Bay of Bengal

The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India, on the north by Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman Islands of India and Myanmar and the Nicobar Islands of India. Its southern limit is a line between Sri Lanka and the northwesternmost point of Sumatra (Indonesia). It is the largest water region called a bay in the world. There are countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal in South Asia and Southeast Asia.

The Bay of Bengal occupies an area of 2,172,000 square kilometres (839,000 sq mi). A number of large rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal: the GangesHooghly, the Padma, the BrahmaputraJamuna, the BarakSurmaMeghna, the Irrawaddy, the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Brahmani, the Baitarani, the Krishna and the Kaveri. Among the important ports are Chennai-Ennore, Chittagong, Colombo, Kolkata-Haldia, Mongla, Paradip, Port Blair, Tuticorin, Visakhapatnam and Dhamra. Among the smaller ports are Gopalpur Port, Kakinada and Payra.

Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal map
Map of Bay of Bengal
LocationSouth Asia and Southeast Asia
Coordinates15°N 88°E / 15°N 88°ECoordinates: 15°N 88°E / 15°N 88°E
TypeBay
Primary inflowsIndian Ocean
Basin countries Bangladesh
 India


 Indonesia
 Myanmar

 Sri Lanka[1][2]
Max. length2,090 km (1,300 mi)
Max. width1,610 km (1,000 mi)
Surface area2,172,000 km2 (839,000 sq mi)
Average depth2,600 m (8,500 ft)
Max. depth4,694 m (15,400 ft)

Extent

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bay of Bengal as follows:[3]

On the east: A line running from Cape Negrais (16°03'N) in Burma through the larger islands of the Andaman group, in such a way that all the narrow waters between the islands lie eastward of the line and are excluded from the Bay of Bengal, as far as a point in Little Andaman Island in latitude 10°48'N, longitude 92°24'E and thence along the southwest limit of the Andaman Sea [A line running from Oedjong Raja (5°32′N 95°12′E / 5.533°N 95.200°E) in Sumatra to Poeloe Bras (Breuëh) and on through the Western Islands of the Nicobar Group to Sandy Point in Little Andaman Island, in such a way that all the narrow waters appertain to the Andaman Sea].
On the south: Ram Benis (between India and Ceylon [Sri Lanka]) and from the southern extreme of Dondra Head (south point of Ceylon) to the north point of Poeloe Bras (5°44′N 95°04′E / 5.733°N 95.067°E).

Etymology

The bay gets its name from the historical Bengal region (The Indian state of West Bengal and modern-day Bangladesh). In ancient scriptures, this water body may have been referred to as 'Mahodadhi' (Sanskrit: महोदधि, lit. great water receptacle)[4][5] while it appears as Sinus Gangeticus or Gangeticus Sinus, meaning "Gulf of the Ganges", in ancient maps.[6]

The other Sanskrit names for Bay of Bengal are 'Vangopasagara' (Sanskrit: वङ्गोपसागर, lit. Bengal's Bay), also simply called as 'Vangasagara' (Sanskrit: वङ्गसागर, lit. Bengal Sea) and 'Purvapayodhi' (Sanskrit: पूर्वपयोधि, lit. Eastern Ocean). Even today in Bengali and Odia it is known as "Bongoposagor".

Rivers

Many major Rivers of India and Bangladesh flow west to east before draining into the Bay of Bengal. The Ganga is the northernmost of these. Its main channel enters and flows through Bangladesh, where it is known as the Padma River, before joining the Meghna River. However, the Brahmaputra River flows from east to west in Assam before turning south and entering Bangladesh where it is called the Jamuna River. This joins the Padma where upon the Padma joins the Meghna River that finally drains into Bay of Bengal. The Sundarbans mangrove of forest of Bangladesh is a forest at the delta of the Padma, Jamuna and Meghna rivers lies partly in West Bengal and mostly in Bangladesh. The Brahmaputra at 2,948 km (1,832 mi) is the 28th longest River in the world. It originates in Tibet. The Hooghly River, another channel of the Ganga that flows through Calcutta drains into Bay of Bengal.

