Beaver

The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent. Castor includes two extant species, the North American beaver (Castor canadensis) (native to North America) and Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) (Eurasia).[1] Beavers are known for building dams, canals, and lodges (homes). They are the second-largest rodent in the world (after the capybara). Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, and to float food and building material. The North American beaver population was once more than 60 million, but as of 1988 was 6–12 million. This population decline is the result of extensive hunting for fur, for glands used as medicine and perfume, and because the beavers' harvesting of trees and flooding of waterways may interfere with other land uses.[2]

Beaver
Temporal range: 24–0 Ma
Late Miocene – Recent
American Beaver
North American beaver (Castor canadensis)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Family: Castoridae
Subfamily: Castorinae
Genus: Castor
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

C. fiber – Eurasian beaver
C. canadensis – North American beaver
C. californicus

General

Beavers, along with pocket gophers and kangaroo rats, are castorimorph rodents, a suborder of rodents mostly restricted to North America. Although just two closely related species exist today, beavers have a long fossil history in the Northern Hemisphere beginning in the Eocene, and many species of giant beaver existed until quite recently, such as Trogontherium in Europe, and Castoroides in North America.

Beavers are known for their natural trait of building dams on rivers and streams, and building their homes (known as "lodges") in the resulting pond. Beavers also build canals to float building materials that are difficult to haul over land.[3][4] They use powerful front teeth to cut trees and other plants that they use both for building and for food. In the absence of existing ponds, beavers must construct dams before building their lodges. First they place vertical poles, then fill between the poles with a crisscross of horizontally placed branches. They fill in the gaps between the branches with a combination of weeds and mud until the dam impounds sufficient water to surround the lodge.

Beaverbones
A beaver skeleton
Beaver skeleton
A beaver skeleton (Museum of Osteology)

They are known for their alarm signal: when startled or frightened, a swimming beaver will rapidly dive while forcefully slapping the water with its broad tail, audible over great distances above and below water. This serves as a warning to beavers in the area. Once a beaver has sounded the alarm, nearby beavers will dive and may not reemerge for some time. Beavers are slow on land, but are good swimmers, and can stay under water for as long as 15 minutes.

Beavers do not hibernate, but store sticks and logs in a pile in their ponds, eating the underbark. Some of the pile is generally above water and accumulates snow in the winter. This insulation of snow often keeps the water from freezing in and around the food pile, providing a location where beavers can breathe when outside their lodge.

Beavers have webbed hind-feet, and a broad, scaly tail. They have poor eyesight, but keen senses of hearing, smell, and touch. A beaver's teeth grow continuously so that they will not be worn down by chewing on wood.[5] Their four incisors are composed of hard orange enamel on the front and a softer dentin on the back. The chisel-like ends of incisors are maintained by their self-sharpening wear pattern. The enamel in a beaver's incisors contains iron and is more resistant to acid than enamel in the teeth of other mammals.[6]

Beavers continue to grow throughout their lives. Adult specimens weighing over 25 kg (55 lb) are not uncommon. Females are as large as or larger than males of the same age, which is uncommon among mammals. Beavers live up to 24 years of age in the wild.

Etymology

The English word "beaver" comes from the Old English word beofor or befer (recorded earlier as bebr), which in turn sprang from the Proto-Germanic root *bebruz. Cognates in other Germanic languages include the Old Saxon bibar, the Old Norse bjorr, the Middle Dutch and Dutch bever, the Low German bever, the Old High German bibar and the Modern German Biber. The Proto-Germanic word in turn came from the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) word *bhebhrus, a reduplication of the PIE root *bher-, meaning "brown" or "bright", whose own descendants now include the Lithuanian bebras and the Czech bobr, as well as the Germanic forms.[7]

Species

Beaver tracks
North American beaver tracks

The North American and Eurasian beavers are the only extant members of the family Castoridae, contained in a single genus, Castor. Genetic research has shown the modern European and North American beaver populations to be distinct species and that hybridization is unlikely. Although superficially similar to each other, there are several important differences between the two species. Eurasian beavers tend to be slightly larger, with larger, less rounded heads, longer, narrower muzzles, thinner, shorter and lighter underfur, narrower, less oval-shaped tails and shorter shin bones, making them less capable of bipedal locomotion than the North American species. Eurasian beavers have longer nasal bones than their North American cousins, with the widest point being at the end of the snout for the former, and in the middle for the latter. The nasal opening for the Eurasian species is triangular, unlike that of the North American race, which is square. The foramen magnum is rounded in the Eurasian beaver and triangular in the North American. The anal glands of the Eurasian beaver are larger and thin-walled with a large internal volume compared to that of the North American species. The guard hairs of the Eurasian beaver have a longer hollow medulla at their tips. Fur colour is also different. Overall, 66% of Eurasian beavers have pale brown or beige fur, 20% have reddish brown, nearly 8% are brown and only 4% have blackish coats. In North American beavers, 50% have pale brown fur, 25% are reddish brown, 20% are brown and 6% are blackish.[8]

The two species are not genetically compatible. North American beavers have 40 chromosomes, while Eurasian beavers have 48. More than 27 attempts were made in Russia to hybridize the two species, with one breeding between a male North American beaver and a female European resulting in a single stillborn kit. These factors make interspecific breeding unlikely in areas where the two species' ranges overlap.[8]

