits dated to the Würm glaciation in Lebanon and Israel. The beech marten likely originated in the Near East or southwestern Asia, and may have arrived in Europe by the Late Pleistocene or the early Holocene. Thus, the beech marten differs from most other European mustelids of the Quaternary, as all other species (save for the European mink) appeared during the Middle Pleistocene. Comparisons between fossil animals and their descendants indicate that the beech marten underwent a decrease in size beginning in the Würm period.[3] Beech martens indigenous to the Aegean Islands represent a relic population with primitive Asiatic affinities.[4]

The skull of the beech marten suggests a higher adaptation than the pine marten toward hypercarnivory, as indicated by its smaller head, shorter snout and its narrower post-orbital constriction and lesser emphasis on cheek teeth. Selective pressures must have acted to increase the beech marten's bite force at the expense of gape. These traits probably acted on male beech martens as a mechanism to avoid both intraspecific competition with females and interspecific competition with the ecologically overlapping pine marten.[2]


As of 2005,[5] eleven subspecies are recognised.


Skull, as illustrated in Merriam's Synopsis of the weasels of North America
Various throat patch variations, as illustrated in Pocock, Reginald, The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma — Mammalia, 2

The beech marten is superficially similar to the pine marten, but has a somewhat longer tail, a more elongated and angular head and has shorter, more rounded and widely spaced ears. Its nose is also of a light peach or grey colour, whereas that of the pine marten is dark black or greyish-black.[12] Its feet are not as densely furred as those of the pine marten, thus making them look less broad, with the paw pads remaining visible even in winter. Because of its shorter limbs, the beech marten's manner of locomotion differs from that of the pine marten; the beech marten moves by creeping in a polecat-like manner, whereas the pine marten and sable move by bounds.[13] The weight load per 1 cm2 of the supporting surface of the beech marten's foot (30.9 gm) is double that of the pine marten (15.2 gm), thus it is obliged to avoid snowy regions.[14]

Its skull is similar to that of the pine marten, but differs in its shorter facial region, more convex profile, its larger carnassials and smaller molars.[15] The beech marten's penis is larger than the pine marten's, with the bacula of young beech martens often outsizing those of old pine martens. Males measure 430–590 mm in body length, while females measure 380–470 mm. The tail measures 250–320 mm in males and 230–275 mm in females. Males weigh 1.7–1.8 kg in winter and 2–2.1 kg in summer, while females weigh 1.1–1.3 kg in winter and 1.4–1.5 kg in summer.[16]

The beech marten's fur is coarser than the pine marten's, with elastic guard hairs and less dense underfur. Its summer coat is short, sparse and coarse, and the tail is sparsely furred. The colour tone is lighter than the pine marten's. Unlike the pine marten, its underfur is whitish, rather than greyish. The tail is dark-brown, while the back is darker than that of the pine marten. The throat patch of the beech marten is always white. The patch is large and generally has two projections extending backwards to the base of the forelegs and upward on the legs. The dark colour of the belly juts out between the forelegs as a line into the white colour of the chest and sometimes into the neck. In the pine marten, by contrast, the white colour between the forelegs juts backwards as a protrusion into the belly colour.[13]


Martes foina litter 7
A litter of beech marten kits in а farm outbuilding in the village of Orlintzi, Bulgaria
Beech marten fighting a European otter, as illustrated in Brehm's Life of Animals

The beech marten is mainly a crepuscular and nocturnal animal, though to a much lesser extent than the European polecat. It is especially active during moonlit nights. Being a more terrestrial animal than the pine marten, the beech marten is less arboreal in its habits, though it can be a skilled climber in heavily forested areas. It is a skilled swimmer, and may occasionally be active during daytime hours, particularly in the summer, when nights are short. It typically hunts on the ground. During heavy snowfalls, the beech marten moves through paths made by hares or skis.[17]

Social and territorial behaviours

In an area of northeastern Spain, where the beech marten still lives in relatively unmodified habitats, one specimen was recorded to have had a home range of 52.5 ha (130 acres) with two centres of activity. Its period of maximum activity occurred between 6-12 PM. Between 9-6 PM, the animal was found to be largely inactive.[18] In urban areas, beech martens den almost entirely in buildings, particularly during winter.[19] The beech marten does not dig burrows, nor does it occupy those of other animals. Instead, it nests in naturally occurring fissures and clefts in rocks, spaces between stones in rock slides and inhabited or uninhabited stone structures. It may live in tree holes at a height of up to 9 metres.[20]

