Bazaar

A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term originates from the Persian word bāzār. The term bazaar is sometimes also used to refer to the "network of merchants, bankers and craftsmen" who work in that area. Although the current meaning of the word is believed to have originated in Persia, its use has spread and now has been accepted into the vernacular in countries around the world. In Balinese, the word pasar means "market." The capital of Bali province, in Indonesia, is Denpasar, which means "north market." Souq is another word used in the Middle East for an open-air marketplace or commercial quarter.

Evidence for the existence of bazaars dates to around 3,000 BCE. Although the lack of archaeological evidence has limited detailed studies of the evolution of bazaars, indications suggest that they initially developed outside city walls where they were often associated with servicing the needs of caravanserai. As towns and cities became more populous, these bazaars moved into the city center and developed in a linear pattern along streets stretching from one city gate to another gate on the opposite side of the city. Over time, these bazaars formed a network of trading centres which allowed for the exchange of produce and information. The rise of large bazaars and stock trading centres in the Muslim world allowed the creation of new capitals and eventually new empires. New and wealthy cities such as Isfahan, Golconda, Samarkand, Cairo, Baghdad and Timbuktu were founded along trade routes and bazaars. Street markets are the European and North American equivalents.

Shopping at a bazaar or market-place remains a central feature of daily life in many Middle-Eastern and South Asian cities and towns and the bazaar remains the "beating heart" of Middle-Eastern city and South Asian life. A number of bazaar districts have been listed as World Heritage sites due to their historical and/or architectural significance. Visiting a bazaar or souq has also become a popular tourist pastime.

The Moorish
The Moorish Bazaar, painting by Edwin Lord Weeks, 1873
Sebah, Pascal (1823-1886) - Khan el-Khalili, Cairo - ca. 1880s
Bazaar at Khan el-Khalili, Cairo by Pascal Sébah from Georg Ebers, Egypt: Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque, Vol. 1, Cassell & Company, New York, 1878
Carpet Merchant in the Khan el Khaleel (1878) - TIMEA
Carpet Merchant in the Khan el Khaleel, from Georg Ebers, Egypt: Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque, Vol. 1, Cassell & Company, New York, 1878

Etymology and usage

Amadeo Preziosi - The Grand Bazaar - Google Art Project
The Grand Bazaar, Istanbul, by Amadeo Preziosi, late 19th century

The origin of the word bazaar comes from Persian bāzār.[1][2] from Middle Persian wāzār,[3] from Old Persian vāčar,[4] from Proto-Indo-Iranian *wahā-čarana.[5] The term, bazaar, spread from Persia into Arabia and ultimately throughout the Middle East.[6]

In North America, the United Kingdom and some other European countries, the term can be used as a synonym for a "rummage sale", to describe charity fundraising events held by churches or other community organisations in which either donated used goods (such as books, clothes and household items) or new and handcrafted (or home-baked) goods are sold for low prices, as at a church or other organisation's Christmas bazaar, for example.

Although Turkey offers many famous markets known as "bazaars" in English, the Turkish word "pazar" refers to an outdoor market held at regular intervals, not a permanent structure containing shops. English place names usually translate "çarşı" (shopping district) as "bazaar" when they refer to an area with covered streets or passages. For example, the Turkish name for the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is "Kapalıçarşı" (gated shopping area), while the Spice Bazaar is the "Mısır Çarşısı" (Egyptian shopping area). The Arabic term, souk (souq or suk) is a synonym for bazaar in Arab-speaking countries.

Brief history

Street Scene in India
Troopers in the Bazaar, India, by Edwin Lord Weeks, 19th century

Bazaars originated in the Middle East, probably in Persia. Pourjafara et al., point to historical records documenting the concept of a bazaar as early as 3000 BC.[7] By the 4th century (CE), a network of bazaars had sprung up alongside ancient caravan trade routes. Bazaars were typically situated in close proximity to ruling palaces, citadels or mosques, not only because the city afforded traders some protection, but also because palaces and cities generated substantial demand for goods and services.[8] Bazaars located along these trade routes, formed networks, linking major cities with each other and in which goods, culture, people and information could be exchanged.[9]

The Greek historian, Herodotus, noted that in Egypt, roles were reversed compared with other cultures and Egyptian women frequented the market and carried on trade, while the men remain at home weaving cloth.[10] He also described The Babylonian Marriage Market.[11]

Prior to the 10th century, bazaars were situated on the perimeter of the city or just outside the city walls. Along the major trade routes, bazaars were associated with the caravanserai. From around the 10th century, bazaars and market places were gradually integrated within the city limits. The typical bazaar was a covered area where traders could buy and sell with some protection from the elements.[12] Over the centuries, the buildings that housed bazaars became larger and more elaborate. The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is often cited as the world's oldest continuously-operating, purpose-built market; its construction began in 1455.

