Bearded reedling

The bearded reedling (Panurus biarmicus) is a small, sexually dimorphic reed-bed passerine bird. It is frequently known as the bearded tit, due to some similarities to the long-tailed tit, or the bearded parrotbill. It is the only species in the family Panuridae.

Birds recorded in Norfolk, England
Bearded reedling, Texel Netherlands (2009)

Taxonomy and systematics

The bearded reedling was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 10th edition of Systema Naturae in 1758. He placed it in the genus Parus with the tits. The species has since been placed with the parrotbills in the family Paradoxornithidae, after they were removed from the true tits in the family. More recent research suggests it is a unique songbird – no other living species seems to be particularly closely related to it.[2] The species is now placed in the monotypic family Panuridae. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the bearded reedling is a member of the superfamily Sylvioidea and is most closely related to the lark family Alaudidae.[3] The current genus name, Panurus, is from Ancient Greek panu, "exceedingly", and ουρά, "tail". The specific biarmicus is from "Biarmia", a Latinised form of Bjarmaland formerly part of what is now the Arkhangelsk Oblast area of Russia.[4]

Description

This is a small orange-brown bird, L 16.5 cm, with a long tail and an undulating flight. The bill is yellow-orange. The male has a grey head and black moustaches (not a beard); the lower tail coverts are also black. The female is generally paler, with no black moustache. Flocks often betray their presence in a reedbed by their characteristic "ping" call.

Distribution and habitat

Panurus biarmicus MWNH 1404
Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

This species is a wetland specialist, breeding colonially in large reed beds by lakes or swamps. It eats reed aphids in summer, and reed seeds in winter, its digestive system changing to cope with the very different seasonal diets.[5]

The bearded reedling is a species of temperate Europe and Asia. It is resident, and most birds do not migrate other than eruptive or cold weather movements. It is vulnerable to hard winters, which may kill many birds. The English population of about 500 pairs is largely confined to the south and east with a small population in Leighton Moss in north Lancashire. In Ireland a handful of pairs breed in County Wexford. The largest single population in Great Britain is to be found in the reedbeds at the mouth of the River Tay in Perth and Kinross, Scotland, where there may be in excess of 250 pairs.[6]

Beardedtit46

Juvenile (top), adult males (center) and adult female (front)

Panurus biarmicus flock

Flock in natural habitat

Panurus biarmicus Males

Three males

Bearded Tit from the Crossley ID Guide Britain and Ireland

ID composite

Panurus biarmicus

A juvenile pecks insects from a cobweb

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Panurus biarmicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Johansson, Ulf S.; Fjeldså, Jon; Bowie, Rauri CK (2008). "Phylogenetic relationships within Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes): a review and a new molecular phylogeny based on three nuclear intron markers". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 48 (3): 858–876. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.05.029. PMID 18619860. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  3. ^ Fregin, Silke; Haase, Martin; Olsson, Urban; Alström, Per (2012). "New insights into family relationships within the avian superfamily Sylvioidea (Passeriformes) based on seven molecular markers". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 (157): 1–12. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-157. PMC 3462691. PMID 22920688.
  4. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 71, 291. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  5. ^ Robson, Craig (2007). "Family Paradoxornithidae (Parrotbill)". In del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Christie, David (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 12: Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 292–320. ISBN 978-84-96553-42-2.
  6. ^ Forrester R.W. & Andrews I.J Eds (2007) The Birds of Scotland Volume 2 Scottish Ornithologists' Club ISBN 978-0-9512139-0-2

External links

Benacre National Nature Reserve

Benacre National Nature Reserve is a national nature reserve in the English county of Suffolk. It is located on the North Sea coast in the parishes of Benacre, Covehithe, Reydon and South Cove. It lies between the towns of Lowestoft and Southwold and covers 393 hectares (970 acres).Benacre NNR consists of areas of open water lagoons and reed beds along the Suffolk coast including Benacre Broad, Covehithe Broad and Easton Broad and extending as far south as Reydon. The reserve features extensive reedbeds, woodland and heathland, as well as pits created by gravel extraction. There are over 100 species of breeding birds, including marsh harrier, bearded reedling, water rail, and occasionally bittern. The flora includes seakale, sea holly, and yellow-horned poppy. Reed is farmed commercially for the thatching industry, whilst enabling the bearded reedling to find a habitat.

The coastline has eroded rapidly over time and the reserve is threatened by both erosion and sea level rise. Some of the ongoing work at the reserve is stopping the encroaching sea by digging new lagoons and establishing more sea defences, and replacing the woodland lost to the sea.