Reproduction and development

Estrus and copulation occur at the same time as in the pine marten.[21] Copulation can last longer than 1 hour.[22] Mating occurs in the June–July period, and takes place in the morning or in moonlit nights on the ground or on the roofs of houses. The gestation period lasts as long as the pine marten's, lasting 236–237 days in the wild, and 254–275 days in fur farms. Parturition takes place in late March-early April, with the average litter consisting of 3-7 kits. The kits are born blind, and begin to see at the age of 30–36 days. The lactation period lasts 40–45 days. In early July, the young are indistinguishable from the adults.[21]


The beech marten's diet includes a much higher quantity of plant food than that of the pine marten and sable. Plant foods eaten by the beech marten include cherries, apples, pears, plums, black nightshade, tomatoes, grapes, raspberries and mountain ash. Plant food typically predominates during the winter months. Rats, mice and chickens are also eaten. Among bird species preyed upon by the beech marten, sparrow-like birds predominate, though snowcocks and partridges may also be taken. The marten likes to plunder nests of birds including passerines, galliformes and owls, preferring to kill the parents in addition to the fledglings. Although it rarely attacks poultry, some specimens may become specialized poultry raiders, even when wild prey is abundant.[14] Males tend to target large, live prey more than females, who feed on small prey and carrion with greater frequency.[2]

Relationships with other predators

In areas where the beech marten is sympatric with the pine marten, the two species avoid competing with one another by assuming different ecological niches; the pine marten feeds on birds and rodents more frequently, while the beech marten feeds on fruits and insects.[23] There is however one case of a subadult beech marten being killed by a pine marten. The beech marten has been known to kill European polecats on rare occasions. Red foxes, lynxes and mountain lions may prey on adults, whereas juveniles are vulnerable from attack by birds of prey and wildcats. There is, however, one case from Germany of a beech marten killing a domestic cat.[21]


The beech marten is a widespread species which occurs throughout much of Europe and Central Asia. It occurs from Spain and Portugal in the west, through Central and Southern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia, extending as far east as the Altai and Tien Shan mountains and northwest China. Within Europe, the species is absent in the British Isles, Scandinavian peninsula, Finland, Denmark, the northern Baltic and northern European Russia. It occurs in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan and was recently confirmed to inhabit northern Burma.[1]

Introduction in North America

The beech marten is present in Wisconsin, particularly near the urban centres surrounding Milwaukee. It is also present in several wooded, upland areas in the Kettle Moraine State Forest, and in nearby woodlands of Walworth, Racine, Waukesha and probably Jefferson Counties. North American beech martens are likely descended from feral animals that escaped a private fur farm in Burlington during the 1940s.[24] They have also been listed as being released or having escaped in 1972. [1]

Relationships with humans


British zoologist George Rolleston theorised that the "domestic cat" of the Ancient Greeks and Romans was in fact the beech marten.[25] Pioneering marine biologist Jeanne Villepreux-Power kept two tame beech martens.[26]

Hunting and fur use

Although the beech marten is a valuable animal to the fur trade, its pelt is inferior in quality to that of the pine marten and sable. Beech marten skins on the fur markets of the Soviet Union accounted for only 10-12% of the market presence of pine marten skins. Beech martens were caught only in the Caucasus, in the Montane part of Crimea and (in very small numbers) in the rest of Ukraine, and in the republics of Middle Asia. Because animals with more valuable pelts are rare in those areas, the beech marten is of value to hunters on the local market. Beech martens are captured with jaw traps, or, for live capture, with cage traps. The shooting of beech martens is inefficient, and trailing them with dogs is only successful when the animal can be trapped in a tree hollow.[27]

Car damage

Since the mid-1970s, the beech marten has been known to occasionally cause damage to cars. Cars attacked by martens typically have cut tubes and cables. A beech marten can slice through the cables of a starter motor with just one bite. The reason for this is not fully known, as the damaged items are not eaten. There is, however, a seasonal peak in marten attacks on cars in spring, when young martens explore their surroundings more often and have yet to learn which items in their habitat are edible or not.[28] The fishoil, often contained in the cables of cars of Japanese origin, may contribute to this.