Teemcheh
Timcheh Amin-o-Dowleh, Kashan Bazaar, Iran, c. 1800

City bazaars occupied a series of alleys along the length of the city, typically stretching from one city gate to a different gate on the other side of the city. The bazaar at Tabriz, for example, stretches along 1.5 kilometres of street and is the longest vaulted bazaar in the world.[13] Moosavi argues that the Middle-Eastern bazaar evolved in a linear pattern, whereas the market places of the West were more centralised.[14]

In pre-Islamic Arabia, two types of bazaar existed: permanent urban markets and temporary seasonal markets. The temporary seasonal markets were held at specific times of the year and became associated with particular types of produce. Suq Hijr in Bahrain was noted for its dates while Suq 'Adan was known for its spices and perfumes. In spite of the centrality of the Middle East in the history of bazaars, relatively little is known due to the lack of archaeological evidence. However, documentary sources point to permanent marketplaces in cities from as early as 550 BCE.[15]

Nejad has made a detailed study of early bazaars in Iran and identifies two distinct types, based on their place within the economy, namely:[16]

* Commercial bazaars (or retail bazaars): emerged as part of an urban economy not based on a merchant system
* Socio-commercial bazaars: formed in economies based on a merchant system, socio-economic bazaars are situated on major trade routes and are well integrated into the city's structural and spatial systems

In the 1840s, Charles White described the Yessir Bazary of Constantinople in the following terms:[17]

"The interior consists of an irregular quadrangle. In the center is a detached building, the upper portion serving as a lodging for slavedealers, and underneath are cells for newly imported slaves. To this is attached a coffee-house, and near to it a half-ruined mosque. Around the three habitable sides of the court runs an open colonnade, supported by wooden columns, and approached by steps at an angle. Under the colonnade are platforms, separated from each other by low railings and benches. Upon these, dealers and customers may be seen during business hours smoking and discussing prices.
Behind these platforms are ranges of small chambers, divided into two compartments by a trellice-work. The habitable part is raised about three feet from the ground; the remainder serves as passage and cooking place. The front portion is generally tenanted by black, and the rear by white slaves. These chambers are exclusively devoted to females. Those to the north and west are destined for second hand negresses or white women – that is, for slaves who have been previously purchased and instructed, and are sent to be resold. The hovels to the east are reserved for newly imported negresses, or black and white women of low price.
The platforms are divided from the chambers by a narrow alley, on the wall side of which are benches, where women are exposed for sale. This alley serves as a passage of communication and walk for the brokers, who sell slaves by auction and on commission. In this case, the brokers walk around, followed by the slaves, and announce the price offered. Purchasers, seated on the platforms, then examine, question and bid, as suits their fancy, until at length the woman is sold or withdrawn."

21st century

In the Middle East, the bazaar is considered to be "the beating heart of the city and a symbol of Islamic architecture and culture of high significance."[18] Today, bazaars are popular sites for tourists and some of these ancient bazaars have been listed as world heritage sites or national monuments on the basis of their historical, cultural or architectural value.

The Medina of Fez, Morocco, with its labyrinthine covered market streets was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981.[19] Al-Madina Souq is part of the ancient city of Aleppo, another UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1986.[20] The Bazaar complex at Tabriz, Iran was listed in 2010.[21] The Bazaar of Qaisiyariye in Laar, Iran is on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.Lar[22]

In art and literature

During the 18th and 19th centuries, Europeans conquered and excavated parts of North Africa and the Levant. These regions now make up what is called the Middle East, but in the past were known as the Orient. Europeans sharply divided peoples into two broad groups – the European West and the East or Orient; us and the other. Europeans often saw Orientals as the opposite of Western civilisation; the peoples could be threatening- they were "despotic, static and irrational whereas Europe was viewed as democratic, dynamic and rational."[23] At the same time, the Orient was seen as exotic, mysterious, a place of fables and beauty. This fascination with the other gave rise to a genre of painting known as Orientalism. Artists focused on the exotic beauty of the land – the markets, caravans and snake charmers. Islamic architecture also became favorite subject matter. European society generally frowned on nude painting – but harems, concubines and slave markets, presented as quasi-documentary works, satisfied European desires for pornographic art. The Oriental female wearing a veil was a particularly tempting subject because she was hidden from view, adding to her mysterious allure.[24]

French painter Jean-Étienne Liotard visited Istanbul in the 17th century and painted pastels of Turkish domestic scenes. British painter John Frederick Lewis who lived for several years in a traditional mansion in Cairo, painted highly detailed works showing realistic genre scenes of Middle Eastern life. Edwin Lord Weeks was a notable American example of a 19th-century artist and author in the Orientalism genre. His parents were wealthy tea and spice merchants who were able to fund his travels and interest in painting. In 1895 Weeks wrote and illustrated a book of travels titled From the Black Sea through Persia and India. Other notable painters in the Orientalist genre who included scenes of street life and market-based trade in their work are Jean-Léon Gérôme Delacroix (1824–1904), Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps (1803–1860), Frederic Leighton (1830–1896), Eugène Alexis Girardet 1853–1907 and William Holman Hunt (1827–1910), who all found inspiration in Oriental street scenes, trading and commerce.[25]

A proliferation of both Oriental fiction and travel writing occurred during the early modern period.[26] British Romantic literature in the Orientalism tradition has its origins in the early eighteenth century, with the first translations of The Arabian Nights (translated into English from the French in 1705–08). The popularity of this work inspired authors to develop a new genre, the Oriental tale. Samuel Johnson's History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia, (1759) is mid-century example of the genre.[27] Byron's Oriental Tales, is another example of the Romantic Orientalism genre.[28]

Many English visitors to the Orient wrote narratives around their travels. Although these works were purportedly non-fiction, they were notoriously unreliable. Many of these accounts provided detailed descriptions of market places, trading and commerce.[29] Examples of travel writing include: Les Mysteres de L'Egypte Devoiles by Olympe Audouard published in 1865[30] and Jacques Majorelle's Road Trip Diary of a Painter in the Atlas and the Anti-Atlas published in 1922[31]