Eurasian beaver

Beaver pho34
A Eurasian beaver

The Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) was nearly hunted to extinction in Europe, both for fur and for castoreum, a secretion from its scent gland believed to have medicinal properties. However, the beaver is now being re-introduced throughout Europe. Several thousand live on the Elbe and the Rhône and in parts of Scandinavia. A thriving community lives in northeast Poland, and the Eurasian beaver also returned to the Morava River banks in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. They have been reintroduced in Scotland (Knapdale),[9] Bavaria, Austria, Netherlands, Serbia (Zasavica bog), Denmark (West Jutland) and Bulgaria and are spreading to new locations. The beaver became extinct in Great Britain in the sixteenth century: Giraldus Cambrensis reported in 1188 (Itinerarium ii.iii) that it was to be found only in the Teifi in Wales and in one river in Scotland, though his observations are clearly second hand. In 2001, Kent Wildlife Trust successfully introduced a family of beavers at Ham Fen, the last remaining ancient fenland in the county close to the town of Sandwich; these are now established and are breeding. In October 2005, six Eurasian beavers were reintroduced to Britain in Lower Mill Estate in Gloucestershire; in July 2007 a colony of four Eurasian beavers was established at Martin Mere in Lancashire,[10] and a small population of probably Eurasian beavers is being monitored in Devon.[11] A trial re-introduction occurred in Scotland in May 2009. Feasibility studies for a reintroduction to Wales are at an advanced stage and a preliminary study for a reintroduction of beavers to the wild in England has recently been published.[12][13]

North American beaver

Castor canadensis
A North American beaver
Beaver work on a tree in winter
Surprised by a major snow melt, a beaver had to start its cut all over again

The North American beaver (Castor canadensis), also called the Canadian beaver (which is also the name of a subspecies), American beaver, or simply beaver in North America, is native to Canada, much of the United States and the states of Sonora and Chihuahua in northern Mexico.[14][15][16] This species was introduced to the Argentine and Chilean Tierra del Fuego, as well as Finland, France, Poland and Russia.[17][18]

The North American beavers prefer the (inner) bark of aspen and poplar but will also take birch, maple, willow, alder, black cherry, red oak, beech, ash, hornbeam and occasionally pine and spruce.[19] They will also eat cattails, water lilies and other aquatic vegetation, especially in the early spring (and contrary to widespread belief,[20] they do not eat fish).

These animals are often trapped for their fur. During the early 19th century, trapping eliminated this animal from large portions of its original range. Beaver furs were used to make clothing and top-hats. Much of the early exploration of North America was driven by the quest for this animal's fur.[21][22] [23] Native peoples and early settlers also ate this animal's meat. The Federal Lacey Act was passed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service in 1900 which forebode any take of wildlife or plants in violation of Indian, State or foreign law.[24] Through trap and transfer and habitat conservation, beavers made a nearly complete recovery by the 1940s.The current beaver population has been estimated to be 10 to 15 million; one estimate claims that there may at one time have been as many as 90 million.[25]

Habitat

Beaver signs
These trees, up to 250 mm (9.8 in) in diameter, were felled by beavers in one night.

The habitat of the beaver is the riparian zone, inclusive of stream bed. The actions of beavers for hundreds of thousands of years [26] in the Northern Hemisphere have kept these watery systems healthy and in good repair.

The beaver works as a keystone species in an ecosystem by creating wetlands that are used by many other species. Next to humans, no other extant animal appears to do more to shape its landscape.[27] Beavers potentially even affect climate change.[28]

Beavers fell trees for several reasons. They fell large mature trees, usually in strategic locations, to form the basis of a dam, but European beavers tend to use small diameter (<10 cm) trees for this purpose. Beavers fell small trees, especially young second-growth trees, for food.

Broadleaved trees re-grow as a coppice, providing easy-to-reach stems and leaves for food in subsequent years. Ponds created by beavers can also kill some tree species by drowning, but this creates standing dead wood, which is very important for a wide range of animals and plants.[29]

Dams

Beaver dam - geograph.org.uk - 1452003
Beaver dam
Beaver dam - four months on - geograph.org.uk - 1623430
The same dam four months later, showing enlargement

Beaver dams are created as a protection against predators, such as coyotes, wolves and bears, and to provide easy access to food during winter. Beavers always work at night and are prolific builders, carrying mud and stones with their fore-paws and timber between their teeth. Because of this, destroying a beaver dam without removing the beavers is difficult, especially if the dam is downstream of an active lodge. Beavers can rebuild such primary dams overnight, though they may not defend secondary dams as vigorously. Beavers may create a series of dams along a river.

Lodges

The ponds created by well-maintained dams help isolate the beavers' homes, which are called lodges. These are created from severed branches and mud. The beavers cover their lodges late each autumn with fresh mud, which freezes when frosts arrive. The mud becomes almost as hard as stone, thereby preventing wolves and wolverines from penetrating the lodge.

Beaver lodge
Illustration of beaver lodge
Beaverlodge
Beaver lodge, approx. 20-foot (6.1 m) diameter.

The lodge has underwater entrances, which makes entry nearly impossible for any other animal, although muskrats have been seen living inside beaver lodges with the beavers who made them.[30] Only a small amount of the lodge is actually used as a living area. Beavers dig out their dens with underwater entrances after they finish building the dams and lodge structures. There are typically two dens within the lodge, one for drying off after exiting the water and another, drier one, in which the family lives.

Beaver lodges are constructed with the same materials as the dams, with little order or regularity of structure. They seldom house more than four adults and six or eight juveniles. Some larger lodges have one or more partitions, but these are only posts of the main building left by the builders to support the roof. Usually, the dens have no connection with each other except by water.

