Beaucaire, Gard

Beaucaire (French pronunciation: ​[bokɛʁ]; Provençal: Bèucaire [ˌbɛwˈkajɾe]) is a French commune in the Gard department in the Occitanie region of southern France.[1]

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Beaucairois or Beaucairoises.[2]

The commune has been awarded one flower by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom.[3]

Beaucaire
View over Beaucaire
View over Beaucaire
Coat of arms of Beaucaire

Coat of arms
Location of Beaucaire
Beaucaire is located in France
Beaucaire
Beaucaire
Beaucaire is located in Occitanie
Beaucaire
Beaucaire
Coordinates: 43°48′29″N 4°38′39″E / 43.8081°N 4.6442°ECoordinates: 43°48′29″N 4°38′39″E / 43.8081°N 4.6442°E
CountryFrance
RegionOccitanie
DepartmentGard
ArrondissementNîmes
CantonBeaucaire
IntercommunalityCommunity of communes Beaucaire-Terre d'Argence
Government
 • Mayor (2014–2020) Julien Sanchez (FN)
Area
1
86.52 km2 (33.41 sq mi)
Population
(2012)2
15,860
 • Density180/km2 (470/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
30032 /30300
Elevation1–156 m (3.3–511.8 ft)
(avg. 18 m or 59 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Geography

Vue du Canal du Rhône à Sète, à Beaucaire
The Canal du Rhône à Sète at Beaucaire

Beaucaire is located on the Rhône River some 15 km south-west of Avignon and 10 km north of Arles opposite Tarascon, which is in Bouches-du-Rhône department of Provence. Access to the commune is by the D999 road from Jonquières-Saint-Vincent in the west which passes through the north of the commune and the town and continues east to Tarascon. The D966L comes from Saint-Bonnet-du-Gard in the north and comes down the banks of the Rhône to the town. The D90 branches off the D986L in the commune and passes in a circle around the town then continues east across the Rhone changing to the D99B. The D15 goes south from the town to Fourques. The D38 goes south-west from the town to Bellegarde. The D28 links the Ile du Comte to the east bank of the Rhone. A railway passes through the commune coming from Tarascon in the east with two stations in the commune then it continues to Nîmes in the west. Apart from the main town there are also the districts of Gaudon, Tour Saint-Pierre, Pauvre Menage, Malatrache, Mas du Consul, Mas Saint-Andre du Boschet, Mas de la Bastide, Mas des Lecques, Le Fer a Cheval, Saujean, Mas de SAicard, Bieudon, and Enclos d'Argent. The commune has a large urban area in the north-east with the rest of the commune farmland.[4][5]

The Rhône river forms the whole eastern border of the commune as it flows south to join the sea at Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône. The river is also the departmental border between Gard and Bouches-du-Rhône. The Canal du Rhône à Sète passes through the commune from Saint-Gilles in the south-west and joins the Rhone in the town. A waterway called Laune de Pillet, a branch of the Rhone, cuts through the commune parallel to the Rhone forming the Ile de Pillet. There is an extensive network of irrigation canals covering most of the farmland.[4][5]

Relief

The entire town is located in the Rhône Valley and has fairly flat terrain mainly formed by the plain of the Rhône. The north of the commune has hills, especially north of the town centre where the castle is located (80 metres high) as well as Saint-Roman (130 metres).

Toponymy

'Beaucaire' probably is the French version of the Occitan language name 'Bèucaire':

  • Beau < French beau ('Beautiful') < Occitan bèl/bèu ('Beautiful')
  • Caire < Occitan caire ('Cut stone or rock') [in French pierre de taille].[6]

Beaucaire appears as Beaucaire on the 1750 Cassini Map[7] and the same on the 1790 version.[8]