Marriage Procession in a Bazaar

Marriage Procession in a Bazaar, unknown, 1645

David Roberts silk mercers bazaar

Silk Mercers' Bazaar, Cairo by David Roberts, Cairo, 1838

David Roberts Bazaar El Moo Ristan

Bazaar El Moo Ristan, by David Roberts, 1838

David Roberts bazaar coppersmiths

Bazaar of the Coppersmiths by David Roberts, 1838

Alexandre Defaux - The Bazaar, 1856

The Bazaar, by Alexandre Defaux, 1856

Forcella, Nicola - Dans le souk aux cuivres - before 1868 (hi res)

Dans le Souk aux Cuivres by Nicola Forcella, before 1868

Vereshchagin Bazaar

Bazaar by Vasily Vereshchagin, c. 1870

Edward Angelo Goodall Copper market Cairo 1871

Copper Market, Cairo by Edward Angelo Goodall, 1871

Weeks, Edwin Lord - A Market in Isphahan - 1887

A Market in Isphahan by Edwin Lord Weeks, 1887

Weeks Edwin The Metalsmiths Shop

The Metalsmiths Shop, Edwin Lord Weeks, late 19th century

Weeks Edwin Moroccan Market Rabat

Moroccan Market, Rabat, by Edwin Lord Weeks, 1880

Cashmere Travellers in a Street of Delhi

Cashmere Travellers in a Street of Delhi by Edwin Lord Weeks 1880

Grain Market in Fez by Jules Van Biesbroeck, undated - Museum M - Leuven, Belgium - DSC05445

Grain Market in Fez by Jules Pierre van Biesbroeck, undated

Untitled (Moroccan Market Scene) by Louis Comfort Tiffany, undated, oil on canvas - New Britain Museum of American Art - DSC09658

Moroccan Market Scene by Louis Comfort Tiffany, undated

A bazaar. Oil painting. Wellcome V0017599

A Bazaar, Oil painting, Wellcome

Preziosi - Vendors in the Covered Bazaar Istanbul 1851

Vendors in the Covered Bazaar Istanbul by Vittorio Amadeo Preziosi,1851

Preziosi - A Turkish Bazaar 1854

A Turkish Bazaar by Amadeo Preziosi, 1854

Vittorio Amadeo Preziosi The Spice Sellers

The Spice Sellers by Vittorio Amadeo Preziosi, 19th century

Preziosi - Figures in the Bazaar Constantinople

Figures in the Bazaar Constantinople, by Amedeo Preziosi, 19th century

Amadeo Preziosi - The Silk Bazaar - Google Art Project

The Silk Bazaar by Amedeo Preziosi, late 19th century

Heyden Bazaar

Bazaar by Otto Heyden, 1869

Nizhny Novgorod. Lower Bazaar

Nizhny Novgorod, Lower Bazaar by Alexey Bogolyubov, 1878

Stanisław Chlebowski - Souk w Konstantynopolu

Souk at Konstantynopolu by Stanisław Chlebowski, 19th century

Charles Wilda - Inside the Souk, Cairo 1892

Inside the Souk, Cairo by Charles Wilda, 1892

Gigo Gabashvili. Bazaar in Samarkand

Bazaar in Samarkand, by Gigo Gabashvili, 1896

Enrique Simonet - El barbero del zoco - 1897

The Barber at the Souk by Enrique Simonet, 1897

The Tentmakers' Bazaar, Cairo. (1907) - TIMEA

The Tentmakers' Bazaar, Cairo, 1907

Souk Silah, the Armourers' Bazaar, Cairo. (1907) - TIMEA

Souk Silah, the Armourers' Bazaar, Cairo, from D.S. Margoliouth, Cairo, Jerusalem, & Damascus: three chief cities of the Egyptian Sultans, 1907

Midan El-Adaoui (Maidan El-Adawi). (1907) - TIMEA

People on the Street of a Bazaar at Midan El-Adaoui from D.S. Margoliouth, Cairo, Jerusalem, & Damascus: three chief cities of the Egyptian Sultans, 1907

The Hamareh (Suk Ali Pasha), Damascus. (1907) - TIMEA

Bazaar at the Souk Hamareh, Damascus by from D.S. Margoliouth, Cairo, Jerusalem, & Damascus: three chief cities of the Egyptian Sultans, 1907

Kulikov Bazaar with bagels 1910

Bazaar with Bagels by Ivan Koulikov, 1910

The Silk Bazaar, Damascus - Australians buying goods Art.IWMART1564

The Silk Bazaar, Damascus – Australians buying goods, 1918

John Gleich - Scenery at a North African Bazaar

Scenery at a North African Bazaar, by John Gleich, 20th century

The bazaar at Constantinople. Watercolour by J. F. Lewis. Wellcome V0017600

The Bazaar at Constantinople, watercolour by J. F. Lewis, Wellcome

The Char-Chatta Bazaar of Kabul

The Char-Chatta Bazaar of Kabul by A. Gh. Brechna, 1932

Ludwig Blum painting – Bazaar in the old city (4)

Bazaar in the Old City, by Ludwig Blum, 1944

Examples

Albania

In Albania, two distinct types of bazaar can be found; Bedesten (also known as bezistan, bezisten, bedesten) which refers to a covered bazaar and an open bazaar.