When the ice breaks up in spring, beavers usually leave their lodges and roam until just before autumn, when they return to their old lodges and gather their winter stock of wood. They seldom begin to repair the lodges until the frost sets in, and rarely finish the outer coating until the cold becomes severe. When they erect a new lodge, they fell the wood early in summer but seldom begin building until nearly the end of August.[31]

Water quality and beavers

Beaver ponds, and the wetlands that succeed them, remove sediments and pollutants from waterways, including total suspended solids, total nitrogen, phosphates, carbon and silicates.[32][33]

The term "beaver fever" is a misnomer coined by the American press in the 1970s, following findings that the parasite Giardia lamblia, which causes Giardiasis, is carried by beavers. However, further research has shown that many animals and birds carry this parasite, and the major source of water contamination is by other humans.[34][35][36] Norway has many beavers but has not historically had giardia, and New Zealand has giardia but no beaver. Recent concerns point to domestic animals as a significant vector of giardia, with young calves in dairy herds testing as high as 100% positive for giardia.[37] In addition, fecal coliform and streptococci bacteria excreted into streams by grazing cattle have been shown to be reduced by beaver ponds, where the bacteria are trapped in bottom sediments.[38]

Intertidal habitat

Some beavers inhabit the intertidal zone in river estuaries, building dams to trap high tides in a beaver pond for similar purposes.[39][40]

Urban beavers in United States

Beavers were trapped to near extirpation and had not been seen in New York City since the early 1800s.[41] After 200 years, a beaver has returned to New York City, making its home along the Bronx River.[42]

In Chicago, several beavers have returned and made a home near the Lincoln Park's North Pond. The "Lincoln Park beaver" has not been as well received by the Chicago Park District and the Lincoln Park Conservancy, which was concerned over damage to trees in the area. In March 2009, they hired an exterminator to remove a beaver family using live traps, and accidentally killed the mother when she got caught in a snare and drowned.[43]

Outside San Francisco, in downtown Martinez, California, a male and female beaver arrived in Alhambra Creek in 2006.[44] The Martinez beavers built a dam 30 feet wide and at one time 6 feet high, and chewed through half the willows and other creekside landscaping the city planted as part of its $9.7 million 1999 flood-improvement project. When the city council wanted to remove the beavers because of fears of flooding, local residents organized to protect them, forming an organization called "Worth a Dam".[45]

As an introduced non-native species

Beaver damage navarino chile
Beaver damage on the north shore of Robalo Lake, Navarino Island, Chile

In the 1940s, beavers were brought from northern Manitoba in Canada to the island of Tierra Del Fuego in southern Chile and Argentina, for commercial fur production. However, the project failed and the beavers, ten pairs, were released into the wild. Having no natural predators in their new environment, they quickly spread throughout the island, and to other islands in the region, reaching a number of 100,000 individuals within just 50 years. They are now considered a serious invasive species in the region, due to their massive destruction of forest trees, and efforts are being made for their eradication.[46] The drastically different ecosystem has led to substantial environmental damage, as the ponds created by the beavers have no ecological purpose (wetlands do not form there as they do in the beavers' native territory) and there are no native, large predators. They have also been found to cross salt water to islands northward; a possible encroachment on the mainland has naturalists highly concerned.

In contrast, areas with introduced beaver were associated with increased populations of native puye fish (Galaxias maculatus), whereas the exotic brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) had negative effects on native stream fishes in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile.[47]

Beavers are classed as a "prohibited new organism" under New Zealand's Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996, preventing them from legally being imported into the country.[48]

Social behavior

Family life

Beaver 2
A beaver pair

The basic units of beaver social organization are families consisting of an adult male and adult female in a monogamous pair and their kits and yearlings.[49] Beaver families can have as many as ten members in addition to the monogamous pair. Groups this size or close to this size build more lodges to live in while smaller families usually need only one.[49] However, large families in the Northern Hemisphere have been recorded living in one lodge. Beaver pairs mate for life; however, if a beaver's mate dies, it will partner with another one. Extra-pair copulations also occur.[49] In addition to being monogamous, both the male and female take part in raising offspring. They also both mark and defend the territory and build and repair the dam and lodge.[49] When young are born, they spend their first month in the lodge and their mother is the primary caretaker while their father maintains the territory. In the time after they leave the lodge for the first time, yearlings will help their parents build food caches in the fall and repair dams and lodges. Still, adults do the majority of the work and young beavers help their parents for reasons based on natural selection rather than kin selection. They are dependent on them for food and for learning life skills.[49] Young beavers spend most of their time playing but also copy their parents' behavior. However, while copying behavior helps imprint life skills in young beavers, it is not necessarily immediately beneficial for parents as the young beaver do not perform the tasks as well as the parents.[49]

Older offspring, which are around two years old, may also live in families and help their parents. In addition to helping build food caches and repairing the dam, two-year-olds will also help in feeding, grooming and guarding younger offspring.[49] Beavers also practice alloparental care, in which an older sibling may take over the parenting duties if the original parents die or are otherwise separated from them. This behavior is common and is seen in many other animal species, such as the elephant and fathead minnow.[50] While these helping two-year-olds help increase the chance of survival for younger offspring, they are not essential for the family, and two-year-olds only stay and help their families if there is a shortage of resources in times of food shortage, high population density, or drought.[49] When beavers leave their natal territories, they usually do not settle far.[51] Beavers can recognize their kin by detecting differences in anal gland secretion composition using their keen sense of smell.[52] Related beavers share more features in their anal gland secretion profile than unrelated beavers.[52] Being able to recognize kin is important for beaver social behavior, and it causes more tolerant behavior among neighboring beavers.[51]

