Becquerel

The becquerel (English: /bɛkəˈrɛl/; symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity. One becquerel is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. The becquerel is therefore equivalent to an inverse second, s−1. The becquerel is named after Henri Becquerel, who shared a Nobel Prize in Physics with Pierre and Marie Curie in 1903 for their work in discovering radioactivity.[1]

Becquerel
Unit systemSI derived unit
Unit ofSpecific activity
SymbolBq 
Named afterHenri Becquerel
Conversions
1 Bq in ...... is equal to ...
   rutherford   10−6 Rd
   curie   2.703×10−11 Ci27 pCi
   SI base unit   s−1

Capitalization

As with every International System of Units (SI) unit named for a person, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase (Bq). However, when an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with a lowercase letter (becquerel)—except in a situation where any word in that position would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in material using title case.[2]

Definition

1 Bq = 1 s−1

A special name was introduced for the reciprocal second (s−1) to represent radioactivity to avoid potentially dangerous mistakes with prefixes. For example, 1 µs−1 could be taken to mean 106 disintegrations per second: 1·(10−6 s)−1 = 106 s−1.[3] Other names considered were hertz (Hz), a special name already in use for the reciprocal second, and fourier (Fr).[3] The hertz is now only used for periodic phenomena.[4] Whereas 1 Hz is 1 cycle per second, 1 Bq is 1 aperiodic radioactivity event per second.

The gray (Gy) and the becquerel (Bq) were introduced in 1975.[5] Between 1953 and 1975, absorbed dose was often measured in rads. Decay activity was measured in curies before 1946 and often in rutherfords between 1946[6] and 1975.

Prefixes

Like any SI unit, Bq can be prefixed; commonly used multiples are kBq (kilobecquerel, 103 Bq), MBq (megabecquerel, 106 Bq, equivalent to 1 rutherford), GBq (gigabecquerel, 109 Bq), TBq (terabecquerel, 1012 Bq), and PBq (petabecquerel, 1015 Bq). For practical applications, 1 Bq is a small unit; therefore, the prefixes are common. For example, the roughly 0.0169 g of potassium-40 present in a typical human body produces approximately 4,400 disintegrations per second or 4.4 kBq of activity.[7] The global inventory of carbon-14 is estimated to be 8.5×1018 Bq (8.5 EBq, 8.5 exabecquerel).[8] The nuclear explosion in Hiroshima (an explosion of 16 kt or 67 TJ) is estimated to have produced 8×1024 Bq (8 YBq, 8 yottabecquerel).[9]

Relationship to the curie

The becquerel succeeded the curie (Ci),[10] an older, non-SI unit of radioactivity based on the activity of 1 gram of radium-226. The curie is defined as 3.7·1010 s−1, or 37 GBq.[3]

Conversion factors:

1 Ci = 3.7×1010 Bq = 37 GBq
1 μCi = 37,000 Bq = 37 kBq
1 Bq = 2.7×10−11 Ci = 2.7×10−5 μCi
1 MBq = 0.027 mCi

Calculation of radioactivity

For a given mass (in grams) of an isotope with atomic mass (in g/mol) and a half-life of (in s), the radioactivity can be calculated using:

With = 6.02214179(30)×1023 mol−1, the Avogadro constant.

Since / is the number of moles (), the amount of radioactivity can be calculated by:

For instance, on average each gram of potassium contains 0.000117 gram of 40K (all other naturally occurring isotopes are stable) that has a of 1.277×109 years = 4.030×1016 s,[11] and has an atomic mass of 39.964 g/mol,[12] so the amount of radioactivity associated with a gram of potassium is 30 Bq.

Radiation-related quantities

Radioactivity and radiation
Graphic showing relationships between radioactivity and detected ionizing radiation

The following table shows radiation quantities in SI and non-SI units.

Radiation related quantities
Quantity Unit Symbol Derivation Year SI equivalence
Activity (A) curie Ci 3.7 × 1010 s−1 1953 3.7×1010 Bq
becquerel Bq s−1 1974 s−1
rutherford Rd 106 s−1 1946 1,000,000 Bq
Exposure (X) röntgen R esu / 0.001293 g of air 1928 2.58 × 10−4 C/kg
Fluence (Φ) (reciprocal area) m−2 1962 m−2
Absorbed dose (D) erg erg⋅g−1 1950 1.0 × 10−4 Gy
rad rad 100 erg⋅g−1 1953 0.010 Gy
gray Gy J⋅kg−1 1974 J⋅kg−1
Dose equivalent (H) röntgen equivalent man rem 100 erg⋅g−1 1971 0.010 Sv
sievert Sv J⋅kg−1 × WR 1977 SI