Australia

  • Ingleburn Bazaar (held annually during the Ingleburn Festival)

Afghanistan

Kandahar City during 1839-42

City of Kandahar, its principal bazaar and citadel, taken from the Nakkara Khauna from Lieutenant James Rattray, Afghanistan

An Afghan elder and his cat sit outside his store at the Anaba bazaar in Panjshir province, Afghanistan

An Afghan elder sits outside his store at the Anaba bazaar in Panjshir, Afghanistan

Ka Farushi Kabul

Ka Foroshi, the bird market in Kabul

Azerbaijan

Big Bazaar Lankaran, Azerbaijan

Big Bazaar, Lankaran, Azerbaijan

Bangladesh

In Nepal, India and Bangladesh, a Haat bazaar (also known as hat or haat or hatt) refers to a regular produce market, typically held once or twice per week.[32]

Dhaka Town Chowk - 1904

Dhaka Town Chowk, 1904

Basantapur Bazaar Chowk

Basantapur Bazaar Chowk at Madhi, Chitwan

Bosnia and Herzegovina

China

Egypt

Shopping in the spotlight (Cairo)

Two Egyptian women shopping at a market next to the Al-Ghouri Complex in Cairo, Egypt.

Khan el khalili

Khan el khalili, Cairo (interior)

Khan al-khalili, bab al-qutn

Khan al-khalili, bab al-qutn (gate)

Shop of a Turkish Merchant in the Soo'ck called Kha'n El-Khalee'lee. (1836) - TIMEA

Shop of a Turkish Merchant in Kha'n El-Khalee'lee, 1836

Egypt, Arabic Window and Native Bazaar, Cair

Arabic Window and Native Bazaar, Cairo

Hong Kong

  • Harbour City Bazaar
  • Petit Bazaar

Israel

India

In India, and also Pakistan, a town or city's main market is known as a Saddar Bazaar.

Border bazaars

These are mutually agreed border bazaars and haats of India on borders of India with its neighbours.

Assam

Bangalore, Karnataka

Chennai, Tamil Nadu

Delhi and NCR

In Delhi
In National Capital Region (NCR)

Hyderabad, Telangana

Indore

Jaipur, Rajasthan

Kashmir (Azad Kashmir, Pakistan)

Kerala, Keralam

Kolkata, West Bengal

Mumbai, Maharashtra

Munger, Bihar

Odisha

Punjab

Uttar Pradesh

Weeks Edwin Lord A Street Market Scene India 1887 Oil On Canvas

Women purchasing copper utensils in a bazaar by Edwin Lord Weeks, late 19th century

Almora Bazaar. c1860

Almora Bazaar, Uttarakhand, c1860

Laad Bazaar

Laad Bazaar near Charminar, Hyderabad, India

Paltan Bazaar Crowds (5275269340)

Paltan Bazaar, Assam, India

Cheh Tuti Chowk or Six Tuti Chowk, Main Bazar, Paharganj

Cheh Tuti Chowk or Six Tuti Chowk, Main Bazaar, Paharganj

Gateway to Hooseinabad Bazaar, Lucknow, India

Gateway to Hooseinabad Bazaar, Lucknow, c. 1863

BombayKalbadevieRoad1890

Bazaar along Kalbadevie Road, Bombay (now Mumbai), 1890

Antiques, Old Movie Posters

Antiques and old posters at Chor Market in Mumbai

Indonesia

Iran

Carpet Bazaar of Tabriz

Mozaffarieh: An alley in Tabriz Bazaar devoted to carpet selling

Tehran Bazaar old

Bazaar in old Tehran, 1873

Bazar Shiraz as seen by Jane Dieulafoy, 1881

Vakil Bazaar from Jane Dieulafoy, Perzië, Chaldea en Susiane, 1881

Vakil Bazaar بازار وکیل 33

Vakil Bazaar

Bazar Haji Seid Hussein Kashan by Pascal Coste

Bazar of Kashan by Pascal Coste, 1840

Antiguo Bazar de Kashan, Kashan, Irán, 2016-09-19, DD 86

Bazaar ofe Kashan, Kashan, Irán

Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh

Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh

Bazaar de Teherán, Teherán, Irán, 2016-09-17, DD 45

Bazaar de Teherán, Teherán, Irán

Kazakhstan

Kuwait

  • Souq Almubarikiyya * Souq Avenues

Iraq

A Qaysari Bazaar is a type of covered bazaar typical of Iraq.

Kyrgyzstan

Lebanon

After sustaining irreparable damage during the country's civil war, Beirut's ancient souks have been completely modernised and rebuilt while maintaining the original ancient Greek street grid, major landmarks and street names.

Macedonia

In the Balkans, the term, 'Bedesten' is used to describe a covered market or bazaar.

Old Bazaar2

The Bazaar

Beogradska ulica u Staroj čaršiji u Skoplju

Belgrade street

Skopje OldBazaar

The Bazaar

Skopje čaršija

Street stairs

Skopje čaršijata

A street

Street in Skopje 2

A street

Ulaz u nekadašnji bezistan u Skoplju

The entrance to the Bezisten

Skopje, bezistan

The Bezisten

Чаршијата - празна 03

The Bazaar by night

Malaysia

  • Bukit Beruang Bazaar, Malacca
  • Bazar Bukakbonet Gelang Patah, Johor Bahru

Nepal

Asan, Kathmandu (northeast view)

Asan, Kathmandu (northeast view)

Fikkal bazaar

Fikkal bazaar, a weekly haat in Nepal

Surunga bazaar

Surunga bazaar, Nepal

Norway

Pakistan

Hyderabad, Pakistan

Karachi

Lahore

Peshawar

Punjab, Pakistan

Rajdhani

Sargodha

Qissa Khwani Bazaar, Peshawar, Pakistan - panoramio - franek2 (2)