The Padma–Meghna-Jamuna rivers deposit nearly 1000 million tons of sediment every year. The sediment from these three rivers form the Bengal Delta and the submarine fan, a vast structure that extends from Bangladesh to south of the Equator, is up to 16.5 kilometres (10.3 mi) thick, and contains at least 1,130 trillion tonnes of sediment, which has accumulated over the last 17 million years at an average rate of 665 million tons per annum.[7] The fan has buried organic carbon at a rate of nearly 1.1 trillion mol/yr (13.2 million t/yr) since the early Miocene period. The three rivers currently contribute nearly 8% of the total organic carbon (TOC) deposited in the world's oceans. Due to high TOC accumulation in the deep sea bed of the Bay of Bengal, the area is rich in oil and natural gas and gas hydrate reserves. Bangladesh can reclaim land substantially and economically gain from the sea area by constructing sea dikes, bunds, causeways and by trapping the sediment from its rivers.

Further southwest of Bangladesh, the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri Rivers also flow from west to east in South Asia and drain into the Bay of Bengal. Many small rivers also drain directly into the Bay of Bengal; the shortest of them is the Cooum River at 64 km (40 mi).

The Irrawaddy (or Ayeyarwady) River in Myanmar flows into the Andaman Sea of the Bay of Bengal and once had thick mangrove forests of its own.

Seaports

VizagPort
The city of Visakhapatnam in India is a major port of the Bay of Bengal

Indian ports on the bay include Paradip Port , Kolkata Port, Haldia Port, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Kakinada, Pondicherry, Dhamra, Gopalpur and Bangladeshi ports on the Bay are Chittagong, Mongla, Payra Port.

Islands

The islands in the bay are numerous, including the Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands and Mergui Archipelago of India and Myanmar. The Cheduba group of islands, in the north-east, off the Burmese coast, are remarkable for a chain of mud volcanoes, which are occasionally active.[8]

Great Andaman is the main archipelago or island group of the Andaman Islands, whereas Ritchie's Archipelago consists of smaller islands. Only 37, or 6.5%, of the 572 islands and islets of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are inhabited.[9]

Beaches

Sundarbans 09
The Sunderbans bordering the Bay of Bengal is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world.[10]
Cox's Bazar boats
Cox's Bazar, the longest stretch of beach in the world.[11]
Sea Beach Location
Cox's Bazar  Bangladesh
Kuakata  Bangladesh
St. Martin's Island  Bangladesh
Sonadia  Bangladesh
Nijhum Dwip  Bangladesh
Inani Beach  Bangladesh
Teknaf  Bangladesh
Marina Beach, Chennai  India
Bakkhali Beach, West Bengal  India
Digha Beach, West Bengal  India
Mandarmoni Beach, West Bengal  India
Tajpur Beach, West Bengal  India
Shankarpur Beach, West Bengal  India
Pir Jahania, Odisha  India
Chandaneswar, Odisha  India
Chandipur, Odisha  India
Konarak, Odisha  India
Puri, Odisha  India
Gopalpur, Odisha  India
Baruva, Andhra Pradesh  India
Bheemili, Andhra Pradesh  India
RK Beach, Visakhapatnam  India
Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam  India
Yarada, Visakhapatnam  India
Manginapudi Beach, Andhra Pradesh  India
Serenity Beach, Pondicherry  India
Ngapali  Myanmar
Ngwesaung  Myanmar
Chaungtha, Pathein  Myanmar
Sittwe  Myanmar
Galle Face  Sri Lanka

Oceanography

Plate tectonics

The lithosphere of the earth is broken up into what are called tectonic plates. Underneath the Bay of Bengal, which is part of the great Indo-Australian Plate and is slowly moving north east. This plate meets the Burma Microplate at the Sunda Trench. The Nicobar Islands and the Andaman Islands are part of the Burma Microplate. The India Plate subducts beneath the Burma Plate at the Sunda Trench or Java Trench. Here, the pressure of the two plates on each other increase pressure and temperature resulting in the formation of volcanoes such as the volcanoes in Myanmar, and a volcanic arc called the Sunda Arc. The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and Asian tsunami was a result of the pressure at this zone causing a submarine earthquake which then resulted in a destructive tsunami.[12]

Marine geology

Bay of Bengal and Beach from Tenneti park
Bay of Bengal near Tenneti Park, Visakhapatnam

