Beaver hat

A beaver hat is a hat made from felted beaver fur. They were fashionable across much of Europe during the period 1550–1850 because the soft yet resilient material could be easily combed to make a variety of hat shapes (including the familiar top hat).[1] Smaller hats made of beaver were sometimes called beaverkins,[2] as in Thomas Carlyle's description of his wife as a child.[3]

Used winter coats worn by Native Americans were actually a prized commodity for hat making because their wear helped prepare the skins; separating out the coarser hairs from the pelts.

To make felt, the underhairs were shaved from the beaver pelt and mixed with a vibrating hatter's bow. The matted fabric was pummeled and boiled repeatedly, resulting in a shrunken and thickened felt. Filled over a hat-form block, the felt was pressed and steamed into shape. The hat maker then brushed the outside surface to a sheen.[4] Beaver hats were made in various styles as a matter of civil status:

  • the Wellington (1820–40)
  • the Paris beau (1815)
  • the D'Orsay (1820)
  • the Regent (1825)
  • the clerical (18th century).

In addition, beaver hats were made in various styles as a matter of military status:

  • the continental cocked hat (1776)
  • Navy cocked hat (19th century)
  • the Army shako (1837).[5]

The popularity of the beaver hat declined in the early/mid-19th century as silk hats became more fashionable across Europe.


A beaver felt hat.

Chapeaux en peau de castor

Shapes and styles of beaver hat 1776–1825

1800s -Masonic Knights Templar- Beaver Fur Chapeaux Hat

19th century Masonic Knights Templar Beaver Fur hat

John By

English military engineer John By (1779-1836)

Edward Arthur Walton - The Beaver Hat

Edward Arthur WaltonThe Beaver Hat

1886 cabinet card photograph of men in beaver hats


  1. ^ Wallace-Wells, D. "Puritan Inc." The New Republic, 2010.
  2. ^ Picken, Mary Brooks (1999). A dictionary of costume and fashion : historic and modern : with over 950 illustrations. Courier Dover Publications. p. 160. ISBN 9780486141602.
  3. ^ Carlyle, Thomas (2012) [1881]. Froude, James Anthony, ed. Reminscences. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108044790. ...dainty little cap, perhaps little beaverkin (with flap turned up)...
  4. ^ Brigham,, Walter. "Baltimore Hats".
  5. ^ Gray, Charlotte (2004). The Museum Called Canada: 25 Rooms of Wonder. Random House.

External links

Media related to Beaver hats at Wikimedia Commons

Beavers (Scouting)

Beavers is one name for programs associated with Scouting for young children usually aged 5 to 7. A participant in the program is called a Beaver. A group of Beavers is often called a "Colony". The programme is based on co-operating and sharing. Some Scouting organizations have programs for similar ages but use different names such as Keas or Joeys.

The Beavers program was originated in Northern Ireland in the 1960s to provide a program for boys who were too young to be Cubs. Beavers or similar programs were adopted by many other Scouting organizations, in particular Canada. The Canadian program was developed by three people: Harry McCartney who was the Manitoba Executive Scout Director and the author of the Beaver Book, "Friends of the Forest"; Alan Jones who was a Winnipeg Scout Executive and Gordon Hanna who was part of the United Way Youth Council and was asked by Harry to be the Project Coordinator. As concepts were developed by Alan and Gordon, Harry would write the next chapter of Friends of the Forest.

Some Scouting organizations, including the Boy Scouts of America and certain Traditional Scouting organizations, have not adopted programs for ever younger age children. Baden-Powell-ist Traditional Scouting rejects Beavers or similar programs because they are not one of Robert Baden-Powell's programs. Some organizations have adopted Beavers or similar programs but distinguish and disassociate them in identity from Scouting.

Originally, the Beavers program was open only to boys but, in most organizations operating Beavers or similar programs, the programs have been opened to both girls and boys.

Constance Hopkins

Constance Hopkins (baptized May 11, 1606 – October 1677), also sometimes listed as Constanta, was a passenger on the Mayflower in 1620.

Count Blood Count

Count Blood Count is a vampire from the Warner Brothers Looney Tunes animated shorts. His appearance recalls that of Lon Chaney, Sr.'s vampire character The Man in the Beaver Hat from London After Midnight, the first Hollywood-produced vampire film.