History

Ancient times

Founded in the 7th century BC, Beaucaire was known as a city on the famous Via Domitia, the first Roman road built in Gaul linking Italy to Spain (121 BC.). It was at this point that the Via Domitia divides in the direction of Arles, Nîmes, Remoulins, and Saint-Gilles. At that time, Beaucaire was called Ugernum. This was where, after the capture of Rome by the Vandals in 455, the Gallo-Roman nobility met to elect Avitus as the new emperor.[9] A Roman mausoleum has been discovered on the Île du Comté.[10]

Middle Ages

Château de Beaucaire (Gard) vue côté Nord
Château de Beaucaire, view from the north

The Middle Ages saw a slowdown in the expansion of the city. Beaucaire did not escape the troubles during this dark period. It underwent invasions of Burgundians, Visigoths, and Saracens. It was at that time that the first ramparts were built and the castle was expanded. The city took the name Beaucaire (which means "beautiful stone", probably in reference to its many buildings, to its quarries, or the fact that it had the first hills on the Rhone coming from the sea).

During the Albigensian Crusade, Raymond VI of Toulouse besieged Beaucaire in May 1216. The efforts of Simon de Montfort to relieve the town were repulsed. The city fell after a three-month siege.

In the 13th century Louis IX made several trips to Beaucaire. The city was expanding and its population increasing. Despite the Hundred Years War and the Wars of Religion (14th to the 16th century), the splendour and refinement of the architecture grew along with the wealth of the Beaucairois merchants.

In 1579 Beaucaire was held by Henri I de Montmorency, the catholic governor of Languedoc, but tolerant. The captain of the city was Jean de Parabere who was soon to play his own game. Damville then provoked a riot to recover the city but even though Parabere was decapitated, the city remained in the hands of the Huguenots, thanks to reinforcements sent by François de Coligny, the son of Gaspard II de Coligny.[11]

Modern era

Foire de Beaucaire XVIIIe
Beaucaire Fair, coloured engraving from the 18th century

At the end of the Hundred Years War in 1453, Charles VII of France declared that Beaucaire would become the site of the Fair of la Madeleine, a commercial fair that would enable the trade of goods from all of the Mediterranean Basin countries to all of France. By the mid-seventeenth century, the Fair was the largest commercial fair in the Mediterranean region, allegedly exceeding in a week the total volume of trade done in Marseilles in a year. It remained the dominant Mediterranean trade fair until the arrival of the railway in the mid-nineteenth century.[12] The advent of the railway and the end of river trade as well as the removal of its tax-free status by Napoleon gradually destroyed the Fair of the Madeleine and plunged Beaucaire into anonymity. One result of these years of commercial dominance was the construction of a remarkable number of architecturally significant mansions and palaces by rich merchants of many nationalities. The fair still exists in the form of carnivals, bullfights, and various festivities. Camargue bulls are run through the streets. It always starts on 21 July and always ends on a Monday and lasts at least six days.

French Revolution and Empire

Beaucaire was capital of the district from 1790 to 1795. During the French Revolution the commune was temporarily called Pont-National.[13]

Contemporary period

Beaucaire le canal
Pen drawing of the canal at Beaucaire

At the end of the 19th century and the early 20th century some works of great value are built such as the banquette - a stone retaining wall along the eastern side of the city which protected it from the flooding of the Rhône, food markets, and the Municipal Casino which is now the Festival Hall. It was also at this time that the Canal du Rhône à Sète was widened. It connects Beaucaire to the Canal du Midi.

In 1940 Beaucaire had a large population of Belgian refugees, mostly from Farciennes. They became twin communes in 1969.[14]

Heraldry

Arms of Beaucaire
Blazon:

Party per saltire, Or and Gules.

Town planning

Beaucaire is one of 79 member communes of the Territorial Coherence Scheme (SCOT) of South Gard and is also one of the 41 communes of Pays Garrigues Costières.