A zone 50 m wide extending from the island of Ceylon and the Coromandel coast to the head of the bay, and thence southwards through a strip embracing the Andaman and Nicobar islands, is bounded by the 100 fathom line of sea bottom; some 50 m. beyond this lies the 500-fathom limit. Opposite the mouth of the Ganges, however, the intervals between these depths are very much extended by deltaic influence.[8]

Swatch of No Ground is a 14 km-wide deep sea canyon of the Bay of Bengal. The deepest recorded area of this valley is about 1340 m.[13] The submarine canyon is part of the Bengal Fan, the largest submarine fan in the world.[14][15]

Marine biology, flora and fauna

Spinnarc
A spinner dolphin in Bay of Bengal

The Bay of Bengal is full of biological diversity, diverging amongst coral reefs, estuaries, fish spawning and nursery areas, and mangroves. The Bay of Bengal is one of the World's 64 largest marine ecosystems.

Kerilia jerdonii is a sea snake of the Bay of Bengal. Glory of Bengal cone (Conus bengalensis) is just one of the seashells which can be photographed along beaches of the Bay of Bengal.[16] An endangered species, the olive ridley sea turtle can survive because of the nesting grounds made available at the Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary, Gahirmatha Beach, Odisha, India. Marlin, barracuda, skipjack tuna, (Katsuwonus pelamis), yellowfin tuna, Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis), and Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni) are a few of the marine animals. Bay of Bengal hogfish (Bodianus neilli) is a type of wrass which live in turbid lagoon reefs or shallow coastal reefs. Schools of dolphins can be seen, whether they are the bottle nose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) or the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Tuna and dolphins usually reside in the same waters. In shallower and warmer coastal waters the Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) can be found.[17][18]

The Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve provides sanctuary to many animals some of which include the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), giant leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), and Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis kamaroma) to name a few.

Another endangered species royal Bengal tiger is supported by Sundarbans a large estuarine delta that holds a mangrove area in the Ganges River Delta.[19][20]

Chemical oceanography

Coastal regions bordering the Bay of Bengal are rich in minerals. Sri Lanka, Serendib, or Ratna – Dweepa which means Gem Island. Amethyst, beryl, ruby, sapphire, topaz, and garnet are just some of the gems of Sri Lanka. Garnet and other precious gems are also found in abundance in the Indian states of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.[21]

Physical oceanography – climate

From January to October, the current is northward flowing, and the clockwise circulation pattern is called the "East Indian Current". The Bay of Bengal monsoon moves in a northwest direction striking the Nicobar Islands, and the Andaman Islands first end of May, then coast of Mainland India by end of June.

The remainder of the year, the counterclockwise current is southwestward flowing, and the circulation pattern is called the East Indian Winter Jet. September and December see very active weather, season varsha (or monsoon), in the Bay of Bengal producing severe cyclones which affect eastern India. Several efforts have been initiated to cope with storm surge.[22]

Tropical storms and cyclones

Sidr 14 nov 2007 0445Z
Cyclone Sidr at its peak near Bangladesh

A tropical storm with rotating winds blowing at speeds of 74 miles (119 kilometres) per hour is called a cyclone when they originate over the Bay of Bengal, and called a hurricane in the Atlantic.[23] Between 100,000 and 500,000 residents of Bangladesh were killed because of the 1970 Bhola cyclone.

Historic sites

Shore Temple on Bay of Bengal
The Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the shore of the Bay of Bengal
  • The ancient Buddhist heritage sites of Pavurallakonda, Thotlakonda and Bavikonda lie along the coast of Bay of Bengal at Visakhapatnam in India.
  • The remains of the Sri Vaisakheswara Swamy temple lie under the Bay of Bengal. Spokespeople from Andhra University Centre for Marine Archaeology say the temple may be opposite the Coastal Battery.[25]
  • The Jagannath Temple at Puri is the one of the four sacred places in Hindu pilgrimage along with Puri beach on the banks of Bay of Bengal. Mahodadhi was named after Lord Jagannath.
  • Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram is the name for Mahabalipuram. Mahabalipuram's Shore Temple, a World Heritage Site was constructed in the 8th century AD and myth has it that six other temples were built here.
  • One site that has been preserved is Vivekanandar Illam. It was constructed in 1842 by the American "Ice King" Frederic Tudor to store and market ice year round. In 1897, Swami Vivekananda's famous lectures were recorded here at Castle Kernan. The site is an exhibition devoted to Swami Vivekananda and his legacy.
  • Arikamedu is an archaeological site in Southern India, in Kakkayanthope, Ariyankuppam Commune, Puducherry. It is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the capital, Pondicherry of the Indian territory of Puducherry
  • Konark is the home of the Sun Temple or Black Pagoda. This Brahman sanctuary was built of black granite mid-1200 AD and has been declared a World Heritage Site.
  • Ramanathaswamy Temple is at Dhanushkodi, where the Bay of Bengal and the Gulf of Mannar come together.[26]