Qissa Khwani Bazaar, Peshawar, Pakistan

Karachi - Pakistan-market-RGadd

Bazaar, Karachi, Pakistan

Rawalpindi Bazaar

Rawalpindi Bazaar, Rawalpindi, Punjab

Serbia

South Africa

Sri Lanka

Syria

  • Al-Buzuriyah Souq in Damascus
  • Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus
  • Souq Atwail in Damascus
  • Souq Al Buzria in Damascus
  • Mathaf Al Sulimani in Damascus
  • Midhat Pasha Souq in Damascus
  • Souq Al-Attareen (Perfumers' Souq) in Aleppo
  • Souq Khan Al-Nahhaseen (Coopery Souq) in Aleppo
  • Souq Al-Haddadeen (Blacksmiths' Souq) in Aleppo
  • Suq Al-Saboun (Soap Souq) in Aleppo
  • Suq Al-Atiq (the Old Souq) in Aleppo
  • Al-Suweiqa (Suweiqa means "small souq" in Arabic) in Aleppo
  • Suq Al-Hokedun (Hokedun means "spiritual house" in Armenian) in Aleppo
Syria THE FRUIT BAZAAR. DAMASCUS. 1908. Old Vintage Color Print.

The Fruit Bazaar, Damascus, painting by Margaret Thomas and reproduced in John E. Kelman, From Damascus to Palmyra, 1908

The Silk Bazaar, Damascus - Australians buying goods Art.IWMART1564

The Silk Bazaar, Damascus – Australians buying goods, 1918

HESSE-WARTEGG(1881) p133 ENTRANCE TO BAZAAR, GAZA

Entrance to the Bazaar, Gaza

HESSE-WARTEGG(1881) p085 THE BAZAAR OF EL HARISH

The Bazaar of El Harish, 1881

Tanzania

Tunisia

Turkmenistan

Tolkuchka bazaar (3406779200)

Altyn Asyr Bazaar, Turkmenistan

Turkey

In Turkey, the term 'bazaars' is used in the English sense, to refer to a covered market place. In Turkish the term for bazaar is "çarşı."