Getterön Nature Reserve

Getterön Nature Reserve (Swedish: Getteröns naturreservat) is a nature reserve at Getterön in Varberg Municipality, Sweden. It consists of parts of the peninsula Getterön and an area to the north. It has an area of 350 hectares, of which 235 are land. The reserve was established in 1970.

Getterön Nature Reserve is protected as a Natura 2000 site and included in the Ramsar list.

Getterön Nature Reserve is one of northern Europe's premier birdwatching sites. In the reserve's wetland nesting species like gadwall, garganey, black-tailed godwit, ruff, dunlin, little tern, and pied avocet. The pied avocet also serves as a symbol for the nature reserve. Also in the winters there are many different species at Getterön, for example little grebe, water rail, common kingfisher, Eurasian bittern, bearded reedling, whooper swan, and smew. Also birds of prey, like the peregrine falcon, are common.

List of birds of Armenia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Armenia. The avifauna of Armenia include a total of 359 species, of which 14 are rare or accidental in Armenia and are not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Armenia.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Armenia

(?) Non-confirmed record - a species that was mentioned in some older literature or reported in oral communication, but the fact of its occurrence in Armenia is not yet confirmed.

List of birds of Azerbaijan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Azerbaijan. The avifauna of Azerbaijan include a total of 371 species, of which 9 are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Azerbaijan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Azerbaijan

List of birds of Denmark

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Denmark. The avifauna of Denmark included a total of 474 species recorded in the wild by early 2018 according to Bird list of Denmark. Of these species, 183 are rare or accidental and six have been introduced by humans.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags are used by the Danish Ornithologcial Society (Dansk Onitologisk Forening, DOF) to highlight some categories of occurrence. Those without tags are in Category A and "have been recorded in an apparently wild state in Denmark since 1st January 1950" according to DOF.

(B) Category B - species which naturally occurred in Denmark prior to 1 January 1950 but have not been recorded since then

(C) Category C - species introduced by humans, directly or indirectly, and which have established feral breeding populations

(*) Rarity - species which require submission to the Danish Rarities Committee of DOF for the sighting to be included in the official record.

List of birds of Georgia (country)

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the country of Georgia. The avifauna of Georgia include a total of 361 species, of which 11 are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Georgia.

The following tag has been used to highlight accidentals. The commonly occurring native species are untagged.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Georgia

List of birds of Greece

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Greece. The avifauna of Greece include a total of 453 species according to the Hellenic Rarities Committee of the Hellenic Ornithological Society (Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρεία). Of them, four have not been recorded since 1950 and two have been introduced by humans.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence. Species without tags are regularly occurring residents, migrants, or seasonal visitors which have been recorded since 1 January 1950.

(*) Rare in Greece; reports of these 120 species require submission to the Hellenic Rarities Committee for inclusion in the official record.

(B) Species which have not occurred in Greece since 1 January 1950.

(C) Species that do not occur naturally in Greece, although breeding populations have been introduced by humans.

List of birds of Japan (passerine)

The following is a list of passerine Japanese birds. There is a separate list of non-passerine Japanese birds.

List of birds of Kazakhstan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Kazakhstan. The avifauna of Kazakhstan include a total of 513 species, of which five are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Kazakhstan.

The following tag has been used to highlight accidentals. The commonly occurring native species are untagged.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Kazakhstan

List of birds of Luxembourg

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Luxembourg. The avifauna of Luxembourg include a total of 289 species, of which five have been introduced by humans and 89 are rare or accidental; of these, 15 have not been reported in Luxembourg since 1950.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of the LNVL (Lëtzebuerger Natur- a Vulleschutzliga).

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. Not all species fall into one of these categories; those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(H) Historical - a species not recorded in Luxembourg since 1950

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Luxembourg as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Luxembourg, for which supporting descriptions are required by the Luxemburg Rarities Committee (Luxemburger Homologationskommission)

List of birds of Mongolia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Mongolia. The avifauna of Mongolia include a total of 427 species, of which four are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Mongolia and is not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Mongolia.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Mongolia

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Mongolia although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Morocco

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Morocco. The avifauna of Morocco include a total of 454 species (Bergier & Thévenot 2006), of which five have been introduced by humans and 156 are rare or accidental. Five species listed are extirpated in Morocco and are not included in the species count. Fifteen species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of the West Palearctic List Committee. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Morocco.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. Not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that only rarely occurs in Morocco; records of these species require formal acceptance by the Commission d’Homologation Marocaine (Moroccan Rare Birds Committee)

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Morocco as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Morocco although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Norway