Religious importance

The Bay of Bengal in the stretch of Swargadwar, the gateway to heaven in Sanskrit, in the Indian town of Puri is considered holy by Hindus.

Samudra arati
Samudra arati or worship of the sea by disciples of the Govardhan Matha at Puri

The Samudra arati is a daily tradition started by the present Shankaracharya of Puri 9 years ago to honour the sacred sea.[27] The daily practise includes prayer and fire offering to the sea at Swargadwar in Puri by disciples of the Govardhana matha of the Shankaracharya. On Paush Purnima of every year the Shankaracharya himself comes out to offer prayers to the sea.

Economy

One of the first trading ventures along the Bay of Bengal was The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies more commonly referred to as the British East India Company. Gopalpur-on-Sea was one of their main trading centers. Other trading companies along the Bay of Bengal shorelines were the English East India Company and the French East India Company.[28]

BIMSTEC Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) supports free trade internationally around the Bay of Bengal between Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

The Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project is a new venture proposed which would create a channel for a shipping route to link the Gulf of Mannar with the Bay of Bengal. This would connect India from east to west without the necessity of going around Sri Lanka.

Thoni and catamaran fishing boats of fishing villages thrive along the Bay of Bengal shorelines. Fishermen can catch between 26 and 44 species of marine fish.[29] In one year, the average catch is two million tons of fish from the Bay of Bengal alone.[30] Approximately 31% of the world's coastal fishermen live and work on the bay.[31]

Strategic importance

The Bay of Bengal is centrally located in South and Southeast Asia. It lies at the center of two huge economic blocks, the SAARC and ASEAN. It influences China's southern landlocked region in the north and major sea ports of India and Bangladesh. China, India, and Bangladesh have forged naval cooperation agreements with Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia to increase cooperation in checking terrorism in the high seas.[32]

Malabar 07-2 exercise
Image of United States ships participating in the Malabar 2007 naval exercise. Aegis cruisers from the navies of Japan and Australia, and logistical support ships from Singapore and India in the Bay of Bengal took part.

Its outlying islands (the Andaman and Nicobar Islands) and, most importantly, major ports such as Paradip Kolkata, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Tuticorin, Chittagong, and Mongla, along its coast with the Bay of Bengal added to its importance.[33]

China has recently made efforts to project influence into the region through tie-ups with Myanmar and Bangladesh.[34] The United States has held major exercises with Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and recently India.[35][36][37][38] The largest ever wargame in Bay of Bengal, known as Malabar 2007, was held in 2007 and naval warships from US, Bangladesh, Thailand, Singapore, Japan and Australia took part. India was a participant.

Large deposits of natural gas in the areas within Bangladesh's sea zone incited a serious urgency by India and Myanmar into a territorial dispute.[32] Disputes over rights of some oil and gas blocks have caused brief diplomatic spats between Myanmar and India with Bangladesh.

The disputed maritime boundary between Bangladesh and Myanmar resulted in military tensions in 2008 and 2009. Bangladesh is pursuing a settlement with Myanmar and India to the boundary dispute through the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea.[39]

Environmental hazards

Pollution

The Asian brown cloud, a layer of air pollution that covers much of South Asia and the Indian Ocean every year between January and March, and possibly also during earlier and later months, hangs over the Bay of Bengal. It is considered to be a combination of vehicle exhaust, smoke from cooking fires, and industrial discharges.[40]

Transboundary issues affecting the marine ecosystem

A transboundary issue is defined as an environmental problem in which either the cause of the problem and/or its impact is separated by a national boundary; or the problem contributes to a global environmental problem and finding regional solutions is considered to be a global environmental benefit. The eight Bay of Bengal countries have (2012) identified three major transboundary problems (or areas of concern) affecting the health of the Bay, that they can work on together. With the support of the Bay Of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Project (BOBLME), the eight countries are now (2012) developing responses to these issues and their causes, for future implementation as the Strategic Action Programme.