Territories and spacing

AmericanBeaver
Beaver and its dam, Alaska

Beavers maintain and defend territories, which are areas for feeding, nesting and mating.[49] They invest much energy in their territories, building their dams and becoming familiar with the area.[53] Beavers mark their territories by constructing scent mounts made of mud, debris and castoreum,[54] a urine based substance excreted through the beavers castor sacs between the pelvis and base of the tail.[53] These scent mounts are established on the border of the territory.[54] Once a beaver detects another scent in its territory, finding the intruder takes priority, even over food.[54] Because they invest so much energy in their territories, beavers are intolerant of intruders and the holder of the territory is more likely to escalate an aggressive encounter.[53] These encounters are often violent. To avoid such situations, a beaver marks its territory with as many scent mounds as possible, signaling to intruders that the territory holder has enough energy to maintain its territory and is thus able to put up a good defense. As such, territories with more scent mounts are avoided more often than ones with fewer mounts.[53] Scent marking increases in August during the dispersal of yearlings, in an attempt to prevent them from intruding on territories.[53] Beavers also exhibit a behavior known as the "dear enemy effect". A territory-holding beaver will investigate and become familiar with the scents of its neighbors.[51] As such they respond less aggressively to intrusions by their territorial neighbours than those made by non-territorial floaters or "strangers".[51]

Occurrences of beaver aggression, however, have been reported. In April 2013, an angler, near Minkovichi in the Brest region of Belarus, died after being bitten twice on the leg by a wild Eurasian beaver.[55]

Commercial uses

Beaverbollocks
Beaver hunt from a medieval bestiary. The beaver at the bottom is about to bite his own testicles off. The beaver at the top, having already lost his, scarpers off with an anguished expression.
MS. Bodley 764, Folio 14r (c. 1250), Bodleian Library.

Both beaver testicles and castoreum, a bitter-tasting secretion with a slightly fetid odor contained in the castor sacs of male or female beaver, have been articles of trade for use in traditional medicine. Yupik medicine used dried beaver testicles like willow bark to relieve pain. Dried beaver testicles were also used as contraception.[56] Beaver testicles were used as medicine in Iraq and Iran during the tenth to nineteenth century.[57] Aesop's Fables describes beavers chewing off their testicles to preserve themselves from hunters, which is not possible because the beaver's testicles are inside its body. This belief, also recorded by Pliny the Elder, persisted in medieval bestiaries.[58]

European beavers (Castor fiber) were eventually hunted nearly to extinction in part for the production of castoreum, which was used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic. Castoreum was described in the 1911 British Pharmaceutical Codex for use in dysmenorrhea and hysterical conditions (i.e. pertaining to the womb), for raising blood pressure and increasing cardiac output. The activity of castoreum has been credited to the accumulation of salicin from willow trees in the beaver's diet, which is transformed to salicylic acid and has an action very similar to aspirin.[59] Castoreum continues to be used in perfume production.[60]

Castoreum can be used as an enhancer of vanilla, strawberry and raspberry flavorings. It is sometimes added to frozen dairy, gelatins, candy, and fruit beverages. Due to the difficulty and expense in obtaining castoreum, it is only very rarely used in common food products.[60][61]

Much of the early European exploration and trade of Canada was based on the quest for beaver.[62] The most valuable part of the beaver is its inner fur whose many minute barbs make it excellent for felting, especially for hats. In Canada a "made beaver" or castor gras that a native had worn or slept on was more valuable than a fresh skin since this tended to wear off the outer guard hairs.

Trapping

Fur trade museum beaver pelt
Fur trade museum beaver pelt

Beavers have been trapped for millennia, and this continues to this day.[63] Beaver pelts were used for barter by Native Americans in the 17th century to gain European goods. They were then shipped back to Great Britain and France where they were made into clothing items. Widespread hunting and trapping of beavers led to their endangerment. Eventually, the fur trade declined due to decreasing demand in Europe and the takeover of trapping grounds to support the growing agriculture sector. A small resurgence in beaver trapping has occurred in some areas where there is an over-population of beaver; trapping is done when the fur is of value, and the remainder of the animal may be used as feed. In the 1976/1977 season, 500,000 beaver pelts were harvested in North America.[64]

In culture

Blaeu - Nova Belgica et Anglia Nova (Detail Hudson Area)
Beavers on a map of the Hudson River valley c. 1635

In wider culture, the beaver is famed for its industriousness and its building skills. The English verb "to beaver" means to work hard and constantly.

Beverly or Beverley, a placename found at various locations in the English-speaking world and also commonly used as a first name, derives from Old English, combining the words befer ("beaver") and leah ("clearing").

The show Happy Tree Friends features Toothy and Handy who are beavers.

The animated Nickelodeon show The Angry Beavers features Daggett and Norbert.

The anthropomorphic Mr. and Mrs. Beaver have an important role in the plot of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, first part of C.S.Lewis' The Chronicles of Narnia.

The first Redwall book features an unnamed beaver who helps Constance the badger build a bow, the only one ever seen before the books shifted to focus on animals commonly native to the English Isles.

The 2014 American horror comedy film directed by Jordan Rubin called Zombeavers, which follows a group of college kids on a camping trip that are attacked by a swarm of zombie beavers.

As a national emblem

The importance of the beaver in the development of Canada through the fur trade led to its official designation as the national animal in 1975. The animal has long been associated with Canada, appearing on the coat of arms of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1678.[65] It is depicted on the Canadian five-cent piece and was on the first pictorial postage stamp issued in the Canadian colonies in 1849 (the so-called "Three-Penny Beaver"). As a national symbol, the beaver was chosen to be the mascot of the 1976 Summer Olympics held in Montreal with the name "Amik" ("beaver" in Ojibwe). The beaver is also the symbol of many units and organizations within the Canadian Forces, such as on the cap badges of the Royal 22e Régiment, the Calgary Highlanders, the Royal Westminster Regiment and the Canadian Military Engineers. Toronto Police Services, London Police Service, Canadian Pacific Railway Police Service and Canadian Pacific Railway bear the beaver on their crest or coat of arms.