Court uniform and dress in the United Kingdom

Court uniform and dress were required to be worn by those in attendance at the royal Court in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Specifically, court uniform was worn by those holding particular offices (e.g. in the government, the Civil Service, the Royal Household, etc.). A range of office-holders were entitled to wear it, with different grades of uniform specified for different grades of official. It is still worn today on state occasions by certain dignitaries both in the UK and abroad.

Court dress, on the other hand, is a stylized form of clothing deriving from fashionable eighteenth-century wear, which was directed to be worn at Court by those not entitled to a court uniform. For men, it comprises a matching tailcoat and waistcoat, breeches and stockings, lace cuffs and cravat, cocked hat and a sword. For women, a white or cream evening dress is directed to be worn, together with a train and other specified accoutrements. Male court dress is still worn today as part of the formal dress of judges and Queen's Counsel, and is also worn by certain Lord Mayors, parliamentary officials, and high sheriffs of counties. Female court dress was at one time required wear for debutantes being presented at Court, but it ceased regularly to be worn after the Second World War (when afternoon presentations replaced evening Courts).Precise descriptions, both of court uniform and of court dress, were laid down in an official publication called Dress Worn at Court (viewable online) which was published by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. The 1937 edition remains authoritative for those rare circumstances in which court uniform or court dress are still required.

Daniel Sullivan (American frontier)

Daniel Sullivan was an 18th-century military figure in the North American frontier.

Sullivan (1754/5-1790) was raised in Virginia. At age 9, he and another boy, Cunningham, were captured by a party of Delaware. Each was adopted and raised along the Muskingum River. In 1772, the two accompanied a trading party to Fort Pitt, where Sullivan was recognized by his brother-in-law, Zadock Wright. Wright successfully bought the two teenage boys, but Sullivan refused to leave his Delaware family unless Wright gave him a beaver hat.Sullivan soon left his family and returned to Fort Pitt. When Lord Dunmore's War commenced, Sullivan served as a guide for Major John Connolly's Virginia militia company, in which Zadock Wright served as a lieutenant.During the American Revolutionary War, Sullivan served as a scout and a spy. He hired himself as a boatman to a trader, and travelled to Fort Detroit. There, he was arrested by Lieutenant-Governor Henry Hamilton after he was recognized by an American Indian. Hamilton sent Sullivan to Quebec, where he was paroled in December 1777. Sullivan returned to Fort Pitt, where he was again arrested in 1779 for "endeavouring to make the Delaware Indians break the last treaty of peace."After his release, Sullivan moved to Louisville. In 1785, Sullivan moved north to Vincennes. He led the Vincennes militia in the 1786 Battle of the Embarras River. He was killed along the Buffalo Trace in 1790.

HMS Macedonian

HMS Macedonian was a 38-gun fifth rate Lively-class frigate in the Royal Navy, later captured by USS United States during the War of 1812. She was built at Woolwich Dockyard, England in 1809, launched 2 June 1810 and commissioned the same month. She was commanded by Captain Lord William FitzRoy. Among the original crew was the 13-year-old Samuel Leech, who later wrote a memoir of his experiences.

Joseph C. Dylkes

Joseph C. Dylkes, also referred to as the Leatherwood God, was a messianic figure in the early settlement of the Ohio Country in the United States.

Very little is known about Dylkes. Details about his birth, as well as information regarding his whereabouts following his enigmatic disappearance remain apocryphal.

Dylkes achieved notoriety in August 1828, at a camp meeting near a chapel known as the Leatherwood Church in Salesville, Ohio. On a Sunday afternoon, the United Brethren minister John Crum was preaching to a large congregation when a voice shouted "Salvation" followed by a strange sound, taken by all who heard it to be the snort of a horse.

Everyone was taken by surprise and turned to see a stranger dressed in a black broadcloth suit, frock coat, white cravat, and yellow beaver hat. He appeared to be between the ages of 45 and 50 and wore long black hair.

The stranger was hosted by some members of that congregation. He attended various religious meetings, and sometimes preached. Displaying knowledge of the Bible, he started to declare himself a celestial being, and finally claimed he was the Messiah come to establish a kingdom that would never end. His assertion of immortality was bolstered by claims that no one could harm him or touch a single hair of his head.

Some families accepted his claims and became his followers, stirring controversy in the Ohio valley. A mob bent on discrediting him came to a religious service in the home of a Dylkes follower and tore out a considerable lock of his hair to demonstrate his mortality.