Overexploitation of fisheries

Bay of Bengal 2
Some small fishing boats are catching fish & sell them in local coastal markets

Fisheries production in the Bay of Bengal is six million tonnes per year, more than seven percent of the world's catch. The major transboundary issues relating to shared fisheries are: a decline in the overall availability of fish resources; changes in species composition of catches; the high proportion of juvenile fish in the catch; and changes in marine biodiversity, especially through loss of vulnerable and endangered species. The transboundary nature of these issues are: that many fish stocks are shared between BOBLME countries through the transboundary migration of fish, or larvae. Fishing overlaps national jurisdictions, both legally and illegally – overcapacity and overfishing in one location forces a migration of fishers and vessels to other locations. All countries (to a greater or lesser degree) are experiencing difficulties in implementing fisheries management, especially the ecosystem approach to fisheries. Bay of Bengal countries contribute significantly to the global problem of loss of vulnerable and endangered species.

The main causes of the issues are: open access to fishing grounds; Government emphasis on increasing fish catches; inappropriate government subsidies provided to fishers; increasing fishing effort, especially from trawlers and purse seiners; high consumer demand for fish, including for seed and fishmeal for aquaculture; ineffective fisheries management; and illegal and destructive fishing.

Degradation of critical habitats

The Bay of Bengal is an area of high biodiversity, with many endangered and vulnerable species. The major transboundary issues relating to habitats are: the loss and degradation of mangrove habitats; degradation of coral reefs; and the loss of, and damage to, seagrasses. The transboundary nature of these major issues are: that all three critical habitats occur in all BOBLME countries. Coastal development for several varying uses of the land and sea are common in all BOBLME countries. Trade in products from all the habitats is transboundary in nature. Climate change impacts are shared by all BOBLME countries. The main causes of the issues are: food security needs of the coastal poor; lack of coastal development plans; increasing trade in products from coastal habitats; coastal development and industrialization; ineffective marine protected areas and lack of enforcement; upstream development that affects water-flow; intensive upstream agricultural practices; and increasing tourism.

Pollution and water quality

The major transboundary issues relating to pollution and water quality are: sewage-borne pathogens and organic load; solid waste/marine litter; increasing nutrient inputs; oil pollution; persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and persistent toxic substances (PTSs); sedimentation; and heavy metals. The transboundary nature of these issues are: discharge of untreated/partially treated sewage being a common problem. Sewage and organic discharges from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River are likely to be transboundary. Plastics and derelict fishing gear can be transported long distances across national boundaries. High nutrient discharges from rivers could intensify largescale hypoxia. Atmospheric transport of nutrients is inherently transboundary. Differences between countries with regard to regulation and enforcement of shipping discharges may drive discharges across boundaries. Tar balls are transported long distances. POPs/PTSs and mercury, including organo-mercury, undergo long-range transport. Sedimentation and most heavy metal contamination tend to be localized and lack a strong transboundary dimension. The main causes of the issues are: increasing coastal population density and urbanization; higher consumption, resulting in more waste generated per person; insufficient funds allocated to waste management; migration of industry into BOBLME countries; and proliferation of small industries.

History

Andaman ross is
Ross Island, in the Andamans, was one of the main naval bases of British India during World War II

Northern Circars occupied the western coast of the Bay of Bengal and is now considered to be India's Madras state. Chola dynasty (9th century to 12th century) when ruled by Rajaraja Chola I occupied the western coastline of the Bay of Bengal circa AD 1014, The Bay of Bengal was also called the Chola Lake. The Kakatiya dynasty reached the western coastline of the Bay of Bengal between the Godavari and the Krishna rivers. Kushanas about the middle of the 1st century AD invaded northern India perhaps extending as far as the Bay of Bengal. Chandragupta Maurya extended the Maurya Dynasty across northern India to the Bay of Bengal. Hajipur was a stronghold for Portuguese Pirates. In the 16th century the Portuguese built trading posts in the north of the Bay of Bengal at Chittagong (Porto Grande) and Satgaon (Porto Pequeno).[41] Before the arrival of British to India it was also known as "Kalinga Sagar".[42]