Housing

The town of Beaucaire had 7,054 housing units in 2009, nearly 90% of which were primary residences. There are almost equal amounts of detached houses (52%) and apartments (48%) with the majority of homes having 3 or 4 rooms. Only 47% of residents own their own housing. Of the rental housing (3050 units in 2009) one third are HLM.[15]

Administration

Hotel de ville de Beaucaire (30)
The Town Hall

List of Successive Mayors[16]

From To Name Party Position
1742 1759 Antoine Nazon
1959 1983 José Boyer PCF General Councilor of the Canton of Beaucaire (1976-1982)
1983 2002 Jean-Marie André DL MP for Gard's 2nd constituency (1993-1997)
2002 2008 Mireille Cellier UMP Regional Councilor for Languedoc-Roussillon (1998-2010)
2008 2014 Jacques Bourbousson UDI President of the CC Beaucaire-Terre d'Argence (2008-2014)
2014 2020 Julien Sanchez FN Regional Councilor for Languedoc-Roussillon then Occitanie (since 2010)

(Not all data is known)

The Municipal Council is composed of 23 members including the Mayor and 9 deputies.[17]

Twinning

Beaucaire has twinning associations with:[18]

Demography

In 2012 the commune had 15,860 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
8,510 7,943 8,671 9,825 9,967 9,601 9,795 9,725 11,045
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
12,713 9,544 9,395 8,804 8,777 9,724 9,824 8,947 9,020
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
9,143 8,764 8,488 7,916 8,479 9,701 10,059 9,343 10,197
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2007 2012 -
11,061 12,740 12,829 12,840 13,400 13,748 15,274 15,860 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)

Population - Municipality code 30032
Population of Beaucaire

Education

The commune has:[19]

  • 4 kindergartens
  • 5 Elementary schools
  • 2 primary schools
  • 3 colleges
  • 2 professional schools

Health

Since 30 January 2014 Beaucaire has a multi-activity healthcare division with multi care professionals, a dental centre, opticians, and a hearing specialist.[20]

Cultural events and festivities

Lache de taureau à Beaucaire
The releasing of the bulls in the streets of Beaucaire
  • The Salon des Métiers d'Art is held every year in October. Many craftsmen are selected and come to exhibit their original works. Since 2015, this event has taken place in the conservation area of ??Beaucaire on the Place Georges Clemenceau and also in the inner courtyard of the Town Hall and its Conservatory.
  • The Mediterranean Equestrian Meeting is held every year on the first weekend in July. Hundreds of horses from all over Europe meet in Beaucaire. This event diversified in 2015 with a children's area to introduce children and attract families. This huge demonstration, whose total cost is around 100,000 euros, has not been subsidized by the regional council since 2015. Despite the decline in endowment, the commune still maintains it and gives it more scope.
  • The City of books since 2007. It hosts publishers, booksellers and organizes a festival of storytelling.
  • The Summer Festivals have events such as bullfighting and cultural shows. The city is a member of the Union of French bullfighting cities.
  • Le Drac from 20–22 June each year. A celebration of the myth of Le Drac. The townsfolk bring the monster to life in the form of a long procession which snakes through the town led by a swarm of children carrying lanterns.

Worship

The Catholic parish of Beaucaire is part of on the diocese of Nîmes, deanery Plaine gardoise.[21] Protestants also have a church in the commune.[22] There is a Mosque for Moslems.[23]

Economy

Population and income tax

In 2012 the workforce was 6,719 people, including 1,407 unemployed (14.1%. These people are mostly employees (83.7%) and all work inside the commune (100%).[15] On 1 January 2014 there were a total of 1,533 business enterprises in the commune: 155 in Agriculture, 137 in Industry, 232 in construction, 851 in Trade, transport, and services, 289 in automobile trade and repair, and 158 in Administration, education, health, or social services. Out of this 458 businesses employed staff across all sectors.[24]

Notable businesses in the commune

Bière blanche de Beaucaire
White beer of Beaucaire, with Camargue rice

Among local businesses, the Craft Brewery of Beaucaire produces and markets several varieties of beer regionally with some Camargue rice.[25] There are also: a Ciments français cement plant (subsidiary of the Italcementi group),[26] and a Casanis plant from the Bacardi group which markets Get 27.[27] The headquarters of the multinational group Marie Brizard Wine & Spirits (formerly Belvédère) has been located in Beaucaire since 2011.[28]

Culture and heritage

A very large number of buildings and sites are registered as historical monuments. For a complete list including links to descriptions (in French) and some photos click here. Some of the most well known are shown below.