McCallum Brewery
Mid 19th-century woodcut artwork for a Quebec brewery featuring a beaver and an almost-live branch from a maple tree.

Others who have used the beaver in their company or organizational symbol or as their mascot include:

In dietary law

In the 17th century, based on a question raised by the Bishop of Quebec, the Roman Catholic Church ruled that the beaver was a fish (beaver flesh was a part of the Yuko[67]indigenous peoples' diet, prior to the Europeans' arrival[68]) for purposes of dietary law. Therefore, the general prohibition on the consumption of meat on Fridays did not apply to beaver meat.[69][70][71] The legal basis for the decision probably rests with the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas, which bases animal classification as much on habit as anatomy.[72] This is similar to the Church's classification of other semi-aquatic rodents, such as the capybara and muskrat.[73][74]

References

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  24. ^ "Lacey Act". www.fws.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-23.
  25. ^ Seton-Thompson, cited in Sun, Lixing; Dietland Müller-Schwarze (2003). The Beaver: Natural History of a Wetlands Engineer. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4098-4. pp. 97–98; but note that to arrive at this figure he assumed a population density throughout the range equivalent to that in Algonquin Park
  26. ^ NatureWorldNews (May 29, 2015). "New Beaver Species Discovered in Oregon". Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  27. ^ "Beaver (beavers 'second only to humans in their ability to manipulate and change their environment')". National Geographic. Retrieved June 15, 2009.
  28. ^ Wohl, Ellen (2013). "Landscape-scale carbon storage associated with Beaver Dams". Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (14): 3631–3636. doi:10.1002/grl.50710.
  29. ^ "Dead Wood for Wildlife (Wildlife Outreach Center)". Wildlife Outreach Center (Penn State Extension). Retrieved 2016-09-23.
  30. ^ The Life of Mammals Episode 4, "Chisellers".
  31. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainLydekker, Richard (1911). "Beaver" . In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 600.
  32. ^ David L. Correll; Thomas E. Jordan; Donald E. Weller (June 2000). "Beaver pond biogeochemical effects in the Maryland Coastal Plain". Biogeochemistry. 49 (3): 217–239. doi:10.1023/a:1006330501887. JSTOR 1469618.
  33. ^ Sarah Muskopf (October 2007). The Effect of Beaver (Castor canadensis) Dam Removal on Total Phosphorus Concentration in Taylor Creek and Wetland, South Lake Tahoe, California (Thesis). Humboldt State University, Natural Resources. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
  34. ^ Martin Gaywood; Dave Batty; Colin Galbraith (2008). "Reintroducing the European Beaver in Britain". British Wildlife. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  35. ^ Erlandsen, S. L. & W. J. Bemrick (1988). Waterborne giardiasis: sources of Giardia cysts and evidence pertaining to their implication in human infection in P. M. Wallis and B. R. Hammond (ed.), Advances in Giardia research. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: University of Calgary Press. pp. 227–236.
  36. ^ Erlandsen SL, Sherlock LA, Bemrick WJ, Ghobrial H, Jakubowski W (January 1990). "Prevalence of Giardia spp. in Beaver and Muskrat Populations in Northeastern States and Minnesota: Detection of Intestinal Trophozoites at Necropsy Provides Greater Sensitivity than Detection of Cysts in Fecal Samples". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 56 (1): 31–36. PMC 183246. PMID 2178552. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
  37. ^ R. C. A. Thompson (November 2000). "Giardiasis as a re-emerging infectious disease and its zoonotic potential". International Journal for Parasitology. 30 (12–13): 1259–1267. doi:10.1016/S0020-7519(00)00127-2. PMID 11113253.
  38. ^ Quentin D. Skinner; John E. Speck; Michael Smith; John C. Adams (March 1984). "Stream Water Quality as Influenced by Beaver within Grazing Systems in Wyoming". Journal of Range Management. 37 (2): 142–146. doi:10.2307/3898902. JSTOR 3898902.
  39. ^ Goldfarb, Ben (29 January 2019). "The Gnawing Question of Saltwater Beavers". Hakai magazine. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  40. ^ Hood, W. Gregory (16 February 2012). "Beaver in Tidal Marshes: Dam Effects on Low-Tide Channel Pools and Fish Use of Estuarine Habitat" (PDF). Wetlands. doi:10.1007/s13157-012-0294-8. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  41. ^ Peter Miller (September 2009). "Manhattan Before New York: When Henry Hudson first looked on Manhattan in 1609, what did he see?". National Geographic.
  42. ^ "New York City Beaver Returns". Science Daily. December 20, 2008.
  43. ^ Boehm, Kiersten (November 14, 2008). "Lincoln Park Beaver Relocated". Inside at Your News Chicago, Illinois Edition. Archived from the original on December 13, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
  44. ^ Carolyn Jones (April 16, 2008). "Moment of truth for Martinez beavers". San Francisco Chronicle.
  45. ^ "Worth a Dam website".
  46. ^ "Argentina eager to rid island of beavers". CNN. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  47. ^ Michelle C. Moorman; David B. Eggleston; Christopher B. Anderson; Andres Mansilla; Paul Szejner (2009). "Implications of Beaver Castor canadensis and Trout Introductions on Native Fish in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile". Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 138 (2): 306–313. doi:10.1577/T08-081.1.
  48. ^ "Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 2003 – Schedule 2 Prohibited new organisms". New Zealand Government. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Lixing Sun (2003). The Beaver: Natural History of a Wetlands Engineer. Cornell University Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-8014-4098-4. Retrieved 2011-06-25.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  50. ^ Riedman, Marianne L. (1982). "The Evolution of Alloparental Care in Mammals and Birds". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 57 (4): 405–435. doi:10.1086/412936.
  51. ^ a b c d Bjorkoyli, Tore; Rosell, Frank (2002). "A Test of the Dear Enemy Phenomenon in the Eurasian Beaver". Animal Behaviour. 63 (6): 1073–78. doi:10.1006/anbe.2002.3010. hdl:11250/2437993.
  52. ^ a b Sun, Lixing; Muller-Schwarze, Dietland (1998). "Anal Gland Secretion Codes for Relatedness in the Beaver, Castor Canadensis". Ethology. 104 (11): 917–27. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1998.tb00041.x.
  53. ^ a b c d e Rosell, Frank; Nolet, Bart A. (1997). "Factors Affecting Scent-Marking Behavior in Eurasian Beaver (Castor Fiber)" (PDF). Journal of Chemical Ecology. 23 (3): 673–89. doi:10.1023/B:JOEC.0000006403.74674.8a. hdl:11250/2438031.
  54. ^ a b c Rosell, Frank; Czech, Andrezej (2000). "Response of Foraging Eurasian Beavers Castor Fiber to Predator Odours". Wildlife Biology. 6 (1): 13–21.
  55. ^ Tom Parfitt (11 April 2013). "Beaver 'bites man to death'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  56. ^ Stewart, William Brenton (1974). Medicine in New Brunswick : a history of the practice of medicine...from prior to the arrival of the white man in America to the early part of the twentieth century. Moncton: The New Brunswick Medical Society. p. 1.
  57. ^ Lev E (March 2003). "Traditional healing with animals (zootherapy): medieval to present-day Levantine practice". J Ethnopharmacol. 85 (1): 107–18. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00377-X. PMID 12576209.
  58. ^ Badke, David. The Medieval Bestiary: Beaver
  59. ^ Stephen Pincock (28 March 2005). "The quest for pain relief: how much have we improved on the past?". Retrieved 2007-06-17.
  60. ^ a b Mikkelson, David. "Castoreum Is Produced from Beaver Secretions?". Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  61. ^ Fenaroli's Handbook Of Flavor Ingredients puts total annual national consumption of castoreum, castoreum extract, and castoreum liquid at about 292 pounds, with individual annual consumption of castoreum extract at only .000081 mg/kg/day.
  62. ^ See Canadian canoe routes (early) and related articles.
  63. ^ "Park District Kills Beaver in Lincoln Park". MyFoxChicago.com. April 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
  64. ^ Nowak, Ronald M. 1991. pp. 638. Walker's Mammals of the World Fifth Edition, vol. I. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  65. ^ White, Shelley. "The Beaver As National Symbol: Why Is A Furry Mammal Still An Emblem of Canada?". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  66. ^ "AAC template". Beginnings.ioe.ac.uk. Archived from the original on September 26, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  67. ^ Kuhnlein, Harriet. "Beaver". Traditional Animal Foods of Indigenous Peoples of Northern North America. McGill University. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  68. ^ Lydekker 1911.
  69. ^ [1] Archived September 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  70. ^ "Lenten Reader Roundup". Jimmy Akin.Org. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  71. ^ (in French)Lacoursière, Jacques. Une histoire du Québec ISBN 2-89448-050-4 Explains that Bishop François de Laval in the 17th century posed the question to the theologians of the Sorbonne, who ruled in favour of this decision.
  72. ^ The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas II. 147:8 provides legal foundation on which theologians argued in favour of beaver being like fish.
  73. ^ "In Days Before Easter, Venezuelans Tuck Into Rodent-Related Delicacy". The New York Sun. 24 March 2005. Archived from the original on February 25, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  74. ^ Muskrat Love: A Lenten Friday night for some Michiganders