Large Hadron Collider

On 29 April and 21 November 2016, two beech martens shut down the Large Hadron Collider, the world's most powerful particle accelerator, by climbing on 18–66 kV electrical transformers located above ground near the LHCb and ALICE experiments, respectively.[29][30][31] The second marten was stuffed and put on display in the Rotterdam Natural History Museum.[32]



  1. ^ a b c Abramov, A.V.; Kranz, A.; Herrero, J.; Krantz, A.; Choudhury, A.; & Maran, T. (2016). "Martes foina". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T29672A45202514. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T29672A45202514.en. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Anna Loy, Ornella Spinosi & Rossella Carlini (2004): Cranial morphology of Martes foina and M. martes (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae): The role of size and shape in sexual dimorphism and interspecific differentiation, Italian Journal of Zoology, 71:1, 27-34
  3. ^ Spagnesi & De Marina Marinis 2002, p. 238
  4. ^ Schreiber, A. On the status of Martes foina bunites Bate, 1905 Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine. 1999, Small Carnivore Conservation 20: 20-21
  5. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  6. ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 892
  7. ^ Miller 1912, pp. 381
  8. ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 894
  9. ^ Miller 1912, pp. 380
  10. ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 893
  11. ^ Harrison, D.L. and Bates, P.J.J., The Mammals of Arabia. Second Edition. Harr. Zool. Museum Pub. Kent England. 1991.
  12. ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 876
  13. ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 877
  14. ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 896–899
  15. ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 879
  16. ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 881
  17. ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 900–902
  18. ^ López-Martín, J.M., Ruiz-Olmo, J. & Cahill, S. 1992. Autumn home range and activity of a Stone Marten ( Martes foina Erxleben, 1777) in Northeastern Spain. Misc. Zool. 16: 258–260.
  19. ^ Herra, J., Schley, L., Engel, E. & Roper, T. J. ; Den preferences and denning behaviour in urban stone martens (Martes foina), Mammalian Biology — Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde Volume 75, Issue 2, March 2010, Pages 138-145
  20. ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 899–900
  21. ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 902
  22. ^ Lodé, T. "Conspecific recognition and mating in stone marten Martes foina." Acta Theriologica 36.3-4 (1991): 275-283.
  23. ^ Posłuszny, M., Pilot, M., Goszczyński, J. & Gralak, B. 2007: Diet of sympatric pine Marten (Martes martes) and stone marten (Martes foina) identified by genotyping of DNA from faeces.- Ann. Zool. Fennici 44: 269-284
  24. ^ Long, C.A. 1995. Stone marten (Martes foina) in southeast Wisconsin, U.S.A. Archived 2012-03-16 at the Wayback Machine Small Carnivore Conservation 13: 14..
  25. ^ Hamilton, Edward (1896) The Wild Cat of Europe, pp. 80-81, London, HR Porter
  26. ^ "The 1830s seamstress who solved Aristotle's octopus mystery".
  27. ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 904
  28. ^ Lachat, N. 1991. Stone martens and cars: a beginning war? Archived 2012-03-16 at the Wayback Machine Small Carnivore Conservation 5: 4-6
  29. ^ Sample, Ian (29 April 2016). "Large Hadron Collider On Paws After Creature Chews Through Wiring", The Guardian. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  30. ^ Bertolasi, Stefano and Lamont, Mike for the LHC team (May 2016). "LHC report: Stoat-ally back on track!" CERN Bulletin Issue No. 20-21/2016
  31. ^ "LHC Morning Meeting" (PDF). 21 November 2016.
  32. ^ Sample, Ian (2017-01-27). "Totally stuffed: Cern's electrocuted weasel to go on display". The Guardian.

Frederickson, B. (2007). Stone Marten.


5026 Martes

5026 Martes, provisional designation 1987 QL1, is a carbonaceous asteroid from the inner region of the asteroid belt, approximately 9 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 22 August 1987, by Czech astronomer Antonín Mrkos at Kleť Observatory in the Czech Republic. It is named after the two weasel-like animal species: pine marten and beech marten.

Altai Tavan Bogd National Park

Altai Tavan Bogd National Park (Mongolian: Алтай Таван богд байгалийн цогцолбор газар, Altai five saints nature complex) is a national park in Bayan-Ölgii Province of western Mongolia.