Dylkes was taken before the local Squire to be charged but was released on the grounds that it "was not a crime to be a god." Dylkes took refuge in a farm belonging to one of his followers and ultimately declared he was going to Philadelphia to establish a "New Jerusalem." During the trip he disappeared without a trace.

A few of his believers, such as Michael Brill and Robert McCormick, died believing in Dylkes.

List of headgear

This is an incomplete list of headgear (that is, anything worn on the head), both modern and historical.

London After Midnight (film)

London After Midnight, (also known as The Hypnotist in the UK), is a 1927 American silent mystery film with horror overtones directed and co-produced by Tod Browning and starring Lon Chaney, with Marceline Day, Conrad Nagel, Henry B. Walthall, and Polly Moran. The film was distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and was based on the short story "The Hypnotist" also written by Browning.

The last copy of the film known to exist was destroyed in the 1965 MGM vault fire, making London After Midnight one of the most famous and eagerly sought after of all lost films. In 2002, Turner Classic Movies aired a reconstructed version, produced by Rick Schmidlin, who used the original script and film stills to create this version.

Lord Frederick Beauclerk

Lord Frederick Beauclerk (1773–1850) was an outstanding but controversial English first-class cricketer for 35 years from 1791 to 1825. On his retirement, he served as president of Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) in 1826.

Beauclerk was the fourth son of Aubrey Beauclerk, 5th Duke of St Albans and his wife, the former Lady Catherine Ponsonby, daughter of William Ponsonby, 2nd Earl of Bessborough. He became a clergyman, becoming Vicar of St. Michael's Church at St Albans and a Doctor of Divinity.

Mose Humphrey

Moses Humphrey was a member of Fire Company 40 in New York City in the 1800s, and the inspiration for the folk hero character "Mose the Fireboy".

The character of Mose first appeared on Broadway in Benjamin A. Baker's A Glance at New York, in 1848. Mose was featured in several stage shows and penny novels in the mid-19th century. The character was most identified with actor Frank Chanfrau.The Fireboy character was said to have a height of 8 ft (2.4 m) and hands as big as Virginia hams, able to lift trolley cars over his head and rescue babies inside a stovepipe hat, as his own beaver hat was two foot across the brim. Certain stories recall Mose performing extraordinary deeds, such as swimming the Hudson River with two strokes, or tearing up mulberry and cherry trees to use as a bludgeon against the Plug Uglies, a gang that were at odds with New York Firemen Co. 49.

The real Moses was a parishioner of St. Andrew's Church.

Nap (textile)

Primarily, nap is the raised (fuzzy) surface on certain kinds of cloth, such as velvet or moleskin. Nap can refer additionally to other surfaces that look like the surface of a napped cloth, such as the surface of a felt or beaver hat.

Starting around the 14th century, the word referred originally to the roughness of woven cloth before it was sheared. When cloth, especially woollen cloth, is woven, the surface of the cloth is not smooth, and this roughness is the nap. Generally the cloth is then 'sheared' to create an even surface, and the nap is thus removed. A person who trimmed the surface of cloth with shears to remove any excess nap was known as a shearman.

Pierre Chouteau Jr.

Pierre Chouteau Jr. (January 19, 1789 – September 6, 1865), also referred to as Pierre Cadet Chouteau, was an American merchant and a member of the wealthy Chouteau fur-trading family of Saint Louis, Missouri.


Stoolball is a sport that dates back to at least the 15th century, originating in Sussex, southern England. It may be an ancestor of cricket (a game it resembles), baseball, and rounders, in fact stoolball is sometimes called "cricket in the air". There is a tradition that it was played by milkmaids who used their milking stools as a "wicket" and the bittle, or milk bowl as a bat. Hence its archaic name of bittle-battle.The sport of stoolball is strongly associated with Sussex; it has been referred to as Sussex's 'national' sport and a Sussex game or pastime. The National Stoolball Association was formed in 1979 to promote and expand stoolball. The game was officially recognised as a sport by the Sports Council in early 2008. The National Stoolball Association changed its name to Stoolball England in 2010 on the advice of the Sports Council and was recognised as the national governing body for stoolball in England in 2011.

The game's popularity has faded since the 1960s, but continues to be played at a local league level in Sussex, Kent, Surrey and the Midlands. Some variants are played in some schools. Teams can be ladies only or mixed. There are ladies' leagues in Sussex, Surrey and Kent and mixed leagues in Sussex.