See also

References

  1. ^ "BIPM - Becquerel". BIPM. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
  2. ^ "SI Brochure: The International System of Units (SI)". SI Brochure (8 ed.). BIPM. 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Allisy, A. (1995), "From the curie to the becquerel", Metrologia, 32 (6): 467–479, Bibcode:1995Metro..31..467A, doi:10.1088/0026-1394/31/6/006
  4. ^ "BIPM - Table 3". BIPM. Retrieved 2015-07-19. (d) The hertz is used only for periodic phenomena, and the becquerel is used only for stochastic processes in activity referred to a radionuclide.
  5. ^ Harder, D (1976), "[The new radiologic units of measurement gray and becquerel (author's translation from the German original)]", Röntgen-Blätter, 29 (1): 49–52, PMID 1251122.
  6. ^ Lind, SC (1946), "New units for the measurement of radioactivity", Science, 103 (2687): 761–762, Bibcode:1946Sci...103..761L, doi:10.1126/science.103.2687.761-a, PMID 17836457.
  7. ^ Radioactive human body — Harvard University Natural Science Lecture Demonstrations - Accessed October 2013
  8. ^ G.R. Choppin, J.O.Liljenzin, J. Rydberg, "Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry", 3rd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7506-7463-8.
  9. ^ Michael J. Kennish, Pollution Impacts on Marine Biotic Communities , CRC Press, 1998, p. 74. ISBN 978-0-8493-8428-8.
  10. ^ It was adopted by the BIPM in 1975, see resolution 8 of the 15th CGPM meeting
  11. ^ "Table of Isotopes decay data". Lund University. 1990-06-01. Retrieved 2014-01-12.
  12. ^ "Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements". NIST. Retrieved 2014-01-12.

External links

1878 in France

Events from the year 1878 in France.

Antoine César Becquerel

Antoine César Becquerel (7 March 1788 – 18 January 1878) was a French scientist and a pioneer in the study of electric and luminescent phenomena.

Becquerel (Martian crater)

Becquerel is a 167 km-diameter crater at 22.1°N, 352.0°E on Mars, in Arabia Terra in Oxia Palus quadrangle. It is named after Antoine H. Becquerel.Photographs by the Mars Global Surveyor revealed layered sedimentary rocks in the crater. The layers appear to be only a few meters thick and show little variations in thickness. Recent studies with HiRISE have determined the exact thickness of the layers. The 66 layers measured showed one group of layers to average 3.6 metres (12 ft) and another group to average 36 metres (118 ft) in thickness. Patterns like this are usually produced on Earth through the effects of water; volcanic deposits would not produce ash or laval flows of such regular thickness and in any event there are no nearby volcanic vents.There are cyclic variations in the thickness of the exposed sedimentary layers, possibly indicating cyclic variations in environmental conditions while the sediment was being laid down. Most of the layers are parallel to each other, suggesting they formed by vertical settling, but a few are cross-bedded, indicating that at the time that the layers were deposited the sediment was transported along the ground surface by wind or water. The sedimentary material appears to be easily eroded and active wind erosion may be continuing to the current day.Parts of the mound in Becquerel Crater show radial faults, These may be the result of a salt diapir. On Earth these are associated with methane seepage. Perhaps the methane detected on Mars from time to time is coming from these faults.Some parts of Becquerel show light-toned layers. Light-toned rocks on Mars have been associated with hydrated minerals like sulfates. The Mars Rover Opportunity examined such layers close-up with several instruments. Scientists are excited about finding hydrated minerals such as sulfates and clays on Mars because they are usually formed in the presence of water. Places that contain clays and/or other hydrated minerals would be good places to look for evidence of life.Many craters once contained lakes. Because some crater floors show deltas, we know that water had to be present for some time. Dozens of deltas have been spotted on Mars. Deltas form when sediment is washed in from a stream entering a quiet body of water. It takes a bit of time to form a delta, so the presence of a delta is exciting; it means water was there for a time, maybe for many years. Primitive organisms may have developed in such lakes; hence, some craters may be prime targets for the search for evidence of life on the Red Planet.

Becquerel (lunar crater)

Becquerel is a lunar impact crater that lies in the northern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon. This is an ancient and heavily worn formation that is now little more than an irregular buri in the surface. The outer rim has been worn and reshaped until it forms a rugged, mountainous region around the flatter interior.