Further reading

External links

Beaver County, Pennsylvania

Beaver County is a county in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 170,539. Its county seat is Beaver. The county was created on March 12, 1800, from parts of Allegheny and Washington Counties. It took its name from the Beaver River.Beaver County is part of the Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Beaver County Airport

Beaver County Airport or (IATA: BFP, ICAO: KBVI, FAA LID: BVI) is a county-owned public airport three miles northwest of Beaver Falls, in Beaver County, Pennsylvania.Most U.S. airports use the same three-letter location identifier for the FAA and IATA, but Beaver County Airport is BVI to the FAA and BFP to the IATA (which assigned BVI to Birdsville Airport in Birdsville, Queensland, Australia).

Beaver Dam, Wisconsin

Beaver Dam is a city in Dodge County, Wisconsin, United States, along Beaver Dam Lake and the Beaver Dam River. The estimated population was 16,564 in 2016, making it the largest city primarily located in Dodge County. It is the principal city of the Beaver Dam Micropolitan Statistical area. The city is adjacent to the Town of Beaver Dam.

Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania

Beaver Falls is a city in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 8,987 at the 2010 census. It is located 31 miles (50 km) northwest of Pittsburgh, and on the Beaver River, six miles (9 km) north of its confluence with the Ohio River.

Beaver Glacier (Enderby Land)

Beaver Glacier is a glacier about 15 miles (24 km) long and 4 miles (6 km) wide, flowing west into Amundsen Bay between Auster Glacier and Mount Gleadell. The head of Beaver Glacier is located very close to the base of Mount King in Enderby Land. It was visited by an Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) party on October 28, 1956, and named after the Beaver aircraft used by ANARE in coastal exploration.

Beaver Glacier (Ross Ice Shelf)

Beaver Glacier (83°24′S 169°30′E) is a glacier, 15 miles (24 km) long, draining the coastal mountains of the Queen Alexandra Range just northwest of Mount Fox and entering the Ross Ice Shelf at McCann Point. It was named by the New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition (1959–60) after the Beaver aircraft City of Auckland, which crashed in this area in January 1960.

