Beach meadow

Beach Meadows are coastal meadows influenced by the presence of the nearby sea.

Under this definition, the salinity of the air and wind is usually high and the meadows are often flooded during and after stormy weather. These conditions implies that the flora is dominated by salt-tolerant species. But that alone does not make a meadow. To be categorized as a meadow in the first place, the plantgrowth has to be low in height, and normally this can only be achieved from wear by general traffic or grazing of the landscape, either artificially or by livestock. Beach meadows are therefore usually thought of as cultural landscapes or biotopes, requiring some degree of intervention and not being able to sustain itself on its own. If left to their own, beach meadows would usually transform into a so-called transitional meadow and eventually a shrubby or bushy seashore habitat.

Får og lam på Øvre
Beach meadows. The island of Endelave in Denmark.

Flora and fauna

As explained, beach meadows are fundamentally an unstable nature type and this condition have an important influence on the flora and fauna found here. Beach meadows are characterized by a number of plants and animals, that could not have thrived, if the habitat was left to a natural development. The grazing (or traffic) hinders bushes, trees and shrubs to get the upper hand and allows low-growth plants to emerge and dominate. This again attracts and supports a special fauna that would change character, if the beach meadow were left to its own. The specific flora and fauna is of course determined by the general climate and geography of the beach meadow.


Beach meadows offers a variety of opportunities to many birds, primarily waders, ducks and gulls. Many species are resting here during tides and they are feeding in the small ponds. A number of bird species use them as breeding grounds, especially on islands without predators like fox, mustelidae (raccoon dogs, wolverines, polecats, etc.) or the like. Introducing even small numbers of predators to beach meadow habitats, can wreak havoc on the bird populations, as they have unrestricted access to eggs and birds.

Beach meadow localities

Denmark has several beach meadows. Large and well-developed meadows can primarily be found in the Wadden Sea, Limfjord and Isefjord areas and on the islands of Læsø and Lolland, but there are many other smaller beach meadows throughout this lowlying country. On the Faroese Islands and in Greenland 'fell meadows' can be found. They are usually not flooded by seawater, so it could be argued if they are truly beach meadows.

Iceland, Norway and some parts of Sweden, has extensive 'fell meadows'.

In the Baltic region, there are several beach meadows. Sweden can present true beach meadows on Öland and in some parts of Gotland fx. and Estonia has large beach meadows of international importance to migratory birds.

United Kingdom has several beach meadows throughout. They can be found in Cornwall and the country of Wales has several. Here the coast often consists of high cliffs, so the meadows are usually not flooded by seawater and strictly speaking they would be classified as 'coastal meadows' or 'fell meadows'. Examples can be found on the Llŷn Peninsula, where cattle are grazing. Scotland has many fell meadows.

Ireland has large areas of fell meadows with grazing cattle.

On the American continent, Canada can present extensive fell meadows on Nova Scotia.

As the practices of cattle grazing is diminishing in many places - especially the industrialized parts -, the stress of overgrowth are endangering them as meadow habitats.

See also

Sources and literature

  • Lorenz Ferdinand: "Fuglene i landskabet" (Større danske fuglelokaliteter Bind II; Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, København 1980; ISBN 87-87604-03-5 ‹See Tfd›(in Danish)
  • Peter Vestergaard: Beach Meadows - a protected nature-type Danish Ministry of Nature and the Environment (2000), ISBN 87-12-03554-8 ‹See Tfd›(in Danish)
  • Beach Meadows Danish Nature Agency ‹See Tfd›(in Danish)
A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia

A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia (DIWA) is a list of wetlands of national importance to Australia. Intended to augment the list of wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, it was formerly published in report form, but is now essentially an online publication. Wetlands that appear in the Directory are commonly referred to as "DIWA wetlands" or "Directory wetlands".

Amos Pentz

Amos Parker Pentz (December 11, 1849 – December 11, 1922) was a Canadian shipbuilder from Shelburne, Nova Scotia. He was noted for his fast and innovative designs of fishing schooners and trawlers.

He was born in Beach Meadow, Queens County, Nova Scotia, to Martin Pentz and Eliza Jane Maxwell. From a young age, Pentz had always taken a strong interest in ships. As he became older, his passion for ships turned into his livelihood. The combination of his talent for woodwork, and knowledge of ships, created a foundation for a lifetime of success in his field of work. He began his career in 1872 as an itinerant ship builder. He slowed his career down briefly around 1891 when he married Annie Matthews (on October 24, 1891). Pentz and his family eventually moved on to Shelburne to continue his work with shipbuilding. He was employed at the Joseph McGill Ship Yard, where he set a new example for what skills a master ship builder should have.