It covers 6362 square kilometres and is located south of Tavan Bogd, the highest mountain of Mongolia. It includes the lakes Khoton, Khurgan, and Dayan. The protected area is inhabited by species such as the Argali sheep, Ibex, Red deer, Beech marten, Moose, Snow cock, and Golden eagle.

The (UNESCO)World Heritage Site Petroglyphic Complexes of the Mongolian Altai is located inside Altai Tavan Bogd National Park. The World Heritage Site covers three locations with several thousand petroglyphs and Turkic monoliths, including the Tsagaan Salaa Rock Paintings with over 10,000 cave drawings in 15 km of river valley.


Guloninae is a subfamily of the mammal family Mustelidae distributed across Eurasia and the Americas. It includes martens and the fisher, tayra and wolverine. These genera were formerly included within a paraphyletic definition of the mustelid subfamily Mustelinae.

Most gulonine species are arboreal to a degree. Some of the fashion furs come from this subfamily, i.e. sable, marten.

Hankensbüttel Otter Centre

The Hankensbüttel Otter Centre is a nature experience centre in Hankensbüttel, in the German district of Gifhorn, that is laid out in 6 hectares (15 acres) of open land by a lake known as the Isenhagener See. The Otter Centre showcases the European otter which is a species threatened by extinction, as well as several related species of marten, in a natural environment. The centre is run by the Aktion Fischotterschutz ("Otter Conservation Project"), a state-recognised nature conservation organisation, and is a popular tourist and visitor destination on the southern edge of the Lüneburg Heath.

Het Groene Woud

Het Groene Woud (The Green Forest) is a special area of the Netherlands which is located in North Brabant between the cities of Tilburg, Eindhoven and 's-Hertogenbosch. It includes nature reserves such as the Kampina, the Oisterwijk forests and fens, Velderbos and the Dommel.

In 2004 "Het Groene Woud" is designated by the government as a National Landscape. This is to prevent the area between the three large cities from becoming more urbanized.

The combination of nature, sustainable agriculture and environmental recreation form a valuable cultural and historical landscape. "Het Groene Woud" covers a total of 7,500 hectares of marshes, meadows and agricultural landscape. It covers the municipalities Boxtel, Sint-Oedenrode, Schijndel, Sint-Michielsgestel, Best, Oirschot, Oisterwijk, Haaren and Vught.

In Het Groene Woud, many species of mammals can be encountered:

These include: roe deer, European badger, Eurasian harvest mouse, European polecat, European water vole, European hedgehog, Eurasian red squirrel, common pipistrelle, European hare, brown long-eared bat, stoat, serotine bat, European mole, Natterer's bat, least weasel, red fox, Daubenton's bat, beech marten and several species of shrew, dormice, apodemus and arvicolinae.

In the near future will possibly red deers be re-introduced in the area.

Hiking, canoeing and cycling activities are possible in this area.

Karatau Nature Reserve

Karatau Nature Reserve is a wildlife refuge in the mid-part of the Karatau Mountains, near Kyzylkum, Betpak-Dala and Moiynkum deserts in the South Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan, in Central Asia.

It was founded in 2004. Its territory is around 34 300 ha. Some 700 species of plants constitute its flora, 62 species are endemic. Its fauna includes, among others, the Kara Tau argali, Indian crested porcupine and beech marten. There are 118 bird species in the area.

Lake Koman

Lake Koman (Albanian: Liqeni i Komanit) is a reservoir on the Drin River in northern Albania. Lake Koman is surrounded by dense forested hills, vertical slopes, deep gorges, and a narrow valley, completely taken up by the river. Besides the Drin, it is fed by the Shala and Valbona Rivers. The lake stretches in an area of 34 km2 (13 sq mi), its width being 400 m (0.25 mi). The narrowest gorge, which is surrounded by vertical canyon walls, is more than 50 m (0.031 mi) wide. The reservoir was constructed between 1979 and 1988 near the village of Koman with a height of 115 m (377 ft).The combination of specific topography and hydrological conditions, have contributed to the formation of different habitats. The golden jackal, red fox, european badger, eurasian otter, beech marten, european polecat are the primary predatory mammals. A high number of bird species have been observed in the region, including the common kingfisher, common quail, grey heron, eurasian wryneck, great spotted woodpecker and black-headed gull.The Lake Koman Ferry operates daily on the lake from Koman to Fierza. The ferry connects the city of Bajram Curri to the region of Tropojë. The journey takes about two and a half hours and is also popular with the foreign tourists. Smaller boats bring people and goods to remote villages, which are often far away from the lake, but can only be reached by water.


The martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Guloninae, in the family Mustelidae. Martens are slender, agile animals, adapted to living in taigas, and are found in coniferous and northern deciduous forests across the Northern Hemisphere. They have bushy tails and large paws with partially retractible claws. The fur varies from yellowish to dark brown, depending on the species, and, in many cases, is valued by fur trappers.

Monte Conero

Monte Conero (Mount Conero), also known as Monte d'Ancona; Italian pronunciation: [ˈkɔːnero], is a promontory in Italy, situated directly south of the port of Ancona on the Adriatic Sea.

The name Conero comes from the Greek name Komaròs and indicates the strawberry tree which is common on the slopes of the mountain. Mount Conero is 572 metres high and it is the only coastal high point on the Adriatic sea between Trieste and the Gargano massif in the region of Apulia.

Since 1987 it has been a state park and a protected ecological area (Regional Park) with 18 trails and several archeological/historical sites. Wildlife include Eurasian badger, beech marten, least weasel, yellow-bellied toad, peregrine falcon, kingfisher and pallid swift. Apart the strawberry tree, vegetation include oak, holm oak, Aleppo pine, Cupressus sempervirens and many others.

Other comuni near the mountain include Sirolo and Numana.

Naltar Wildlife Sanctuary

The Naltar Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the Naltar Valley near Nomal, in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.

Vresselse Bossen

East of the village Nijnsel and Hamlet Vressel, Sint-Oedenrode, North-Brabant, Netherlands is the location of the Vresselse bossen or Vresselsche Bosch (Vressels Forest).

The Vresselse Bossen is a forest area of 241 ha. It is owned and managed by the National Forest Service (Staatsbosbeheer).

The forest is named after the nearby hamlet Vressel.

It is a young forest that is planted in a drift-sand ridge.

At the beginning of the 20th century there was scarcely a tree in the area. The area consisted mainly of sand dunes and heathland.

At the edges of the area lived farmers who were severely affected by the shifting sands. To protect the fields was therefore decided to reforest the drift-sand. At that time, almost exclusively pine was used for the reforesting. In the twenties of the 20th century it had become a production forest consisting of Scots pine for the Limburgian mines.

Within the area there are two main fen systems: The Hazenputten and the Oude Putten. Rare vegetation is mainly found around the fens: among others White beak-sedge and bog asphodel can be found here.

The contemporary management by Staatsbosbeheer focuses on getting a more varied forest composition, including native oak, linden and beech. To prevent the Hazenputten from drying, competing vegetation is removed around the pools.

The area around the marshes has been grazed by Highland cattle and Exmoor horses in the past.

The area has a rich bird population. Breeding birds are: yellowhammer, kingfisher, black woodpecker, northern goshawk, little grebe, European green woodpecker, common buzzard, great egret, long-eared owl, coal tit, little owl, barn owl and crested tit.

Also many species of mammals can be encountered:

These include: roe deer, European badger, Eurasian harvest mouse, European polecat, European water vole, European hedgehog, Eurasian red squirrel, common pipistrelle, European hare, brown long-eared bat, stoat, serotine bat, European mole, Natterer's bat, least weasel, red fox, Daubenton's bat, beech marten and several species of shrew, dormice, apodemus and arvicolinae.

The "Hazenputten" was nominated by Staatsbosbeheer for the title of "Most beautiful spot" in the Netherlands in 2013.The Vresselse Bossen are part of Het Groene Woud, a vast nature area between Eindhoven, Den Bosch and Tilburg.

West of the Vresselse Bossen lies the valley of the Dommel, in the northwest the Vresselse Forest reaches the Moerkuilen.

To the north there is the reclaimed heathland of the Jekschot Heath and to the east lies the DAF test track and Mariahout Forest.

Wildlife of Armenia

The wildlife of Armenia includes wild boars, porcupines, various lizards, snakes and numerous species of birds. Endangered species living in Armenia are the Caucasian bear, Caucasian bearded goat, the Armenian mouflon (sheep) and the leopard.