Beaver Stadium

Beaver Stadium is an outdoor college football stadium in University Park, Pennsylvania, United States, on the campus of Pennsylvania State University. It is home to the Penn State Nittany Lions of the Big Ten Conference since 1960, though some parts of the stadium date back to 1909. The stadium, as well as its predecessors, is named after James A. Beaver, a former governor of Pennsylvania (1887–91) and president of the university's board of trustees.Beaver Stadium has an official seating capacity of 106,572, making it currently the second largest stadium in the Western Hemisphere and the third largest in the world.

Beaver Stadium is widely known as one of the toughest venues for opposing teams in collegiate athletics. In 2008, Beaver Stadium was recognized as having the best student section in the country for the second consecutive year. In 2016, it was voted the number-one football stadium in college football in a USA Today poll, garnering over 41 percent of the voteThe stadium is the first to have its interior included in Google Street View.

Beaver dam

Beaver dams or beaver impoundments are dams built by beavers to provide ponds as protection against predators such as coyotes, wolves, and bears, and to provide easy access to food during winter. These structures modify the natural environment in such a way that the overall ecosystem builds upon the change, making beavers a keystone species. Beavers work at night and are prolific builders, carrying mud and stones with their fore-paws and timber between their teeth.

De Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver

The de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver is a single-engined high-wing propeller-driven short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft developed and manufactured by de Havilland Canada. It has been primarily operated as a bush plane and has been used for a wide variety of utility roles, such as cargo and passenger hauling, aerial application (crop dusting and aerial topdressing), and civil aviation duties.

Shortly after the end of the Second World War, de Havilland Canada made the decision to orient itself towards civilian operators. Based upon feedback from pilots, the company decided that the envisioned aircraft should have excellent STOL performance, all-metal construction, and accommodate many features sought by the operators of bush planes. On 16 August 1947, the maiden flight of the aircraft, which had received the designation DHC-2 Beaver, took place. In April 1948, the first production aircraft was delivered to the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests.

In addition to its use in civilian operations, the Beaver has been widely adopted by armed forces as a utility aircraft. The United States Army purchased several hundred aircraft; nine DHC-2s are still in service with the U.S. Air Force Auxiliary (Civil Air Patrol) for search and rescue. By 1967, in excess of 1,600 Beavers had been constructed prior to the closure of the original assembly line. Various aircraft have been remanufactured and upgraded. Additionally, various proposals have been mooted to return the Beaver to production.

The Beaver has become one of the more iconic aircraft to have been produced in Canada. Perhaps one of the more significant events involving the type occurred in 1958, when a Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) Beaver played a supporting role in Sir Edmund Hillary's famous Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition to the South Pole. Due to its success, the Royal Canadian Mint commemorated the aircraft on a special edition Canadian quarter in November 1999. In 1987, the Canadian Engineering Centennial Board named the DHC-2 one of the top ten Canadian engineering achievements of the 20th century. Large numbers continue to be operational into the 21st century, while the tooling and type certificate for the Beaver have been acquired by Viking Air who continue to produce replacement components and refurbish examples of the type.

Eurasian beaver

The Eurasian beaver or European beaver (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia. It was hunted to near-extinction for both its fur and castoreum; and by 1900, only 1200 beavers survived in eight relict populations in Europe and Asia. Reintroduced through much of its former range, it now occurs from Great Britain to China and Mongolia, although it is absent from Portugal, the southern Balkans, and the Middle East.

Groundhog

The groundhog (Marmota monax), also known as a woodchuck, is a rodent of the family Sciuridae, belonging to the group of large ground squirrels known as marmots. It was first scientifically described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. The groundhog is also referred to as a chuck, wood-shock, groundpig, whistlepig, whistler, thickwood badger, Canada marmot, monax, moonack, weenusk, red monk and, among French Canadians in eastern Canada, siffleux. The name "thickwood badger" was given in the Northwest to distinguish the animal from the prairie badger. Monax (Móonack) is an Algonquian name of the woodchuck, which meant "digger" (cf. Lenape monachgeu). Young groundhogs may be called chucklings. Other marmots, such as the yellow-bellied and hoary marmots, live in rocky and mountainous areas, but the groundhog is a lowland creature. It is found through much of the eastern United States across Canada and into Alaska

Jamaica station

Jamaica is a major hub station of the Long Island Rail Road, and is located in Jamaica, Queens, New York City. It is the largest transit hub on Long Island and is one of the busiest railroad stations in North America, with weekday ridership exceeding 200,000 passengers. In the New York City area, it ranks behind only Pennsylvania Station, Grand Central Terminal, and Secaucus Junction in number of daily trains, with over 1,000 trains passing through it every day.

The Jamaica station is located on an embankment above street level and contains five platforms and eight tracks for LIRR trains, with a sixth platform under construction as of 2016. A concourse above the LIRR platforms connects to a station on the AirTrain JFK elevated people mover to John F. Kennedy International Airport, which contains two tracks and one platform. There are also connections to the Archer Avenue lines of the New York City Subway at a separate station directly below. The area just outside is served by several local bus routes, and others terminate within a few blocks of the station.

All LIRR services except the Port Washington Branch pass through Jamaica station. The Main Line westwards leads to Long Island City station in Queens and Penn Station in Manhattan, while the Atlantic Branch diverges along Atlantic Avenue to Atlantic Terminal in Brooklyn. East of Jamaica, these three lines diverge, with some branch services using the Main Line, some using the Atlantic Branch, and some using the Montauk Branch. Because of its central location on all services (except the Port Washington Branch), it is common for commuters to "change at Jamaica", or switch trains to reach their final destination.