Over is lifetime he produced an impressive one hundred and forty-one ships. In 1901 the Harbinger was built, and in 1902 the Messenger was completed, both of these ships were steam trawlers, and were the first steam powered fishing vessels build at these docks. The Arbutus, built in 1903, was the first auxiliary powered fishing schooner built in the province of Nova Scotia. In 1908, and then 1910, the Albert J. Lutz and Dorothy M. Smart were built. These two ships were renowned for their remarkable speed and celebrated by authors such as Frederick William Wallace. Both latter vessels competed for the Britain Cup in Nova Scotia's fisherman's regatta, which was held in Digby, Nova Scotia in 1911.Not only was he a fine ship builder, but he also was an inspiring mentor to James Havelock Harding who grew to become another one of Shelburne's best ship builders, he eventually moved to the United States to continue his career. Amos Pentz died December 11, 1922.

Area code 530

Area code 530 is a California telephone area code in northeastern and Northern California.

Regions within it include the Sacramento Valley, Shasta Cascade, and the northern Sierra Nevada.

Counties servedArea code 530 covers all or sections of: Alpine County, Butte County, Colusa County, El Dorado County, Glenn County, Humboldt County, Lassen County, Modoc County, Nevada County, Placer County, Plumas County, Shasta County, Sierra County, Siskiyou County, Sutter County, Tehama County, Trinity County, Yolo County, and Yuba County.

Beach Meadows, Nova Scotia

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Blindheimsvik Wildlife Sanctuary

The Blindheimsvik Wildlife Sanctuary (Norwegian: Blindheimsvik dyrefredningsområde) is located on the south side of Vigra island in the municipality of Giske in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway.The area received protection in 1988 "to preserve an important wetland area with its habitat, bird life and other wildlife," according to the conservation regulations. The area consists of a long shallow bay with large tidal areas. Many small streams empty into the bay, where there are beach meadow areas rich in various species. The bay is important as a resting place for ducks and waders, and as a overwintering site and nesting site for wetland birds. Twenty bird species of international importance and three species of national importance have been observed here.

The wildlife sanctuary is one of six natural areas that were included in the Giske Wetlands System Ramsar site, which was established in 1996.

Crowninshield Island

Crowninshield Island, also known as Brown's Island, is a small island off the shore of Marblehead, Massachusetts. Since 1955, it has been maintained by The Trustees of Reservations. For all Trustees of Reservations purposes, the island is referred to as Crowninshield Island, however federally the island is still maintained as "Brown's Island", and it remains better known by that name locally.


Eksta is a populated area, a socken (not to be confused with parish), on the Swedish island of Gotland. It comprises the same area as the administrative Eksta District, established on 1 January 2016.


Endelave is a Danish island in the Kattegat, north of Odense, off the coast of Funen, and west of Samsø. The island covers an area of 13.2 km2 (5.1 sq mi) and has 185 inhabitants.

Hvidovre Municipality

Hvidovre Kommune is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in Region Hovedstaden near Copenhagen on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 22 km², and has a total population of 53,416 (1 January 2019). Its mayor is Helle Moesgaard Adelborg, a member of the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterne) political party.

The main town and the site of its municipal council is the town of Hvidovre. Other towns in the municipality are Avedøre and Friheden.

Neighboring municipalities are Copenhagen to the east, Rødovre to the north, and Brøndby to the west. Part of its eastern border are the waters of Kalveboderne, and to the south is Køge Bay (Køge Bugt). The southern-most section of the municipality, known as Avedøre Holme, juts out into Køge Bay and forms part of the entryway into Kalveboderne, the waters of which separate the island of Zealand from neighboring Amager. Avedøre Holme houses two harbours.


A meadow is an open habitat, or field, vegetated by grass and other non-woody plants. They attract a multitude of wildlife and support flora and fauna that could not thrive in other conditions. They provide areas for courtship displays, nesting, food gathering, pollinating insects, and sometimes sheltering, if the vegetation is high enough, making them ecologically important. There are multiple types of meadows, such as agricultural, transitional, and perpetual, each important to the ecosystem. Meadows may be naturally occurring or artificially created from cleared shrub or woodland.

Mellandsvågen Nature Reserve

The Mellandsvågen Nature Reserve (Norwegian: Mellandsvågen naturreservat) is located on the western part of Skardsøya island in the municipality of Aure in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. Since 1996, the nature reserve has had the status of a Ramsar site because of its importance for migratory birds.The area received protection in 1988 "to preserve an important wetland area with its appertaining plant communities, bird life, and other wildlife," according to the conservation regulations. The Mellandsvågen Wildlife Sanctuary (Norwegian: Mellandsvågen dyrefredningsområde), which measures 12.2 square kilometers (4.7 sq mi), was created at the same time as a buffer zone in the land and sea area south and west of the nature reserve. The Mellandsvågen Nature Reserve is bordered to the east by the Melland Nature Reserve, which was established in 2002 and measures 47 hectares (120 acres).The area consists of the mouth of a fjord, some islands, and a headland. The dominant landscape type is a large, well-developed, and diverse beach meadow community, especially south of Livsneset and around Storholmen. Behind the beach meadows there is damp heath that transitions into a nutrient-poor bog. It has rich and varied vegetation. There are no species on the national red list, but many of them are regionally rare or endangered: herbaceous seepweed (Suaeda maritima), Ray's knotweed (Polygonum oxyspermum subsp. raii), media sandspurry (Spergularia media), and slenderleaf pondweed (Stuckenia filiformis). The area is very important for overwintering waterfowl such as loons, grebes, and ducks.