Yellow-throated marten

The yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula) is an Asian marten species, which is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List due to its wide distribution, evidently relatively stable population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and lack of major threats.The yellow-throated marten is also known as the kharza, and is the largest marten in the Old World, with the tail making up more than half its length. Its fur is brightly colored, consisting of a unique blend of black, white, golden-yellow and brown. It is an omnivore, whose sources of food range from fruit and nectar to small deer. The yellow-throated marten is a fearless animal with few natural predators, because of its powerful build, its bright coloration and unpleasant odor. It shows little fear of humans or dogs, and is easily tamed.Although similar in several respects to the smaller beech marten, it is sharply differentiated from other martens by its unique color and the structure of its baculum. It is probably the most ancient form of marten, having likely originated during the Pliocene, as indicated by its geographical distribution and its atypical coloration.The first written description of the yellow-throated marten in the Western World is given by Thomas Pennant in his History of Quadrupeds (1781), in which he named it "White-cheeked Weasel". Pieter Boddaert featured it in his Elenchus Animalium with the name Mustela flavigula. For a long period after the Elenchus' publication, the existence of the yellow-throated marten was considered doubtful by many zoologists, until a skin was presented to the Museum of the East India Company in 1824 by Thomas Hardwicke.

Subspecies Trinomial authority Description Range Synonyms
European beech marten
Martes f. foina

(Nominate subspecies) Martes foina 1 (Bohuš Číčel)

Erxleben, 1777 A small subspecies, with an average-sized skull. In winter, its back varies from light greyish tawny to completely dark brown. The guard hairs are tawny or chestnut brown, while the underfur is very light, pale-grey. The flanks and withers are slightly lighter than the back, and the belly darker. The legs are dark brown and the throat patch pure white. The patch is variable in size and shape.[6] European Russia, Western Europe (except the Balkan Peninsula) and the Iberian Peninsula alba (Bechstein, 1801)

domestica (Pinel, 1792)
fagorum (Fatio, 1869)

Balkan beech marten
Martes f. bosniaca
Brass, 1911 Balkan Peninsula
Cretan beech marten
Martes f. bunites
Bate, 1906 A smaller subspecies than foina, with a less defined throat patch, which may be absent in some specimens.[7] Crete, Skopelos, Naxos, Erimomilos, Karpathos, Samothrake, Seriphos and Kythnos
Middle Asian beech marten
Martes f. intermedia
Severtzov, 1873 A smaller subspecies than nehringi, with lighter fur. The back is moderately dark greyish-tawny. The flanks are lighter, but of the same tone as the back. The guard hairs are dark-tawny, while the underfur is almost white. The tail is dark brown. The throat patch is very variable, being sometimes completely undefined.[8] Montane Middle Asia, from Kopet Dag and Bolshoi Balkhas to Tarbagatai (in the Khangai Mountains) and Altai. Outside the former Soviet Union, its range includes northern Iran, Afghanistan, western Pakistan, western Himalayas, Tien Shan, Tibet and northern Mongolia altaica (Satunin, 1914)

leucolachnaea (Blanford, 1879)

Tibetan beech marten
Martes f. kozlovi
Ognev, 1931 Eastern Tibet
Iberian beech marten
Martes f. mediterranea
Barrett-Hamilton, 1898. A lighter, less drab coloured form than foina.[9] Iberian Peninsula
Rhodes beech marten
Martes f. milleri
Festa, 1914 Rhodes
Caucasian beech marten
Martes f. nehringi
Satunin, 1906 A large subspecies with a massive skull. The winter coat is quite dark, brownish-tawny or dark tawny with a greyish tint. The flanks are lighter than the back, and the tail and feet are dark brown. The throat patch varies in form and size, but shows a tendency towards reduction.[10] Caucasus and contiguous parts of Turkey and Iran
Crimean beech marten
Martes f. rosanowi
Martino and Martino, 1917 A smaller subspecies than foina, but with near identical colours.[10] Montane Crimea
Syrian beech marten
Martes f. syriaca
Nehring, 1902 A pale coloured subspecies with a smaller skull than the nominative form[11] Syria
Lhasa beech marten
Martes f. toufoeus
Hodgson, 1842 Lhasa, Tibet

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