Kızlarağası hanı-Kemeraltı-İzmir - panoramio

Kemeraltı (bazaar district), İzmir, Turkey

Arasta Bazaar, Istanbul

Arasta Bazaar, Istanbul

Istanbul grand bazar 1

Grand Bazaar, Istanbul

Spice market Istanbul 2013 6

Spice Bazaar, Istanbul

Belarus

Uzbekistan

See also

References

  1. ^ "bazaar - Origin and meaning of bazaar by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  2. ^ Ayto, John (1 January 2009). Word Origins. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4081-0160-5.
  3. ^ Daryaee, Touraj (16 February 2012). The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Oxford University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-19-973215-9.
  4. ^ "Bazaar". Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  5. ^ Benveniste, Émile; Lallot, Jean (1 January 1973). "Chapter Nine: Two Ways of Buying". Indo-European Language and Society. University of Miami Press. Section Three: Purchase. ISBN 978-0-87024-250-2.
  6. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/topic/bazaar
  7. ^ Pourjafara, M., Aminib, M., Varzanehc, and Mahdavinejada, M., "Role of bazaars as a unifying factor in traditional cities of Iran: The Isfahan bazaar," Frontiers of Architectural Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, March 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2013.11.001, pp 10–19; Mehdipour, H.R.N, "Persian Bazaar and Its Impact on Evolution of Historic Urban Cores: The Case of Isfahan," The Macrotheme Review [A multidisciplinary Journal of Global Macro Trends], Vol. 2, no. 5, 2013, p.13
  8. ^ Harris, K., "The Bazaar" The United States Institute of Peace, <Online: http://iranprimer.usip.org/resource/bazaar>
  9. ^ Hanachi, P. and Yadollah, S., "Tabriz Historical Bazaar in the Context of Change," ICOMOS Conference Proceedings, Paris, 2011
  10. ^ Thamis, "Herodotus on the Egyptians." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 18 Jan 2012. Web. 20 Aug 2017.
  11. ^ Herodotus: The History of Herodotus, Book I (The Babylonians), c. 440BC, translated by G.C. Macaulay, c. 1890
  12. ^ Gharipour, M., "The Culture and Politics of Commerce," in The Bazaar in the Islamic City: Design, Culture, and History, Mohammad Gharipour (ed.), New York, The American University in Cairo Press, 2012 pp 14–15
  13. ^ Mehdipour, H.R.N, "Persian Bazaar and Its Impact on Evolution of Historic Urban Cores: The Case of Isfahan," The Macrotheme Review [A multidisciplinary Journal of Global Macro Trends], Vol. 2, no. 5, 2013, p.14
  14. ^ Moosavi, M. S. Bazaar and its Role in the Development of Iranian Traditional Cities [Working Paper], Tabriz Azad University, Iran, 2006
  15. ^ Gharipour, M., "The Culture and Politics of Commerce," in The Bazaar in the Islamic City: Design, Culture, and History, Mohammad Gharipour (ed.), New York, The American University in Cairo Press, 2012, pp 4–5
  16. ^ Nejad, R. M., “Social bazaar and commercial bazaar: comparative study of spatial role of Iranian bazaar in the historical cities in different socio-economical context,” 5th International Space Syntax Symposium Proceedings, Netherlands: Techne Press, D., 2005,
  17. ^ Cited in: Stewart, F., Shackles of Iron: Slavery Beyond the Atlantic: Critical Themes in World History, 2016
  18. ^ Karimi, M., Moradi, E. and Mehr, R., "Bazaar, As a Symbol of Culture and the Architecture of Commercial Spaces in Iranian-Islamic Civilization,"
  19. ^ UNESCO, Medina of Fez, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/170
  20. ^ "eAleppo:Aleppo city major plans throughout the history" (in Arabic).
  21. ^ UNESCO, Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1346
  22. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Bazaar of Qaisariye in Laar - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org.
  23. ^ Nanda, S. and Warms, E.L., Cultural Anthropology, Cengage Learning, 2010, p. 330
  24. ^ Nanda, S. and Warms, E.L., Cultural Anthropology, Cengage Learning, 2010, pp 330–331
  25. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005; Meagher, J., "Orientalism in Nineteenth-Century Art," [The Metropolitan Museum of Art Essay], Online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/euor/hd_euor.htm
  26. ^ Houston, C., New Worlds Reflected: Travel and Utopia in the Early Modern Period, Routledge, 2016
  27. ^ "The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Romantic Age: Topic 4: Overview". www.wwnorton.com.
  28. ^ Kidwai, A.R., Literary Orientalism: A Companion, New Delhi, Viva Books, 2009, ISBN 978-813091264-6
  29. ^ MacLean, G., The Rise of Oriental Travel: English Visitors to the Ottoman Empire, 1580–1720, Palgrave, 2004, p. 6
  30. ^ Audouard, O. (de Jouval), Les Mystères de l'Égypte Dévoilés, (French Edition) (originally published in 1865), Elibron Classics, 2006
  31. ^ Marcilhac, F., La Vie et l'Oeuvre de Jacques Majorelle: 1886–1962, [The Orientalists Volume 7], ARC Internationale edition, 1988.
  32. ^ Crow, B., Markets, Class and Social Change: Trading Networks and Poverty in Rural South Asia, Palgrave, 2001, [Glossary] p. xvii
  33. ^ Ahour, I., which dates to saljuqid era 11th century. its extension occurred in the safavid and kajar era. it is largest roofed bazar of the world. "The Qualities of Tabriz Historical Bazaar in Urban Planning and the Integration of its Potentials into Megamalls," Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 199–215, 2011, and for a contemporary account of the Bazaar see: Le Montagner, B., "Strolling through Iran's Tabriz Bazaar," The Guardian, 12 November 2014 Montagner, Boris Le (12 November 2014). "Strolling through Iran's Tabriz bazaar - in pictures". The Guardian.
  34. ^ Assari, A., Mahesh, T.M., Emtehani, M.E. and Assari, E., "Comparative Sustainability of Bazaar in Iranian Traditional Cities: Case Studies of Isfahan and Tabriz," International Journal on “Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering”, Vol. 3, no. 9, 2011, pp 18–24; Iran Chamber of Commerce,"Iran: Iranian Architecture and Monuments: Bazaar of Isfahan". www.iranchamber.com.
  35. ^ Kashif Abbasi (14 January 2014). "Reacquainting with history: Narankari - a bazaar with a past, but no future | The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune.
  36. ^ "Bazaars of Uzbekistan". Goldensteppes.com. Retrieved 2013-06-10.

Further reading

External links

ABP Group

Ananda Bazar Patrika (ABP) Group is an Indian media company headquartered in Kolkata, West Bengal. It was established in 1922. Ananda Publishers is a division of ABP Group.

Bazaar of Tabriz

The Bazaar of Tabriz (Persian: بازار تبریز‎, also Romanized as Bāzār-e Tabriz) is a historical market situated in the city center of Tabriz, Iran. It is one of the oldest bazaars in the Middle East and the largest covered bazaar in the world. It is one of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Burma Bazaar

Burma Bazaar is a market run by Burmese refugees in Chennai, India. It is located at Parrys Corner and is one of the several unorganized or grey market shopping hubs of Chennai. The bazaar was set up in 1969 by the Government of Tamil Nadu. It is located just outside the Chennai Beach railway station, in the old financial district of the city at George Town. It is a row of about 200 shops that line either side of the road for about a kilometre.

China Bazaar Road, Chennai

China Bazaar Road, officially Netaji Subash Chandra Bose Road (or NSC Bose Road), is one of the main thoroughfares of the commercial centre of George Town in Chennai, India. The road connects Rajaji Salai in the east with Wall Tax Road in the west. Passing through thickly populated residential areas of the historical neighbourhood, the road has several streets, lanes, and by lanes joining it housing several commercial establishments of the city.

Cox's Bazar

Cox's Bazar (Bengali: কক্সবাজার, pronounced [kɔksbadʒaɾ]) is a city, fishing port, tourism centre and district headquarters in southeastern Bangladesh. The beach in Cox's Bazar is sandy and has a gentle slope; with an unbroken length of 120 km (75 mi), it is the longest natural sea beach in the world. It is located 150 km (93 mi) south of the divisional headquarter of Chittagong. Cox's Bazar is also known by the name Panowa, which translates literally as "yellow flower". Another old name was "Palongkee".

The modern Cox's Bazar derives its name from Captain Hiram Cox, an officer of the British East India Company. Cox was appointed Superintendent of Palongkee outpost after Warren Hastings became Governor of Bengal. He embarked upon the task of rehabilitation and settlement of the Arakanese refugees in the area. Captain Cox died in 1799 before he could finish his work. To commemorate his role in rehabilitation work, a market was established and named Cox's Bazar after him. Unlike many locations in the Indian Subcontinent where place names dating from the colonial period have been changed, Cox's name is still retained in the city he founded.