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Norway. The avifauna of Norway included a total of 517 species recorded in the wild by the end of 2016 according to the Norwegian Ornithological Society (Norsk Ornitologisk Forening, NOF). An additional 23 species have been recorded by Bird Checklists of the World by early 2018. Of the 540 species listed here, 257 are accidental, five have been introduced by humans, and one is extinct.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence. The (A) tags are from Bird Checklists of the World. The (I) and (D) tags are from the NOF. The notes of population status such as "endangered" apply to the world population and are also from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Norway

(I) Introduced - a species introduced directly or indirectly to Norway and which has an established population

(D) Category D - species (17) for which there is reasonable doubt as to the wild origin of reported birds

List of birds of Poland

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Poland. The avifauna of Poland include 446 species, of which six have been introduced by humans and seven have not occurred since 1950.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of the Polish Fauna Commission (Komisja Faunistyczna). The Polish names of the birds, with their scientific names, are in the Polish Wikipedia article.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(B) Historical - species that have not occurred in Poland since 1950

(C) Introduced - species introduced to Poland as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(*) Rare - species that are rare or accidental in Poland

List of birds of Sweden

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Sweden. The avifauna of Sweden include a total of 508 confirmed species as of April 2014, according to Birdlife Sverige. An additional 22 species have been recorded by Bird Checklists of the World by early 2018. Of the 530 species listed here, 225 are accidental and two have been introduced by humans. One is extinct.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence; the tags are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Sweden

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Sweden as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions, and has become established

List of birds of Switzerland

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Switzerland. The avifauna of Switzerland include a total of 422 species as of 2018 according to the Swiss Ornithological Institute (Schweizerische Vogelwarte). Of them, 40 are considered irregular and 69 are considered accidental as defined below. Six have been introduced by humans.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following categories and statuses of occurrence are used by the Swiss Ornithological Institute. Species without letter tags are in Category A ("recorded in an apparently natural state at least once since 1 January 1950") and those without number tags are Status 1 ("recorded in at least 9 years out of 10 between 2005 and 2014").

(B) Category B - "Species that would otherwise be in category A but have been recorded only between 1800 and 1949"

(C) Category C - "Species...introduced by man, either deliberately or accidentally, [and] have established breeding populations"

(D) Category D - Species for which "there is reasonable doubt that they have ever occurred in a natural state"

(2) Status 2, irregular - "species recorded more than 10 times and in more than 5 years between 1965 and 2014 but in fewer than 9 years out of 10 between 2005 and 2014"

(3) Status 3, accidental - "species recorded 1–10 times or in 1–5 years between 1965 and 2014, or for the first time after 2014"

(4) Status 4 - "Species recorded at least once but not since 1965"

List of birds of the Isle of Man

Over 300 species of bird have been recorded in the wild on the Isle of Man, a self-governing island in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. Over 100 species breed there, including significant populations of red-billed chough, peregrine falcon and hen harrier.A variety of seabirds breed on the coastal cliffs such as Atlantic puffin, black guillemot, black-legged kittiwake, European shag and northern fulmar. The island gives its name to the Manx shearwater which formerly nested in large numbers on the Calf of Man. The colony disappeared following the arrival of rats but the shearwaters began to return in the 1960s. The Ayres in the north of the island have colonies of little tern, Arctic tern and common tern.Moorland areas on the island are home to red grouse, Eurasian curlew and northern raven. Woodland birds include long-eared owl, common treecreeper, Eurasian blackcap and common chiffchaff. There is little native woodland on the island and several species found in Great Britain, such as tawny owl, Eurasian green woodpecker and Eurasian jay, do not breed on the isle of Man.

Many birds visit the island during the winter and migration seasons including waders such as purple sandpiper, turnstone and golden plover. Wintering wildfowl include small numbers of whooper swan. A bird observatory was established on the Calf of Man in 1959 to study the migrating and breeding birds. By the end of 2001, 99,042 birds of 134 species had been ringed there. Numerous rarities have been recorded there including American mourning dove and white-throated robin.

The list below includes 323 species of bird. The English names are those recommended by the International Ornithological Congress (IOC) with alternative names given in brackets. The scientific names and classification follow the British Ornithologists' Union (BOU). Species marked as rare are those for which the Manx Ornithological Society (MOS) requires a written description in order to accept a record.The Manx Ornithological Society uses the following codes:

A: a species which has occurred naturally on the island since 1 January 1950

B: a species which has occurred naturally but only before 31 December 1949

C: a species with an established breeding population as a result of introduction by man

C*: a species which has visited the island from an introduced population in Great BritainFailed introductions such as black grouse or species which are not yet established such as red-winged laughingthrush are not included on the list.