British penal colony

Cellular Jail or "Black Waters" built in 1896 on Ross Island, a part of the Andaman Island Chain. As early as 1858 this island was used as a British penal colony for political prisoners facing life imprisonment.[43]

Marine archaeology

Maritime archaeology or marine archaeology is the study of material remains of ancient peoples. A specialized branch, Archaeology of shipwrecks studies the salvaged artifacts of ancient ships. Stone anchors, amphorae shards, elephant tusks, hippopotamus teeth, ceramic pottery, a rare wood mast and lead ingots are examples which may survive the test of time for archaeologists to study and place the salvaged findings into a time line of history. coral reefs, tsunamis, cyclones, mangrove swamps, battles and a criss cross of sea routes in a high trading area combined with pirating have all contributed to shipwrecks in the Bay of Bengal.[44]

Famous ships and shipwrecks

  • 1778 to 1783 The Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War or American War of Independence ranged as far as the Bay of Bengal.
  • c. 1816 Mornington ship burned in the Bay of Bengal.[45]
  • 1850 American clipper brig Eagle is supposed to have sunk in the Bay of Bengal.[46]
  • American Baptist missionary Adoniram Judson, Jr. died 12 April 1850 and was buried at sea in the Bay of Bengal.
  • 1855 The Bark "Incredible" struck on a sunken rock in the Bay of Bengal.[47]
  • 1865, a gale dismasted the Euterpe while traversing the Bay of Bengal typhoon.
  • 1875 Veleda 76 m (250 ft) long and 15 m (50 ft) wide is a part of a current salvage operation.[48]
  • 1942 Japanese cruiser Yura of the Second Expeditionary Fleet, Malay Force, attacked merchant ships in the Bay of Bengal.
  • 1971 December 3 – It was claimed that the Indian Navy destroyer, INS Rajput, sunk the Pakistan Navy submarine PNS Ghazi off Visakhapatnam, in the Bay of Bengal.