Today, Cox's Bazar is one of the most visited tourist destinations in Bangladesh, although not a major international tourist destination. In 2013, the Bangladesh Government formed the Tourist Police unit to protect local and foreign tourists better, as well as to look after the nature and wildlife in the tourist spots of Cox's Bazar.

GNU Bazaar

GNU Bazaar (formerly Bazaar-NG, command line tool bzr) is a distributed and client–server revision control system sponsored by Canonical.

Bazaar can be used by a single developer working on multiple branches of local content, or by teams collaborating across a network.

Bazaar is written in the Python programming language, with packages for major Linux distributions, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows. Bazaar is free software and part of the GNU Project.

Grand Bazaar, Istanbul

The Grand Bazaar (Turkish: Kapalıçarşı, meaning ‘Covered Market’; also Büyük Çarşı, meaning ‘Grand Market’) in Istanbul is one of the largest and oldest covered markets in the world, with 61 covered streets and over 4,000 shops which attract between 250,000 and 400,000 visitors daily. In 2014, it was listed No.1 among the world's most-visited tourist attractions with 91,250,000 annual visitors. The Grand Bazar at Istanbul is often regarded as one of the first shopping malls of the world.

Harper's Bazaar

Harper's Bazaar is an American women's fashion magazine, first published in 1867. Harper's Bazaar is published by Hearst and considers itself to be the style resource for "women who are the first to buy the best, from casual to couture". Aimed at what it calls "discerning ladies", Bazaar is published monthly.

Since its debut in 1867 as America's first fashion magazine, its pages have been home to talent such as the founding editor, author and translator Mary Louise Booth, as well as numerous fashion editors, photographers, illustrators and writers. Glenda Bailey is the editor-in-chief of U.S. edition of Harper's Bazaar.

Laad Bazaar

Laad Bazaar or Choodi Bazaar is a very old market popular for bangles located in Hyderabad, India. It is located on one of the four main roads that branch out from the historic Charminar.

Laad meaning lacquer is used to make bangles, on which artificial diamonds are studded. In this 1-kilometre (0.62 mi)-long shopping strip, most of the shops sell bangles, saris, wedding related items, and imitation jewelry.

Malay trade and creole languages

In addition to its classical and literary form, Malay had various regional dialects established before the rise of the Malaccan Sultanate. Also, Malay spread through interethnic contact and trade across the Malay archipelago as far as the Philippines. That contact resulted in a lingua franca that was called Bazaar Malay or low Malay and in Malay Melayu Pasar. It is generally believed that Bazaar Malay was a pidgin, influenced by contact among Malay, Chinese, Portuguese, and Dutch traders.

Besides the general simplification that occurs with pidgins, the Malay lingua franca had several distinctive characteristics. One was that possessives were formed with punya 'its owner'; another was that plural pronouns were formed with orang 'person'. The only Malayic affixes that remained productive were tər- and bər-.

Other features:

Ada became a progressive particle.

Reduced forms of ini 'this' and itu 'that' before a noun became determiners.

The verb pərgi 'go' was reduced, and became a preposition 'towards'.

Causative constructions were formed with kasi or bəri 'to give' or bikin or buat 'to make'.

A single preposition, often sama, was used for multiple functions, including direct and indirect object.For example,

Rumah-ku 'my house' becomes Saya punya rumah

Saya pukul dia 'I hit him' becomes Saya kasi pukul dia

Megat dipukul Robert 'Megat is hit by Robert' becomes Megat dipukul dek RobertBazaar Malay is used in a limited extent in Singapore and Malaysia, mostly used among the older generation or people with no working knowledge of English. The most important reason that contributed to the decline of Bazaar Malay is that pidgin Malay has creolised and created several new languages.Another reason is due to language shift in both formal and informal contexts, Bazaar Malay is gradually being replaced by English, with English being the lingua franca among the younger generations. .

Malda City

Malda or English Bazar or Ingraj Bazar, better known as Malda City, the "Mango City", is a city and a municipality in Malda district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It serves as the district headquarters. It is the fourth largest city in West Bengal. Malda is a municipal corporation with two municipalities, English Bazar Municipality and Old Malda municipality. This is an Undeveloped City becoming bigger since 1925-1930 and the city is rapidly growing and its population had now cross over a half of million people. English Bazar is the divisional headquarters of Malda Division in this state.

Marketplace

A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a souk (from the Arabic), bazaar (from the Persian), a fixed mercado (Spanish), or itinerant tianguis (Mexico), or palengke (Philippines). Some markets operate daily and are said to be permanent markets while others are held once a week or on less frequent specified days such as festival days and are said to be periodic markets. The form that a market adopts depends on its locality's population, culture, ambient and geographic conditions. The term market covers many types of trading, as market squares, market halls and food halls, and their different varieties. Due to this, marketplaces can be situated both outdoors and indoors.