Civil heritage

  • Chateau of Beaucaire and its triangular Keep.
  • Many Mansions and facades from the 17th and 18th century.
  • The Taureau Cocardier (Cocardier bull) Goya, a sculpture by Camille Soccorsi (1984) in the Place Jean-Jaurès.
  • The Paul Laurent bullring where are held bullfight events, and shows and concerts during the feria of Sainte-Madeleine.
  • The Sculpture of Drac in the Place de la Republique.
  • The Vieux Mas, a farmhouse from 1900.
  • On the plateau north-west of the town, near the cemetery, lie milestones from the ancient Via Domitia. Consisting of a single stone, they are positioned to the right of the way in the direction Beaucaire-Narbonne. There are many due to the addition of a new milestone in the name of the emperor reigning at each significant repair. These multiple milestones are called Columns of Caesar.[29]
Rhône, château de Beaucaire

The Rhône and the Château of Beaucaire.

Beaucaire - Chateau 2

The Château de Beaucaire.

Chateau de Beaucaire donjon 1

The triangular Keep of the Chateau of Beaucaire

Hotel Margallier

The Hotel of Margallier.

Bornes milliaires Beaucaire

Columns of Caesar.

Taureau de la manade Nicollin dans les arènes Paul-Laurent de Beaucaire

The Bullring

Beaucaire - Casino

Beaucaire Casino

Religious heritage

Main article: Abbey of Saint-Roman,

  • The Troglodytic Abbey of Saint-Roman: atop a limestone outcrop overlooking the Rhone valley at the confluence of the Gardon. This amazing cave monastery, which depended on Psalmody Abbey was abandoned in the 16th century. A fortress was later built partly with stones from the abbey. It was dismantled in 1850 and only a few vestiges of the fortifications are still visible.[30]
  • The Collegiate Church of Notre-Dame-des-Pommiers dating from the 18th century, the largest church in the city, baroque.
  • The Church of Saint Paul, built in the Provençal Gothic style.
  • A Covered Cross.
  • An Oratory in memory of Saint Bonaventure and the Virgin; Second Empire period; near Place Jean-Jaurès and the road to Nîmes.
Beaucaire Saint-Roman 729

The Abbey of Saint-Roman

Notre-Dame Beaucaire

The Collegiate church of Notre-Dame

Beaucaire, église St Paul, intérieur1

The Church of Saint Paul interior

Beaucaire-Oratoire de la croix couverte-20130617

Oratory of the Covered Cross

Museums

  • The Auguste-Jacquet Museum: a museum of history, archeology and traditions of Beaucaire. Located in the former convent of the Augustinian sisters at the foot of the medieval castle.
  • The Horse and Equestrian Art Museum, Hall of the Four Kings, Rue du 4 September.

Literature

Poets, living in or passing through Beaucaire, remembered it through their lyrical writing: Joseph D'Arbaud, Marie-Antoinette Rivière (Antoinette of Beaucaire), Juliette Borely, Artalette of Beaucaire.[31]

Legend

Beaucaire has a legend of the formidable drac, a monster that rises from the depths of the sea to seize and devour its prey. One day the monster grabbed a young laundress and brought her to his cave. The story says the woman expected the worst, but the drac explained that what he wanted was a nanny for his son, the draconnet. Thus the washerwoman fed the little monster for seven years before she was set free. But one day at the fair the drac came to the market, having taken on a human appearance. The washerwoman recognized her former captor and incited the crowd to riot. Furious at being unmasked, the drac blinded the washerwoman. According to Gervase of Tilbury who wrote this tale in 1214, she remained blinded until the end of her days.