Top hat

A top hat, beaver hat, high hat, silk hat, cylinder hat, chimney pot hat or stove pipe hat, sometimes also known by the nickname "topper", is a tall, flat-crowned, broad-brimmed hat, worn by men from the latter part of the 18th to the middle of the 20th century. By the end of World War II, it had become a rarity in ordinary dress, though it continued to be worn in specific instances, such as state funerals, also by those occupying prominent positions in the Bank of England, by certain City stock exchange officials and occasionally when passing between the Law Courts and Lincoln's Inn, London by judges of the Chancery Division and Queen's Counsel.

As of the early 21st century, top hats are still worn at some society events in the UK, notably at church weddings and racing meetings attended by members of the royal family, such as Royal Ascot. They remain part of the formal uniform of certain British institutions, such as the boy-choristers of King's College Choir. They are usually worn with morning dress or white tie, in dressage, and as part of servants' or doormen's livery.

The top hat was frequently associated with the upper class, and was used by satirists and social critics as a symbol of capitalism or the world of business (one current example is the Monopoly Man). The use of the top hat persisted in politics and international diplomacy for many years, including at U.S. presidential inaugurations, the last being worn at the inauguration of John Fitzgerald Kennedy in 1961. The top hat also forms part of the traditional dress of Uncle Sam, a symbol of the United States, generally striped in red, white and blue.

The top hat is also associated with stage magic, both in traditional costume and especially the use of hat tricks. One such trick involving a top hat is the famous "Pulling a Rabbit out of a Hat" trick. Instances of this trick date back to Louis Comte who performed the trick in 1814.


The tricorne or tricorn is a style of hat that was popular during the 18th century, falling out of style by 1800, though actually not called a "tricorne" until the mid-19th century. During the 18th century, hats of this general style were referred to as "cocked hats". At the peak of its popularity, the tricorne varied greatly in style and size, and was worn not only by the aristocracy, but also as common civilian dress, and as part of military and naval uniforms. Typically made from animal fiber, the more expensive being of beaver-hair felt and the less expensive of wool felt, the hat's most distinguishing characteristic was that three sides of the brim were turned up (cocked) and either pinned, laced, or buttoned in place to form a triangle around the crown. The style served two purposes: first, it allowed stylish gentlemen to show off the most current fashions of their wigs, and thus their social status; and secondly, the cocked hat, with its folded brim, was much smaller than other hats and therefore could be more easily tucked under an arm when going inside a building, where social etiquette dictated that a gentleman should remove his hat. Tricornes with laced sides could have the laces loosened and the sides dropped down to provide better protection from the weather, sun, and rain.Tricornes had a rather broad brim, pinned up on either side of the head and at the back, producing a triangular shape. The hat was typically worn with one point facing forward, though it was not at all unusual for soldiers, who would often rest a rifle or musket on their left shoulder, to wear the tricorne pointed above their left eyebrow to allow better clearance. The crown is low, unlike the steeple hats worn by the Puritans or the top hat of the 19th century.Tricornes ranged from the very simple and cheap to the extravagant, occasionally incorporating gold or silver lace trimming and feathers. In addition, military and naval versions usually bore a cockade or other national emblem at the front. This style of hat remains in use in a number of countries to the present day as an item of ceremonial dress.

Watley's End

Watley's End was a small village located in South Gloucestershire, England. It now forms the northern part of Winterbourne. Watley's End Road, which runs through the village, would have been the main road.

Watley's End lay sandwiched between the much larger villages of Frampton Cotterell and Winterbourne, eventually becoming part of the latter. The eastern border lay along the River Frome, from Nightingale Bridge down to the Cloisters. The northern border was considered to be Court Road and Frampton Cotterell. Hooper's Farm was considered the western edge. The southern edge of the area started where Park Avenue met North Road and continued east until the Cloisters.

The area features Salem Methodist Church and the defunct Ebenezer Methodist Church. There is also a public house called the Mason's Arms on North Road. Factory Road was named for the beaver hat factory built on what is now Beaver Close. There used to be several small shops in the area, one opposite Salem Church and another grocery shop run by Richard Maggs on the corner of Salem and Common Roads.

Watley's End is also the scene of Winterbourne's thriving Youth and Gymnastics club, at the Fromeside community centre.

William Smith (Virginia governor)

William "Extra Billy" Smith (September 6, 1797 – May 18, 1887) was a lawyer, congressman, the 30th and 35th Governor of Virginia, and a Major General in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. On his appointment in January 1863, at the age of 65, Smith was the oldest Confederate general to hold field command in the war.

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