References

  1. ^ "Map of Bay of Benglal- World Seas, Bay of Bengal Map Location – World Atlas".
  2. ^ Chowdhury, Sifatul Quader (2012). "Bay of Bengal". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  3. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  4. ^ Kuttan (2009). The Great Philosophers of India. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1434377807.
  5. ^ "Dhanushkodi". indiatourism4u.in. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  6. ^ 1794, Orbis Veteribus Notus by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville
  7. ^ Wasson, Robert (2003). "A sediment budget for the Padma-Meghna-Jamuna catchment" (PDF). Current Science. 84 (8): 1041–1047.
  8. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bengal, Bay of" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  9. ^ The long stretch of sand glistening like silver dust URL accessed 10 January 2015
  10. ^ Siddiqui, Neaz Ahmad (2012). "Sundarbans, The". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  11. ^ "World's longest beach hidden in Bangladesh". The Sydney Morning Herald. 31 January 2007.
  12. ^ Tsunami Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine URL access 21 January 2007
  13. ^ Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal URL accessed 21 January 2007
  14. ^ Curray, Joseph R.; Frans J. Emmel; David G. Moore (December 2002). "The Bengal Fan: morphology, geometry, stratigraphy, history and processes". Marine and Petroleum Geology. Elsevier Science Ltd. 19 (10): 1191–1223. doi:10.1016/S0264-8172(03)00035-7.
  15. ^ France-Lanord, Christian; Volkhard Spiess; Peter Molnar; Joseph R. Curray (March 2000). "Summary on the Bengal Fan: An introduction to a drilling proposal" (PDF). Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
  16. ^ Phillip Colla Natural History Photography URL accessed 21 January 2007
  17. ^ Haider, Mashida R. (5 January 2005). "Naturalist". New Age. Dhaka. Archived from the original on 30 November 2010.
  18. ^ CMS: Stenella attenuata, Pantropical spotted dolphin Archived 3 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine URL accessed 21 January 2007
  19. ^ 17 Bay of Bengal URL accessed 21 January 2007
  20. ^ "Bodianus neilli (Bay of Bengal Hogfish)". Zipcode Zoo. Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2007.
  21. ^ "Promise Rings in white gold, yellow gold, rose gold, unique rings. by A Ring Thing".
  22. ^ Glossary of Physical Oceanography Ba-Bm Archived 18 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine URL accessed 21 January 2007
  23. ^ "Forces of Nature—Natural Disaster Fast Facts". National Geographic. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  24. ^ a b c Tannehill, Ivan Ray (1969) [First published 1945]. Hurricanes: Their Nature and History: Particularly Those of the West Indies and the Southern Coasts of the United States (6th ed.). Princeton University Press. pp. 38–40.
  25. ^ Morien Institute – underwater discoveries news archive, January–June 2006, "Sri Vaisakheswara still lies underwater" URL accessed 22 January 2007
  26. ^ "Ramayana". Ramayana.com. 16 August 2005. Archived from the original on 16 August 2005.
  27. ^ Sahu, Monideepa (6 March 2016). "The great fire". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  28. ^ Nabataea: Trade on the Bay of Bengal URL accessed 21 January 2007
  29. ^ Environmental assessment of coastal water at Bakkhali
  30. ^ "LME 34 Bay of Bengal". NOAA. Archived from the original on 18 April 2003. Retrieved 21 January 2007.
  31. ^ "The Bay of Bengal: New bay dawning". The Economist. 27 April 2013.
  32. ^ a b Berlin, Donald L. (25 January 2005). "The emerging Bay of Bengal". Asia Times Online.
  33. ^ Arpi, Claude (26 December 2006). "1971 War: How the US tried to corner India". Rediff.com.
  34. ^ "The Burma Project -Burma Debate". Archived from the original on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  35. ^ "India's Largest Naval War Game in Bay of Bengal". Global Politician. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012.
  36. ^ Parameswaran, Prashanth (7 May 2015). "US Eyes Expanded Military Exercises with ASEAN Navies". The Diplomat. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  37. ^ Miglani, Sanjeev (22 July 2015). "India, Japan, U.S. plan naval exercises in tightening of ties in Indian Ocean". Reuters. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  38. ^ Gady, Franz-Stefan (13 October 2015). "Confirmed: Japan Will Permanently Join US-India Naval Exercises". The Diplomat. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  39. ^ "The Maritime Boundary Dispute Between Bangladesh and Myanmar: Motivations, Potential Solutions, and Implications".
  40. ^ "EO Natural Hazards: Smog over the Bay of Bengal". NASA Earth Observatory. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2007.
  41. ^ The Portuguese in Bengal. History of Ugolim (Hoogli), Meliapore ... Archived 3 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine URL accessed 21 January 2007
  42. ^ Odisha Government, e-magazine. "Universal Brotherhood and the Temple of Lord Jagannath at Paradip" (PDF). Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  43. ^ "History of Andaman Cellular Jail: Recapture of Andaman Islands to keep Political Prisoners". AndamanCellularJail.org. Archived from the original on 13 January 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
  44. ^ Marine Archaeology in India URL accessed 22 January 2007
  45. ^ Shipwrecks 1816–1818 URL accessed 10 January 2015
  46. ^ The Maritime Heritage Project: Gold Rush Ships, Passengers, Captains URL accessed 23 January 2007
  47. ^ Shipping Notes from the 1800s – P.E.I. URL accessed 23 January 2007
  48. ^ Diving-News.com » Wrecks URL accessed 23 January 2007

Further reading

External links

The dictionary definition of Bay of Bengal at Wiktionary Media related to Bay of Bengal at Wikimedia Commons

Andaman Sea

The Andaman Sea (historically also known as the Burma Sea) is a marginal sea of the eastern Indian Ocean separated from the Bay of Bengal (to its west) by the Andaman Islands of India and Myanmar and the Nicobar Islands of India and touching Myanmar, Thailand, and the Malay Peninsula. Its southernmost end is defined by Breueh Island, an island just north of Sumatra.

Traditionally, the sea has been used for fishery and transportation of goods between the coastal countries and its coral reefs and islands are popular tourist destinations. The fishery and tourist infrastructure was severely damaged by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India comprising 572 islands of which 37 are inhabited, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.The territory is about 150 km (93 mi) north of Aceh in Indonesia and separated from Thailand and Myanmar by the Andaman Sea. It comprises two island groups, the Andaman Islands (partly) and the Nicobar Islands, separated by the 150 km wide Ten Degree Channel (on the 10°N parallel), with the Andamans to the north of this latitude, and the Nicobars to the south (or by 179 km). The Andaman Sea lies to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the west.