Notable people linked to the commune

  • Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse (1197-1249) retrurned Beaucaire, his birthplace, to the lords of Nord in 1216;
  • Jacques Cœur (around 1395/1400-1456), took refuge in 1455;
  • François de Rovérié de Cabrières (1830-1921), Bishop of Montpellier then cardinal ;
  • Jack Thieuloy (1931-1996), French writer of L'Opéra de Beaucaire ;
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, author of Souper de Beaucaire ;
  • (Jean-)Pierre Blaud (1773/74-1859), inventor of Blaud's pills;
  • César Blaud, (died at 77 years old), researcher and author of Antiquité de la ville de Beaucaire, 1819;
  • Madeleine Blaud (1887-1942), graduate of the Montpellier school of pharmacy, author of The high schools of tomorrow, 1918;
  • Alexandre Pleindoux, doctor, author of medical books and a militant republican;
  • Noël Vandernotte (1923-), retired author, youngest athlete in the history of the modern Olympic Games ad vitam æternam (Medal in 1936 as a rowing coxswain);
  • Sauveur Betelli, called Toto, bullfighter, resistance fighter;[32]
  • Jacques Lardie (1947-), publisher, political journalist, polémicist cartoonist, illustrator, diploma of fine arts, he signed his articles and cartoons with various nicknames with the most common Jihel. Creator of an important historical series called Ciment de l'histoire;
  • Michel Odasso (1947-2010), professional footballer from Nîmes Olympique and AS Monaco FC;
  • Myriam Stocco (1951-), Miss France 1971, 5th princess of Miss Universe 1971, finalist in Miss World 1971, 3rd proncess in Miss Europe 1971;
  • Élizabeth Blaud-Costes (1962-), author of Épopée du costume provençal, de l'orient à la foire de Beaucaire, de l'Antiquité à nos jours, 2012;
  • Ludovic Zerti (1968-), bullfighter;
  • Johnny Ecker (1973-), professional footballer professionnel for Nîmes Olympique, Lille OSC, Olympique de Marseille, EAG;
  • Youssef Hajdi (1979-), actor;
  • Pierrick Vidal (1981-), president of the Fédération française de la course camarguaise;
  • Stéphanie Chantry (1983-), Bronze medallist in light weight doubles Rowing championship of France in 2003 at Vaires-sur-Marne, champion of France 2012 at Lorient, and silver medallist at the World Championships of Rowing in Sweden in 2013. Bronze medal in mixed doubles in the Championships of France sprint in 2013 at Mantes-la-Jolie, silver medal in 4X at the French Cup in 2014 at Brive-la-Gaillarde, and bronze medal at the Championships of France in the double light weight rowing at Bourges on 8 June 2014.[33]

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually and the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References