Amateur ornithologists from Hemne have been carrying out winter counts of birds in the reserve for several years.

Murray Bridge Training Area

The Murray Bridge Training Area (also called Murray Bridge Army Training Area) is an Australian Army training area located in South Australia in the locality of Burdett about 7 kilometres (4.3 miles) east of the city of Murray Bridge and about 70 kilometres (43 miles) east of the centre of the city of Adelaide. The training area was established prior to 1970. As of 2011, the training area contained shooting ranges for use with small arms for distances up to 800 metres (2,600 feet), space for the training of subunits from Australian Army units located within South Australia and support facilities such as a “vehicle maintenance compound.” An area of about 71 hectares (180 acres) within the training area was developed as an artificial wetland in 1992 for the purpose of treating effluent that would otherwise have been discharged into the Murray River. This wetland has been listed as a wetland of national importance since at least 1995.

National Wetlands Inventory

The National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) was established by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to conduct a nationwide inventory of U.S. wetlands to provide biologists and others with information on the distribution and type of wetlands to aid in conservation efforts. To do this, the NWI developed a wetland classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) that is now the official FWS wetland classification system and the Federal standard for wetland classification (adopted by the Federal Geographic Data Committee on July 29, 1996: 61 Federal Register 39465). The NWI also developed techniques for mapping and recording the inventory findings. The NWI relies on trained image analysts to identify and classify wetlands and deepwater habitats from aerial imagery. NWI started mapping wetlands at a small scale (1:250,000 map which covers an area the size of 128-1:24,000 USGS topographic maps or approximately 7,400 square miles). Eventually, large-scale (1:24K scale) maps became the standard product delivered by NWI. As computerized mapping and geospatial technology evolved, NWI discontinued production of paper maps in favor of distributing data via online "mapping tools" where information can be viewed and downloaded. Today, FWS serves its data via an on-line data discovery "Wetlands Mapper". GIS users can access wetlands data through an online wetland mapping service or download data for various applications (maps, data analyses, and reports). The techniques used by NWI have recently been adopted by the Federal Geographic Data Committee as the federal wetland mapping standard (FGDC Wetlands Subcommittee 2009). This standard applies to all federal grants involving wetland mapping to insure the data can be added to the Wetlands Layer of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. NWI also produces national wetlands status and trends reports required by the United States Congress.

Ramsar Convention

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the Convention was signed in 1971.

Every three years, representatives of the Contracting Parties meet as the Conference of the Contracting Parties (COP), the policy-making organ of the Convention which adopts decisions (Resolutions and Recommendations) to administer the work of the Convention and improve the way in which the Parties are able to implement its objectives. COP12 was held in Punta del Este, Uruguay, in 2015. COP13 was held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in October 2018.

Salt marsh

A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides. It is dominated by dense stands of salt-tolerant plants such as herbs, grasses, or low shrubs. These plants are terrestrial in origin and are essential to the stability of the salt marsh in trapping and binding sediments. Salt marshes play a large role in the aquatic food web and the delivery of nutrients to coastal waters. They also support terrestrial animals and provide coastal protection.

Sleaford Mere

Sleaford Mere (alternative name: Kuyabidni) is a permanent saline lake, located on the Jussieu Peninsula on the south eastern tip of Eyre Peninsula in South Australia about 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) south west of Port Lincoln. The lake was discovered and named by the British explorer, Matthew Flinders, on 26 February 1802. Since 1969, the lake has been part of the Sleaford Mere Conservation Park and since 2005, it has been listed as a nationally important wetland. The lake and its environs are notable as a venue for recreational pursuits such as canoeing.

Synesvågen Nature Reserve

The Synesvågen Nature Reserve (Norwegian: Synesvågen naturreservat) is located on the southwest part of Vigra island in the municipality of Giske in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway.The area received protection in 1988 "to preserve an important wetland area with its appertaining plant communities, bird life, and other wildlife," according to the conservation regulations. The area is a shallow bay with a seashore rich in species and large tidal banks and sandy areas. The north and east sides have a beach meadow with small ponds and transition into a flat marshland. It is considered one of the most conservation-worthy seasides in the county. The bay serves as a resting and overwintering site for birds, and there are many nesting species of regional importance; altogether, 17 species have one of their most important regional concentrations here, and one species has one of its most important national concentrations here. The area is well suited for study and teaching, and for directly observing bird migrations.

The nature reserve is one of six natural areas that were included in the Giske Wetlands System Ramsar site, which was established in 1996.


VándorMások (lit. “Wandering/Roaming/Roving Others”) is one of the oldest gay organizations in Hungary. It has been organizing gay-friendly hikes in the mountains easily accessible from Budapest since December 26, 1991.

Watervalley Wetlands

The Watervalley Wetlands is a nationally important wetland system located in the Australian state of South Australia which consists of a series of contiguous wetlands, lying on 56.6 square kilometres (21.9 sq mi) of private land between the Coorong National Park and Gum Lagoon Conservation Park, in the state's south-east.

Classification systems

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