The most notable of the formations on the rim is Becquerel X, which is part of a double crater along the northwestern rim. There is a short valley paralleling the southwestern rim, most likely formed by the merging of several small craters. The interior floor of Becquerel is relatively flat, but with rough sections and several tiny craterlets marking the surface. There is a dark patch (low albedo) on the floor near the southern rim.

To the west of Becquerel are H. G. Wells and Tesla, to the north is Segers, to the northeast is Bridgman, and to the south is Van Maanen.

The crater's name was adopted by the IAU in 1970.

Becquerel Prize

The Becquerel Prize is a prize to honour scientific, technical or managerial merits in the field of photovoltaic solar energy. It has been established in 1989 by the European Commission at the occasion of the 150th anniversary of a groudbreaking experiment by Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel, also known as Edmond Becquerel, in which he discovered the photovoltaic effect. The prize is awarded to a single individual who is recognized for continuous achievements in the field of photovoltaic energy conversion. The prize is primarily a European award but not restricted exclusively to European citizens. The prize is granted by the European Commission. The Becquerel Prize Committee selects the individual to be honoured. The prize is awarded periodically at the annual European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.

Bridgman (crater)

Bridgman is a lunar impact crater that is located on the far side of the Moon. It lies in the northern hemisphere, to the northwest of the crater Kurchatov. To the west-southwest is the old formation Becquerel, and eastward are the craters Pawsey and Wiener.

The prominent outer wall of Bridgman is only somewhat worn, and retains much of its original detail including traces of terrace structures and slumping. The rim is not quite circular, having a slight polygonal appearance with rounded corners. There is a notable inward bulge of the wall at the south end. The interior floor is generally level, with a central peak formation at the midpoint.

Curie

The curie (symbol Ci) is a non-SI unit of radioactivity originally defined in 1910. According to a notice in Nature at the time, it was named in honour of Pierre Curie, but was considered at least by some to be in honour of Marie Curie as well.It was originally defined as "the quantity or mass of radium emanation in equilibrium with one gram of radium (element)" but is currently defined as: 1 Ci = 3.7×1010 decays per second after more accurate measurements of the activity of 226Ra (which has a specific activity of 3.66×1010 Bq/g.)

In 1975 the General Conference on Weights and Measures gave the becquerel (Bq), defined as one nuclear decay per second, official status as the SI unit of activity.

Therefore:

1 Ci = 3.7×1010 Bq = 37 GBqand

1 Bq ≅ 2.703×10−11 Ci ≅ 27 pCiWhile its continued use is discouraged by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and other bodies, the curie is still widely used throughout the government, industry and medicine in the United States and in other countries.

At the 1910 meeting which originally defined the curie, it was proposed to make it equivalent to 10 nanograms of radium (a practical amount). But Marie Curie, after initially accepting this, changed her mind and insisted on one gram of radium. According to Bertram Boltwood, Marie Curie thought that 'the use of the name "curie" for so infinitesimally small [a] quantity of anything was altogether inappropriate.'The power in milliwatts emitted by one curie of radiation can be calculated by taking the number of MeV for the radiation times approximately 5.93.

A radiotherapy machine may have roughly 1000 Ci of a radioisotope such as caesium-137 or cobalt-60. This quantity of radioactivity can produce serious health effects with only a few minutes of close-range, unshielded exposure.

Ingesting even a millicurie is usually fatal (unless it is a very short-lived isotope). For example, the LD-50 for ingested polonium-210 is 240 μCi, about 53.5 nanograms.

The typical human body contains roughly 0.1 μCi (14 mg) of naturally occurring potassium-40. A human body containing 16 kg of carbon (see Composition of the human body) would also have about 24 nanograms or 0.1 μCi of carbon-14. Together, these would result in a total of approximately 0.2 μCi or 7400 decays per second inside the person's body (mostly from beta decay but some from gamma decay).

Edmond Becquerel

Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (24 March 1820 – 11 May 1891), known as Edmond Becquerel, was a French physicist who studied the solar spectrum, magnetism, electricity and optics. He is credited with the discovery of the photovoltaic effect, the operating principle of the solar cell, in 1839. He is also known for his work in luminescence and phosphorescence. He was the son of Antoine César Becquerel and the father of Henri Becquerel, one of the discoverers of radioactivity.

Henri Becquerel

Antoine Henri Becquerel (; French: [ɑ̃ʁi bɛkʁɛl]; 15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity. For work in this field he, along with Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie, received the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics. The SI unit for radioactivity, the becquerel (Bq), is named after him.