  1. ^ Beaucaire on Lion1906
  2. ^ Inhabitants of Gard (in French)
  3. ^ Competition for Towns and Villages in Bloom website Archived December 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  4. ^ a b c Beaucaire on Google Maps
  5. ^ a b Beaucaire on the Géoportail from National Geographic Institute (IGN) website (in French)
  6. ^ Lexic occitan medieval, Chez.com
  7. ^ Beaucaire on the 1750 Cassini Map
  8. ^ Beaucaire on the 1790 Cassini Map
  9. ^ Historical Critical Universal Dictionary and Bibliography, Vol II, Louis Mayeul Chaudon, Mame, 1810, p. 93 (in French)
  10. ^ Archaeological Map of Gaul (30/2 GARD), Les Editions de la MSH, 1999, 865 pages, p. 230 (in French)
  11. ^ Pierre Miquel, The Wars of Religion, Fayard, 1994, 596 pages, (ISBN 2-7242-0785-8), p. 326 (in French)
  12. ^ Robb, Graham (2007). The Discovery of France. New York: Norton. pp. 259–61. ISBN 9780393059731.
  13. ^ Beaucaire Communal Notice, Villages of Cassini in the communes of today website, consulted on 12 February 2015 (in French)
  14. ^ Arlon and Farciennes sever relations with the cities in the past, F.N., L'Écho, 31 March 2014, consulted on 12 February 2015 (in French)
  15. ^ a b INSEE Employment 2012, (in French),
  16. ^ List of Mayors of France (in French)
  17. ^ art L. 2121-2 of the General Code of Collective Territories (in French).
  18. ^ National Commission for Decentralised cooperation (in French)
  19. ^ Schools in Beaucaire (in French)
  20. ^ Health Centre of Beaucaire, consulted on 12 February 2015 (in French)
  21. ^ Catholic Parish Archived 2015-02-14 at the Wayback Machine, consulted on 12 February 2015 (in French)
  22. ^ Reformed Church of France (in French)
  23. ^ Muslim Worship, consulted on 12 February 2015 (in French)
  24. ^ INSEE Characteristics of Enterprises 2014 (in French)
  25. ^ Breweries of Beaucaire, consulted on 12 February 2015 (in French)
  26. ^ Italcimenti, consulted on 12 February 2015
  27. ^ The Casanis company transfers its works to Gard, Paul Anglezi, Les Échos, 20 July 1995, consulted on 18 December 2015 (in French)
  28. ^ Belvedere: Transferred their head office to Beaucaire, tradingsat (in French)
  29. ^ Information panel in the town square and available as an image in Wikipedia Commons, consulted on 12 February 2015 (in French)
  30. ^ Abbey Saint-Roman Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Elizabeth Blaud-Costes, in Epic of Provençal Costume, from the Orient to the Fair of Beaucaire, from antiquity to the present day, December 2012 (in French)
  32. ^ Gard: Toto Betelli 90 years, "the last of the resistant old bullfighters", midilibre.fr. (in French)
  33. ^ Stéphanie Chantry, consulted on 12 February 2015 (in French)

External links

Beaucaire

Beaucaire is the name of several communes in France:

Beaucaire, Gard, in the Gard department

Beaucaire, Gers, in the Gers department

Bijou (jewellery)

A bijou (plural: bijoux) is an intricate jewellery piece incorporated into clothing, or worn by itself on the body.

Canal du Rhône à Sète

The Canal du Rhône à Sète (lit. "canal from the Rhône to Sète") is a canal in southern France, which connects the Étang de Thau in Sète to the Rhône River in Beaucaire, Gard. The canal is made up of two previously constructed canals, the Canal des Étangs and Canal de Beaucaire. It connects with the Canal du Midi through the Étang de Thau.

There is, however, no access to the Rhône at Beaucaire as the lock has been closed for many years. Access is via the lock situated to the west of Saint-Gilles which links the canal to the Petit Rhône and from there northeastwards to the junction with the Grand Rhône at Fourques situated to the north of Arles.

Apart from the lock at Saint-Gilles there is only one other operating lock on the canal between St Gilles and Beaucaire. The canal is almost totally situated at sea-level and the western part from the Vidourle river to the Étang de Thau is a sea-water canal.

In recent years major work has been undertaken to upgrade the canal so it can now be used by 1200t convoys instead of the previous 350t barges. Most notable are a stretch of canal bypassing the town of Aigues-Mortes with its railway swing bridge and a direct canal link to the port of Sète eliminating the passage of lifting and swing bridges in Frontignan and Sète.

Compagnie Nationale du Rhône

The Compagnie Nationale du Rhône (CNR) is a French electricity generation company, mainly supplying renewable power from hydroelectric facilities on the Rhone.

History of the wine press

The history of the wine press and of pressing is nearly as old as the history of wine itself with the remains of wine presses providing some of the longest-serving evidence of organised viticulture and winemaking in the ancient world. The earliest wine press was probably the human foot or hand, crushing and squeezing grapes into a bag or container where the contents would ferment.The pressure applied by these manual means was limited and these early wines were probably pale in colour and body, and eventually ancient winemakers sought out alternative means of pressing their wine. By at least the 18th dynasty, the ancient Egyptians were employing a "sack press" made of cloth that was squeezed with the aid of a giant tourniquet. The use of a wine press in winemaking is mentioned frequently in the Bible but these presses were more elaboration of treading lagars where grapes that were tread by feet with the juice running off into special basins.