Markets have existed for as long as humans have engaged in trade. The earliest bazaars are believed to have originated in Persia, from where they spread to the rest of the Middle East and Europe. Documentary sources suggest that zoning policies confined trading to particular parts of cities from around 3,000 BCE, creating the conditions necessary for the emergence of a bazaar. Middle Eastern bazaars were typically long strips with stalls on either side and a covered roof designed to protect traders and purchasers from the fierce sun. In Europe, informal, unregulated markets gradually made way for a system of formal, chartered markets from the 12th century. Throughout the Medieval period, increased regulation of marketplace practices, especially weights and measures, gave consumers confidence in the quality of market goods and the fairness of prices. Around the globe, markets have evolved in different ways depending on local ambient conditions, especially weather, tradition and culture. In the Middle East, markets tend to be covered, to protect traders and shoppers from the sun. In milder climates, markets are often open air. In Asia, a system of morning markets trading in fresh produce and night markets trading in non-perishables is common.

In many countries, shopping at a local market is a standard feature of daily life. Given the market's role in ensuring food supply for a population, markets are often highly regulated by a central authority. In many places, designated market places have become listed sites of historic and architectural significance and represent part of a town or nation's cultural assets. For these reasons, they are often popular tourist destinations.

Pondy Bazaar

Pondy Bazaar, officially called Soundarapandianar Angadi, is a market located in T. Nagar, Chennai. It is one of the principal shopping districts of Chennai.

Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre

The massacre at the Qissa Khwani Bazaar (Pashto: د قصه خوانۍ بازار خونړۍ پېښه‎) in Peshawar, British India (modern day Pakistan) on 23 April 1930 was one of the defining moments of the independence movement in British India. It was the first major confrontation between British troops and demonstrators in the city. Estimates at the time put the death toll from the shooting at between the official count at 20, and the figure of 400 dead put forth by Pakistani and Indian sources. The gunning down of unarmed people triggered protests across British India and catapulted the newly formed Khudai Khidmatgar movement into prominence.

Souq

A souq or souk (Arabic: سوق‎, Hebrew: שוק shuq, Armenian: շուկա shuka, Spanish: zoco, also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, esouk, succ, suk, sooq, suq, soek) is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian, North African and some Horn African cities (Amharic: ሱቅ sooq). The term souq goes by many alternatives in different parts of the world; in the Balkans, the term bedesten is used; in Malta the terms suq and sometimes monti are used for a marketplace; and in northern Morocco, the Spanish corruption socco is often used. The equivalent Persian term is "bazaar". In general a souq is synonymous with a bazaar or marketplace, and the term souq is used in Arabic-speaking countries.

Evidence for the existence of souqs dates to the 6th century BCE. Initially souqs were located outside city walls, but as cities became more populated, souqs were moved to the city centre and became covered walkways. Detailed analysis of the evolution of souqs is scant due to the lack of archaeological evidence.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, Western interest in Oriental culture led to the publication of many books about daily life in Middle Eastern countries. Souqs, bazaars and the trappings of trade feature prominently in paintings and engravings, works of fiction and travel writing. Shopping at souq or bazaar is a standard part of daily life throughout the Middle East. Today, souqs tend to be found in a city's medina (old quarter) and are often important tourist attractions.

Surat

Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat. It used to be a large seaport and is now a center for diamond cutting and polishing. It is the eighth largest city and ninth largest urban agglomeration in India. It is the administrative capital of the Surat district. The city is located 284 kilometres (176 mi) south of the state capital, Gandhinagar; 265 kilometres (165 mi) south of Ahmedabad; and 289 kilometres (180 mi) north of Mumbai. The city centre is located on the Tapti River, close to Arabian Sea.Surat was the world's 4th-fastest growing city in 2016 according to a study conducted by the City Mayors Foundation. The city registered an annualised GDP growth rate of 11.5% over the seven fiscal years between 2001 and 2008. Surat was awarded "best city" by the Annual Survey of India's City-Systems (ASICS) in 2013. Surat is selected as the first smart IT city in India which is being constituted by the Microsoft CityNext Initiative tied up with IT services majors Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro. The city has 2.97 million internet users, about 65% of total population. Surat was selected in 2015 for an IBM Smarter Cities Challenge grant. Surat has been selected as one of twenty Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. In 2017, Surat was the fourth cleanest city of India according to the Indian Ministry of Urban Development.Surat, famous for its diamond cutting and polishing is known as the Diamond City of India.

The Bazaar of Bad Dreams

The Bazaar of Bad Dreams is a short fiction collection by Stephen King, published on November 3, 2015. This is King's sixth collection of short stories and his tenth collection overall. One of the stories, "Obits", won the 2016 Edgar Award for best short story, and the collection itself won the 2015 Shirley Jackson Award for best collection. The paperback edition, released on October 18, 2016, includes a bonus short story, "Cookie Jar", which was published in 2016 in VQR.

The Cathedral and the Bazaar

The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary (abbreviated CatB) is an essay, and later a book, by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux kernel development process and his experiences managing an open source project, fetchmail. It examines the struggle between top-down and bottom-up design. The essay was first presented by the author at the Linux Kongress on May 27, 1997 in Würzburg (Germany) and was published as part of the book in 1999.

The illustration on the cover of the book is a 1913 painting by Liubov Popova titled Composition with Figures and belongs to the collection of the State Tretyakov Gallery.

The book was released under the Open Publication License v2.0 around 1999.

Tiretta Bazaar

Tiretta Bazaar, is a neighborhood in the eastern part of the city of Kolkata. The locality was once home to 20,000 ethnic Chinese Indian nationals; now the population has dropped to approximately 2,000. The traditional occupation of the Chinese Indian community in Kolkata had been working in the nearby tanning industry as well as in Chinese restaurants. The area is still noted for the Chinese restaurants where many people flock to taste traditional Chinese and Indian Chinese cuisine.

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