Inverse second

The inverse second, reciprocal second, or per second (s−1) is a unit of frequency, defined as the multiplicative inverse of the second (a unit of time). It is dimensionally equivalent to:

the unit hertz – the SI unit for cycles per second

the unit becquerel – the SI unit for aperiodic or stochastic radionuclide events per second

the unit baud – the unit for symbol rate over a communication link

strain rate – the velocity gradient (comprising the shear rate and directional expansion rate) of a fluid or solidIt also provides the denominator for temporal rates, such as that of angular frequency in radians per second.

Jean Becquerel

Jean Becquerel (5 February 1878 – 4 July 1953) was a French physicist, and son of Antoine-Henri Becquerel. He worked on the optical and magnetic properties of crystals, discovering the rotation of the plane of polarisation by a magnetic field. He also published a textbook on relativity. In 1909, he became the fourth in his family to occupy the physics chair at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, following in the footsteps of his father, his grandfather A. E. Becquerel and his great-grandfather Antoine César Becquerel.

Louis Alfred Becquerel

Louis Alfred Becquerel (3 June 1814 – 10 March 1862) was a French physician and medical researcher.

Becquerel was born in Paris. He was the oldest son of Antoine César Becquerel, and brother of Alexandre Edmond Becquerel. In 1840 he obtained his doctorate with the thesis "Recherches cliniques sur les affections tuberculeuses du cerveau", and in 1847 attained the title of professeur agrégé.Becquerel died in Paris.

Photovoltaic effect

The photovoltaic effect is the creation of voltage and electric current in a material upon exposure to light and is a physical and chemical phenomenon.The photovoltaic effect is closely related to the photoelectric effect. In either case, light is absorbed, causing excitation of an electron or other charge carrier to a higher-energy state. The main distinction is that the term photoelectric effect is now usually used when the electron is ejected out of the material (usually into a vacuum) and photovoltaic effect used when the excited charge carrier is still contained within the material. In either case, an electric potential (or voltage) is produced by the separation of charges, and the light has to have a sufficient energy to overcome the potential barrier for excitation. The physical essence of the difference is usually that photoelectric emission separates the charges by ballistic conduction and photovoltaic emission separates them by diffusion, but some "hot carrier" photovoltaic device concepts blur this distinction.

The first solar cell, consisting of a layer of selenium covered with a thin film of gold, was experimented by Charles Fritts in 1884, but it had a very poor efficiency. A demonstration of the photovoltaic effect in 1839 used an electrochemical cell, but the most familiar form of the photovoltaic effect in modern times though is in solid-state devices, mainly in photodiodes. When sunlight or other sufficiently energetic light is incident upon the photodiode, the electrons present in the valence band absorb energy and, being excited, jump to the conduction band and become free. These excited electrons diffuse, and some reach the rectifying junction (usually a p-n junction) where they are accelerated into a different material by a built-in potential (Galvani potential). This generates an electromotive force, and thus some of the light energy is converted into electric energy. The photovoltaic effect can also occur when two photons are absorbed simultaneously in a process called two-photon photovoltaic effect...

The photovoltaic effect was first observed by French physicist A. E. Becquerel in 1839. He explained his discovery in Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences, "the production of an electric current when two plates of platinum or gold immersed in an acid, neutral, or alkaline solution are exposed in an uneven way to solar radiation."Besides the direct excitation of free electrons, a photovoltaic effect can also arise simply due to the heating caused by absorption of the light. The heating leads to an increase in temperature, which is accompanied by temperature gradients. These thermal gradients in turn may generate a voltage through the Seebeck effect. Whether direct excitation or thermal effects dominate the photovoltaic effect will depend on many material parameters.

In most photovoltaic applications the radiation is sunlight, and the devices are called solar cells. In the case of a p-n junction solar cell, illuminating the material creates an electric current as excited electrons and the remaining holes are swept in different directions by the built-in electric field of the depletion region.

Pierre Curie

Pierre Curie (; French: [kyʁi]; 15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. In 1903, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska-Curie, and Henri Becquerel, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel".

Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity or nuclear radiation) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, or a gamma ray or electron in the case of internal conversion. A material containing such unstable nuclei is considered radioactive. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission, or more rarely, proton emission.

Radioactive decay is a stochastic (i.e. random) process at the level of single atoms. According to quantum theory, it is impossible to predict when a particular atom will decay, regardless of how long the atom has existed. However, for a collection of atoms, the collection's expected decay rate is characterized in terms of their measured decay constants or half-lives. This is the basis of radiometric dating. The half-lives of radioactive atoms have no known upper limit, spanning a time range of over 55 orders of magnitude, from nearly instantaneous to far longer than the age of the universe.

