Bāzrangī (also known as Bazrangids or Badhrangids) is the attested family name of a dynasty of petty rulers in south western Iran near the end of Arsacid Empire as well as the name of geographical districts.

As Sasan's wife family

The lord Sasan who is named as the eponymous ancestor of the Sasanians took, according to Tabari, a wife from a family called "Bazrangi". The woman was called Rāmbehešt and according to Tabari "possessed beauty and perfection". She bore Sasan a son called Papak.[1][2]

In the account of Tabari, Ardashir, the founder of Sassanid dynasty was sent for educational reasons, at the request of his father Papak, to Tīrī who was the eunuch of Gōčehr the king of Eṣṭaḵr. Later Ardashir succeeded Tīrī who was the chief officer (i.e. argbed) of Dārābgerd. Ardashir managed to make a number of local conquests and then wrote to his father to revolt against Gōčehr. Papak did so and killed Gōčehr and took his throne. This is the last time Tabari mentions about Gōčehr or the Bāzrangī family and other notices of Bāzrangī in later sources are all taken from Ṭabarī. There has not been found any coins naming Gōčehr or Bāzrangī.[2]

There is a suggestion by S. Wikander that Bāzrang is not a name but rather a title with the etymology of "holding a mace", or "possessing miraculous power". This suggestion is unproven for R. N. Frye.[2]

As geographical district

The word Bāzrang has been used in other historical sources, such as Eṣṭaḵrī, to refer to a geographical district in the mountainous Boir Aḥmadī area where the Šīrīn and Šāḏkān rivers have their origin. R. Frye indicates that this district could be the one in the Pahlavi text Xusraw ud rēdag where excellent wine or must came from. Today however there are the villages upper Bāzrang and lower Bāzrang in the Behbahān district of the province of Ḵūzestān. There is also a mention in popular folktales of Iran that the word bāzrangī means wild person. The connection of the geographical name and other occurrences of the word is uncertain.[2]

The word 'Bajrang' (or 'Bāzrang' with a little syllable twisting) is associated with the Hindu God 'Hanumaan' (or 'Hanuman' as His name is misspelled frequently, otherwise called as 'Bajrang Balee' which means Bajrang the Strong) and due to Him being what He was like, even a few species of monkeys are referred to be as Bajrang in Hindi (National and native language of India).

See also


  1. ^ (Tabari 1999) page 4.
  2. ^ a b c d (Frye 1990)


  • Frye, R. N. (1990), "BĀZRANGĪ", Encyclopaedia Iranica, New York, London, 4
  • Tabari (1999), translated by C. E. Bosworth, "The Sāsānids, the Byzantines, the Lakhmids, and Yemen", Tarikh-e Tabari (SUNY series in Near Eastern studies ed.), SUNY Press, 5, p. 458, ISBN 0-7914-4355-8
Ardashir I

Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian 𐭠𐭥𐭲𐭧𐭱𐭲𐭥 , New Persian: اردشیر بابکان, Ardashir-e Bābakān), also known as Ardashir the Unifier (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire. He was also Ardashir V of the dynasty of the Kings of Persis, until he founded the new empire. After defeating the last Parthian shahanshah Artabanus V on the Hormozdgan plain in 224, he overthrew the Parthian dynasty and established the Sasanian dynasty. Afterwards, Ardashir called himself "shahanshah" and began conquering the land that he called Iran.There are various historical reports about Ardashir's lineage and ancestry. According to Al-Tabari's History of the Prophets and Kings, Ardashir was son of Papak, son of Sasan. Another narrative that exists in Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan and Ferdowsi's Shahnameh also states it says that Ardashir was born from the marriage of Sasan, a descendant of Darius III, with the daughter of Papak, a local governor in Pars.

According to Al-Tabari's report, Ardashir was born in the outskirts of Istakhr, Pars. Al-Tabari adds that Ardashir was sent to the lord of Fort Darabgard when he was seven years old. After the lord's death, Ardashir succeeded him and became the commander of Fort Darabgard. Al-Tabari continues that afterward, Papak overthrew the local Persian shah named Gochihr and appointed his son, Shapur, instead of him. According to Al-Tabari's report, Shapur and his father, Papak, suddenly died and Ardashir became the ruler of Pars. Tension rose between Ardashir and the Parthian empire and eventually on April 28, 224, Ardashir faced the army of Artabanus V in the Hormozdgan plain and Artabanus, the Parthian shahanshah, was killed during the battle.

According to the royal reports, it was Papak who overthrew Gochihr, the local Persian shah, and appointed his son, Shapur, instead of him; Ardashir refused to accept Shapur's appointment and removed his brother and whosoever stood against him and then minted coins with his face drawn on and his father, Papak's behind. It is probable that the determining role that is stated about Ardashir in leading the rebellion against the central government is the product of the later historical studies. Papak had probably united most of Pars under his rule by then.

Ardashir had an outstanding role in developing the royal ideology. He tried to show himself as a worshiper of Mazda related to god and possessing khvarenah. The claim of the legitimacy of his reign as a rightful newcomer from the line of the mythical Iranian shahs and the propagations attributed to Ardashir against the legitimacy and role of the Parthians in the Iranian history sequence show the valuable place that the Achaemenid legacy had in the minds of the first Sasanian shahanshahs; though the current belief is that the Sasanians did not know much about the Achaemenids and their status. On the other hand, some historians believe that the first Sasanian shahanshahs were familiar with the Achaemenids and their succeeding shahanshahs deliberately turned to the Kayanians. They knowingly ignored the Achaemenids in order to attribute their past to the Kayanians; and that was where they applied holy historiography.

In order to remark his victories, Ardashir carved petroglyphs in Firuzabad (the city of Gor or Ardashir-Khwarrah), Naqsh-e Rajab and Naqsh-e Rustam. In his petroglyph in Naqsh-e Rustam, Ardashir and Ahura Mazda are opposite to each other on horsebacks and the corpses of Artabanus and Ahriman are visualized under the nails of the horses of Ardashir and Ahura Mazda. It can be deduced from the picture that Ardashir assumed or wished for others to assume that his rule over the land that was called "Iran" in the inscriptions was designated by the lord. The word "Iran" was previously used in Avesta and as "the name of the mythical land of the Aryans". In Ardashir's period, the title "Iran" was chosen for the region under the Sasanian rule. The idea of "Iran" was accepted for both the Zoroastrian and non-Zoroastrian societies in the whole kingdom and the Iranians' collective memory continued and lived on in the various stages and different layers of the Iranian society until the modern period today. What is clear is that the concept of "Iran" previously had a religious application and then ended up creating its political face and the concept of a geographical collection of lands.


Papak or Papag (Middle Persian: 𐭯𐭠𐭯𐭪𐭩‎, Modern Persian: بابک‬ Babak), was a Persian prince and is considered the ancestor of the Sasanians.

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