The more modern idea of a piece of a winemaking equipment used to extract the juice from the skins probably emerged during the Greco-Roman periods where written accounts by Cato the Elder, Marcus Terentius Varro, Pliny the Elder and others described wooden wine presses that utilized large beams, capstans and windlasses to exert pressure on the pomace. The wines produced by these presses were usually darker, with more color extracted from the skins but could also be more harsh with bitter tannins also extracted. That style of wine press would eventually evolve into the basket press used in the Middle Ages by wine estates of the nobility and Catholic Church leading to the modern tank batch and continuous presses used in wineries today.

List of Benedictine monasteries in France

This is a list of Benedictine monasteries, extant and non-extant, in the present territory of France. It includes both monks and nuns following the Rule of Saint Benedict, excluding the Cistercians, for whom see List of Cistercian monasteries in France. Some monasteries however belonged at various times in their histories to both the Benedictines and the Cistercians.

At different times these religious houses have formed various orders, congregations or groups, of which the main ones, as far as French monasteries are concerned, are the following:

the Order of Cluny (Cluniacs)

the Camaldolese (now within the Benedictine Confederation)

the Olivetans (now within the Benedictine Confederation)

the Celestines (now within the Benedictine Confederation)

the Order of Chalais

the Order of Fontevraud (Fontevristes)

the Congregation of Tiron

the Congregation of La Chaise-Dieu (Casadéens)

the Congregation of Saint-Victor (Victorines)

the Bursfelde Congregation

the Alsace Congregation

the Cassinese Congregation (now within the Benedictine Confederation)

the Congregation of Chezal-Benoît

the Congregation of the Exempts of Flanders

the Congregation of the Exempts of France

the Société de Bretagne

the Congregation of St. Vanne (Vannistes)

the Congregation of St. Maur (Mauristes)

the English Benedictine Congregation in exile (1612–1791)

the Congregation of the Allobroges

the Affligem group

the Solesmes Congregation (now within the Benedictine Confederation; formerly known as the Congrégation de France)

the Subiaco Congregation (now within the Benedictine Confederation)

the Fédération du Coeur Immaculé de MarieThe dates in brackets indicate the start and end dates of an abbey's status as a Benedictine monastery, which are not necessarily the same as the dates of its foundation or suppression. All religious houses in France were suppressed during the French Revolution, most of them in 1791. Some communities were revived, and many more new ones established, during the 19th century, but were forced to leave France by anti-clerical legislation during the 1880s (principally the Ferry Laws), and again in the first decades of the 20th century under the Association Act, 1901 (the Waldeck-Rousseau Law).

Abbeys and independent priories currently in operation are indicated by bold type.

Dependent priories are not generally noted in this list, except for a few unusually significant ones.

List of cave monasteries

A cave monastery is a monastery built in caves, with possible outside facilities. The 3rd-century monk St. Anthony the Great, known as the founder of monasticism, lived in a cave.

Albania

Qafthanë Cave Church, cave church near Urakë, Albania.

St. Mary's Church, cave church in Maligrad, an island in the Prespa lake

Armenia

Geghard cave monastery/fortress

Bulgaria

Aladzha Monastery

Albotin Monastery

Basarbovo Monastery

Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo

Cave monasteries of Krepcha

Monasteries of Provadia

Cave monasteries on the Plateau of Shumen

Cave monasteries of Tervel

Ethiopia

Monolithic church

Iraq

Rabban Hormizd Monastery, Alqosh

Mar Qayuma Monastery, Dooreh

France

Abbey of Saint-Roman, Beaucaire, Gard

Georgia

David Gareja monastery complex

Vanis Kvabebi cave monastery/fortress, Javakheti Plateau

Vardzia cave city and monastery

Hungary

Gellért Hill Cave chapels and monastery, Budapest

Macedonia

Kališta Monastery, Struga

Romania

Basarabi Cave Complex

Russia

Monastery of the Caves, Nizhny Novgorod

Pskov Cave Monastery, Pskov Oblast

Divnogorye and Saviour Convent, Voronezh Oblast

Serbia

Blagoveštenje

Crna Reka

Gornjak

Kađenica

Churches of Kovilje Monastery

Church of Sts. Peter and Paul, also known as the Cave Church, 14th-century church in Lukovo