List of birds of the Netherlands

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Netherlands. The avifauna of the Netherlands included a total of 534 species recorded in the wild by early 2018 according to Checklist of Dutch bird species and Bird Checklists of the World. Of these species, 238 are accidental, 16 have been introduced by humans, and one is extinct.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence. The (A) tags are from one or both of Checklist of Dutch bird species and Bird Checklists of the World, and (I) tags are from Bird Checklists of the World. The notes of population status such as "endangered" apply to the world population and are also from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Netherlands

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Netherlands as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

Parrotbill

The parrotbills are a group of peculiar birds native to East and Southeast Asia, though feral populations exist elsewhere. They are generally small, long-tailed birds which inhabit reedbeds and similar habitat. They feed mainly on seeds, e.g. of grasses, to which their bill, as the name implies, is well-adapted. Living in tropical to southern temperate climates, they are usually non-migratory.

The bearded reedling or "bearded tit", a Eurasian species long placed here, is more insectivorous by comparison, especially in summer. It also strikingly differs in morphology, and was time and again placed in a monotypic family Panuridae. DNA sequence data supports this.

As names like "bearded tit" imply, their general habitus and acrobatic habits resemble birds like the long-tailed tits. Together with these and others they were at some time placed in the titmouse family Paridae. Later studies found no justification to presume a close relationship between all these birds, and consequently the parrotbills and bearded reedling were removed from the tits and chickadees and placed into a distinct family, Paradoxornithidae. As names like Paradoxornis paradoxus - "puzzling, paradox bird" - suggest, their true relationships were very unclear, although by the latter 20th century they were generally seen as close to Timaliidae ("Old World babblers") and Sylviidae ("Old World warblers").

Since 1990 (Sibley & Ahlquist 1990), molecular data has been added to aid the efforts of discovering the parrotbills' true relationships. As Paradoxornis species are generally elusive and in many cases little-known birds, usually specimens of the bearded reedling which are far more easy to procure were used for the analyses. Often, the entire group was entirely left out of analyses, being small and seemingly insignificant in the large pattern of bird evolution (e.g. Barker et al. 2002, 2004). The bearded reedling tended to appear close to larks in phylogenies based on e.g. DNA-DNA hybridization (Sibley & Ahlquist 1990), or on mtDNA cytochrome b and nDNA c-myc exon 3, RAG-1 and myoglobin intron 2 sequence data (Ericson & Johansson 2003). Placement in a superfamily Sylvioidea which contained birds such as Sylviidae, Timaliidae and long-tailed tits - but not Paridae - was confirmed.

Cibois (2003a) analyzed mtDNA cytochrome b and 12S/16S rRNA sequences of some Sylvioidea, among them several species of Paradoxornis but not the bearded reedling. These formed a robust clade closer to the Sylvia typical warblers and some presumed "Old World babblers" such as Chrysomma sinense than to other birds. The puzzle was finally resolved by Alström et al. (2006), who studied mtDNA cytochrome b and nDNA myoglobin intron 2 sequences of a wider range of Sylvioidea: The bearded reedling was not a parrotbill at all, but forms a distinct lineage on its own, the relationships of which are not entirely resolved at present. The parrotbills' presence in the clade containing Sylvia, on the other hand, necessitates that the Paradoxornithidae are placed in synonymy of the Sylviidae. Cibois (2003b) even suggested that these themselves were to be merged with the remaining Timaliidae and the latter name to be adopted. This has hitherto not been followed and researchers remain equivocal as many taxa in Sylviidae and Timaliidae remain to be tested for their relationships. In any case, it is most likely that the typical warbler-parrotbill group is monophyletic and therefore agrees with the modern requirements for a taxon. Hence, whether to keep or to synonymize it is entirely a matter of philosophy, as the scientific facts would agree with either approach.

The interesting conclusion from an evolutionary point of view is that the morphologically both internally homogenous and compared to each other highly dissimilar typical warblers and parrotbills form the two extremes in the divergent evolution of the Sylviidae. This is underscored by looking at the closest living relatives of the parrotbills in the rearranged Sylviidae: The genus Chrysomma are non-specialized species altogether intermediate in habitus, habitat and habits between the typical warblers and the parrotbills. Presumably, the ancestral sylviids looked much like these birds. How dramatic the evolutionary changes wrought upon the parrotbills in their adaptation to feeding on grass caryopses and similar seeds were can be seen by comparing them with the typical fulvettas, which were formerly considered Timaliidae and united with the alcippes (Pasquet 2006). These look somewhat like drab fairy-wrens and have none of the parrotbills' adaptations to food and habitat. Yet it appears that the typical fulvettas' and parrotbills' common ancestor evolved into at least two parrotbill lineages independently (Cibois 2003a) & (Yeung et al. 2006). Only the wrentit, the only American sylviid, resembles the parrotbills much in habitus, though not in color pattern, and of course, as an insectivore, neither in bill shape.

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