A radioactive nucleus with zero spin can have no defined orientation, and hence emits the total momentum of its decay products isotropically (all directions and without bias). If there are multiple particles produced during a single decay, as in beta decay, their relative angular distribution, or spin directions may not be isotropic. Decay products from a nucleus with spin may be distributed non-isotropically with respect to that spin direction, either because of an external influence such as an electromagnetic field, or because the nucleus was produced in a dynamic process that constrained the direction of its spin. Such a parent process could be a previous decay, or a nuclear reaction.The decaying nucleus is called the parent radionuclide (or parent radioisotope), and the process produces at least one daughter nuclide. Except for gamma decay or internal conversion from a nuclear excited state, the decay is a nuclear transmutation resulting in a daughter containing a different number of protons or neutrons (or both). When the number of protons changes, an atom of a different chemical element is created.

The first decay processes to be discovered were alpha decay, beta decay, and gamma decay. Alpha decay occurs when the nucleus ejects an alpha particle (helium nucleus). This is the most common process of emitting nucleons, but highly excited nuclei can eject single nucleons, or in the case of cluster decay, specific light nuclei of other elements. Beta decay occurs in two ways:

(i) beta-minus decay, when the nucleus emits an electron and an antineutrino in a process that changes a neutron to a proton, or

(ii) beta-plus decay, when the nucleus emits a positron and a neutrino in a process that changes a proton to a neutron.

Highly excited neutron-rich nuclei, formed as the product of other types of decay, occasionally lose energy by way of neutron emission, resulting in a change from one isotope to another of the same element. The nucleus may capture an orbiting electron, causing a proton to convert into a neutron in a process called electron capture. All of these processes result in a well-defined nuclear transmutation.

By contrast, there are radioactive decay processes that do not result in a nuclear transmutation. The energy of an excited nucleus may be emitted as a gamma ray in a process called gamma decay, or that energy may be lost when the nucleus interacts with an orbital electron causing its ejection from the atom, in a process called internal conversion.

Another type of radioactive decay results in products that vary, appearing as two or more "fragments" of the original nucleus with a range of possible masses. This decay, called spontaneous fission, happens when a large unstable nucleus spontaneously splits into two (or occasionally three) smaller daughter nuclei, and generally leads to the emission of gamma rays, neutrons, or other particles from those products.

For a summary table showing the number of stable and radioactive nuclides in each category, see radionuclide. There are 28 naturally occurring chemical elements on Earth that are radioactive, consisting of 33 radionuclides (5 elements have 2 different radionuclides) that date before the time of formation of the solar system. These 33 are known as primordial nuclides. Well-known examples are uranium and thorium, but also included are naturally occurring long-lived radioisotopes, such as potassium-40. Another 50 or so shorter-lived radionuclides, such as radium and radon, found on Earth, are the products of decay chains that began with the primordial nuclides, or are the product of ongoing cosmogenic processes, such as the production of carbon-14 from nitrogen-14 in the atmosphere by cosmic rays. Radionuclides may also be produced artificially in particle accelerators or nuclear reactors, resulting in 650 of these with half-lives of over an hour, and several thousand more with even shorter half-lives. (See List of nuclides for a list of these sorted by half-life.)

Rutherford (unit)

The rutherford (symbol Rd) is a non-SI unit of radioactive decay. It is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one million nuclei decay per second. It is therefore equivalent to one megabecquerel, and one becquerel equals one microrutherford. One rutherford is equivalent to 2.703 × 10−5 curie.

The unit was introduced in 1946. It was named after British/New Zealand physicist and Nobel laureate Lord Ernest Rutherford (Nobel Prize in 1908), who was an early leader in the study of atomic nucleus disintegrations. After the becquerel was introduced in 1975 as the SI unit for activity, the rutherford became obsolete, and it is no longer commonly used.

Specific activity

Specific activity is the activity per quantity of a radionuclide and is a physical property of that radionuclide.Activity is a quantity related to radioactivity. The SI unit of activity is the becquerel (Bq), equal to one reciprocal second. The becquerel is defined as the number of radioactive transformations per second that occur in a particular radioactive isotope. Its related non-SI unit equivalent is the Curie (Ci) which is 3.7×1010 transformations per second.

Since the probability of radioactive decay for a given radionuclide is a fixed physical quantity (with some slight exceptions, see changing decay rates), the number of decays that occur in a given time of a specific number of atoms of that radionuclide is also a fixed physical quantity (if there are large enough numbers of atoms to ignore statistical fluctuations).

Thus, specific activity is defined as the activity per quantity of atoms of a particular radionuclide. It is usually given in units of Bq/g, but another commonly used unit of activity is the curie (Ci) allowing the definition of specific activity in Ci/g.

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