Church of Sts. Peter and Paul, in Rsovci, where was painted a unique fresco of bald Jesus

Hermitage of St. Peter Koriški

Savina

Thailand

Wat Tham Khan, Sakon Nakhon province

Tiger Cave Temple (Wat Tam Sua), Krabi

Turkey

Cappadocia cave monasteries

Cave monastery of İnceğiz

Church of Saint Peter

Ukraine

Assumption Cave Monastery and Inkerman Cave Monastery in the Crimea

Assumption Cave Monastery in Zymne, near Volodymyr-Volynskyi

Bakota Cave Monastery in Bakota, near Kamianets-Podilskyi

Kiev Pechersk Lavra and Eletsky Monastery

List of mosques in France

There are currently about 2,300 mosques in France with a further 200 to 250 planned.It is difficult to say when the first mosque in France was built. There is archaeological evidence of an eighth-century mosque in Narbonne, France. The Mosquée de Tsingoni in the overseas department of Mayotte was built in 1538. The Grand Mosque of Paris opened in 1926 is regarded as one of the oldest and largest mosques in France.

List of shipwrecks in 2012

The list of shipwrecks in 2012 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during 2012.

Montelupo Fiorentino

Montelupo Fiorentino is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 20 kilometres (12 miles) southwest of Florence.

Noilly Prat

Noilly Prat (French pronunciation: ​[nwa.ji pʁat]) is a brand of vermouth from France, owned by the Italian company Martini & Rossi. "White" Noilly Prat is the archetype of dry, straw-coloured French vermouth. Noilly Prat now makes Red and Ambre vermouths as well, introduced in the 1960s and 1980s, but they are less widely known. Noilly Prat Dry is 18% alcohol by volume. The Noilly Prat company is based in Marseillan, in the Hérault département of southern France, and is a subsidiary of Bacardi-Martini. Joseph Noilly, a herbalist, developed the first formula in 1813.

Pierre Fayet

Pierre Fayet (12 February 1887 in Beaucaire, Gard – 31 October 1977) was a French politician. He represented the Algerian Communist Party in the Constituent Assembly elected in 1945, the Constituent Assembly elected in 1946 and the National Assembly from 1946 to 1955.

Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse

Raymond VII of Saint-Gilles (July 1197 – 27 September 1249) was Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne and Marquis of Provence from 1222 until his death.

Rhône

The Rhône (, French pronunciation: ​[ʁon]; German: Rhone [ˈroːnə]; Walser: Rotten [ˈrotən]; Italian: Rodano [ˈrɔːdano]; Arpitan: Rôno [ˈʁono]; Occitan: Ròse [ˈrɔze; ˈʀɔze]) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France. At Arles, near its mouth on the Mediterranean Sea, the river divides into two branches, known as the Great Rhône (French: le Grand Rhône) and the Little Rhône (le Petit Rhône). The resulting delta constitutes the Camargue region.

The Horseman on the Roof

The Horseman on the Roof (French: Le hussard sur le toit) is a 1995 French film directed by Jean-Paul Rappeneau and starring Juliette Binoche and Olivier Martinez. Based on the 1951 French novel Le hussard sur le toit by Jean Giono, the film follows the adventures of a young Italian nobleman in France raising money for the Italian revolution against Austria during a time of cholera. The Italian struggle for independence and the cholera pandemic in southern France in 1832 are historical events. The film received César Awards in 1996 for Best Cinematography and Best Sound, as well as eight César Award nominations for Best Film, Best Costume Design, Best Actress, Best Director, Best Editing, Best Music, Best Production Design, and Most Promising Actress.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.