Leave It to Beaver

Leave It to Beaver is a late 1950s black-and-white American television sitcom about an inquisitive and often naïve boy, Theodore "The Beaver" Cleaver (portrayed by Jerry Mathers), and his adventures at home, in school, and around his suburban neighborhood. The show also starred Barbara Billingsley and Hugh Beaumont as Beaver's parents, June and Ward Cleaver, and Tony Dow as Beaver's brother Wally. The show has attained an iconic status in the United States, with the Cleavers exemplifying the idealized suburban family of the mid-20th century.The show was created by the writers Joe Connelly and Bob Mosher. These veterans of radio and early television found inspiration for the show's characters, plots and dialogue in the lives, experiences and conversations of their own children. Leave It to Beaver is one of the first primetime sitcom series written from a child's point of view. Like several television dramas and sitcoms of the late 1950s and early 1960s (Lassie and My Three Sons), Leave It to Beaver is a glimpse of middle-class American boyhood. In a typical episode, Beaver gets into some sort of boyish scrape, then faces his parents for reprimand and correction. Neither parent was omniscient or infallable; the series often showed the parents debating their approach to child rearing, and some episodes were built around parental gaffes.

Leave It to Beaver ran for six full 39-week seasons (234 episodes). The series had its debut on CBS on October 4, 1957. The following season, it moved to ABC, where it stayed until completing its run on June 20, 1963. Throughout the show's run, it was shot with a single camera on black-and-white 35mm film. The show's production companies included the comedian George Gobel's Gomalco Productions (1957–61) and Kayro Productions (1961–63) with filming at Revue Studios/Republic Studios and Universal Studios in Los Angeles. The show was distributed by MCA TV.

The still-popular show ended its run in 1963 primarily because it had reached its natural conclusion: In the show, Wally was about to enter college and the brotherly dynamic at the heart of the show's premise would be broken with their separation.

Contemporary commentators praised Leave It to Beaver, with Variety comparing Beaver to Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer. Much juvenile merchandise was released during the show's first run, including board games, novels, and comic books. The show has enjoyed a renaissance in popularity since the 1970s through off-network syndication, a reunion telemovie (Still the Beaver, 1983) and a sequel series, The New Leave It to Beaver (1985–89). In 1997, a movie version based on the original series was released to negative reviews. In October 2007, TV Land celebrated the show's 50th anniversary with a marathon. Although the show never broke into the Nielsen ratings top 30 or won any awards, it placed on Time magazine's unranked 2007 list of "All-TIME 100 TV Shows".According to Tony Dow, "If any line got too much of a laugh, they'd take it out. They didn't want a big laugh; they wanted chuckles."

Mountain beaver

The mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is a North American rodent. It is the only living member of its genus, Aplodontia, and family, Aplodontiidae. It should not be confused with true North American and Eurasian beavers, to which it is not closely related.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Beaver County, Pennsylvania

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Beaver County, Pennsylvania.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map.There are 20 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Three sites are further designated as National Historic Landmarks.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 7, 2019.

North American beaver

The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) is one of two extant beaver species. It is native to North America and introduced to Patagonia in South America and some European countries (e.g. Finland). In the United States and Canada, the species is often referred to simply as "beaver", though this causes some confusion because another distantly related rodent, Aplodontia rufa, is often called the "mountain beaver". Other vernacular names, including American beaver and Canadian beaver, distinguish this species from the other extant beaver species, Castor fiber, which is native to Eurasia. The North American beaver is an official animal symbol of Canada and is the official state mammal of Oregon.

SS Beaver State (T-ACS-10)

SS Beaver State (T-ACS-10) is a crane ship in ready reserve for the United States Navy. The ship was named for the state of Oregon, which is also known as the Beaver State.

The Angry Beavers

The Angry Beavers is an American animated television series created by Mitch Schauer for Nickelodeon. The series revolves around Daggett and Norbert Beaver, two young beaver brothers who have left their home to become bachelors in the forest near the fictional Wayouttatown, Oregon. The show premiered in the United States on April 19, 1997 and ended on June 11, 2001. The series has also appeared in syndication on Nickelodeon Canada. The complete series has also been released on DVD in Region 1 by Shout! Factory.The series is produced by Gunther Wahl Productions Inc. and Nicktoons Productions, and the animation services was handled by Rough Draft Studios.

On April 19, 2017, the NickSplat block on TeenNick aired many episodes of the show in honor of its 20th anniversary. They started to air it again on August 19, 2017, 4 months later.

The Beaver County Times

The Beaver County Times is a daily newspaper published in Beaver, Pennsylvania, United States and serving the north-western Pittsburgh suburbs. The Times is a direct descendant of many of Beaver County's newspapers, starting with the Minerva, first published in 1807, and generally believed to have been the county's first newspaper. The Beaver Times was founded by Michael Weyland and was published from 1851 to 1895, when the name was changed to the Beaver Argus. It was changed again to The Daily Times, which was published from 1909 to 1946 and operated by John L. Stewart and E. L. Freeland. It was sold in 1946 to S. W. Calkins, who combined it with the Aliquippa Gazette, which he acquired in 1943. The paper was known as The Beaver Valley Times until 1956, when it became The Beaver County Times after its acquisition of the Ambridge Daily Citizen. In 1979, The Times purchased the only other daily newspaper in the county, The News Tribune of Beaver Falls.

The Times currently produces over-the-top content including their flagship news program The Times Today, Game On, History in a Minute, Get Out This Weekend, and more.One of the paper's biggest milestones was when the publications changed from evening to morning on April 7, 1997.

Archival issues of The Beaver County Times can be viewed online at Google News.Times owner Calkins Media was acquired by GateHouse Media in 2017.

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