The territory's capital is the city of Port Blair. The total land area of these islands is approximately 8,249 km2 (3,185 sq mi). The capital of the Nicobar Islands is Car Nicobar. The islands host the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the only tri-service geographical command of the Indian Armed Forces.

The Andaman Islands are home to the Sentinelese people, an uncontacted people. The Sentinelese are the only people currently known to not have reached further than a Paleolithic level of technology.In December 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who was on a two-day visit to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, renamed three of the islands as a tribute to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. The Ross Island was renamed as Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Dweep; the Neil Island as Shaheed Dweep; and the Havelock Island as Swaraj Dweep. The PM made this announcement during a speech at the Netaji Stadium, marking the 75th anniversary of the hoisting of the Indian flag by Bose there.

Bay

A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is usually called a gulf, sea, sound, or bight. A cove is a type of smaller bay with a circular inlet and narrow entrance. A fjord is a particularly steep bay shaped by glacial activity.

A bay can be the estuary of a river, such as the Chesapeake Bay, an estuary of the Susquehanna River. Bays may also be nested within each other; for example, James Bay is an arm of Hudson Bay in northeastern Canada. Some large bays, such as the Bay of Bengal and Hudson Bay, have varied marine geology.

The land surrounding a bay often reduces the strength of winds and blocks waves. Bays were significant in the history of human settlement because they provided safe places for fishing. Later they were important in the development of sea trade as the safe anchorage they provide encouraged their selection as ports.

Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation

The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is an international organisation of seven nations of South Asia and South East Asia, housing 1.5 billion people and having a combined gross domestic product of $3.5 trillion (2018). The BIMSTEC member states—Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand , Nepal and Bhutan —are among the countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal.

Fourteen priority sectors of cooperation have been identified and several BIMSTEC centres have been established to focus on those sectors. A BIMSTEC free trade agreement is under negotiation (c. 2018).

Leadership is rotated in alphabetical order of country names. The permanent secretariat is in Dhaka.

Brahmani River

The Brahmani is a major seasonal river in the Odisha state of Eastern India. The Brahmani is formed by the confluence of the Sankh and South Koel rivers, and flows through the districts of Sundargarh, Deogarh, Angul, Dhenkanal, Cuttack, Jajapur and Kendrapara. Together with the riversBaitarani, it forms a large delta before emptying into the Bay of Bengal at Dhamra.

Ganges Delta

The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (also known as the Brahmaputra Delta, the Sundarbans Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the world's largest delta and empties into the Bay of Bengal the combined waters of several river systems, mainly those of the Brahmaputra river and the Ganges river. It is also one of the most fertile regions in the world, thus earning the nickname the Green Delta. The delta stretches from the Hooghly River east as far as the Meghna River.

Kangsabati River

For river in Africa see Kasai RiverKangsabati River (Pron:/ˌkæŋsəˈbɑːtɪ/) (also variously known as the Kasai and Cossye) rises from the Chota Nagpur plateau in the state of West Bengal, India and passes through the districts of Purulia, Bankura and Paschim Medinipur in West Bengal before draining in the Bay of Bengal.

Kaveri

Kaveri (also known as Cauvery, the anglicized name and Ponni), is an Indian river flowing through the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. It is the fourth largest after Godavari and Mahanadi River in south India and the largest in Tamil Nadu which on its course, bisects the state into North and South. Originating in the foothills of Western Ghats at Talakaveri, Kodagu in Karnataka it flows generally south and east through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and across the southern Deccan plateau through the southeastern lowlands, emptying into the Bay of Bengal through two principal mouths in Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu. Amongst the river valleys, the Kaveri delta forms one of the most fertile regions in the country.

The Kaveri basin is estimated to be 81,155 square kilometres (31,334 sq mi) with many tributaries including Harangi, Hemavati, Kabini, Bhavani, Arkavathy, Lakshmana Tirtha, Noyyal and Arkavati. The river's basin covers three states and a Union Territory as follows: Tamil Nadu, 43,856 square kilometres (16,933 sq mi); Karnataka, 34,273 square kilometres (13,233 sq mi); Kerala, 2,866 square kilometres (1,107 sq mi), and Puducherry, 160 square kilometres (62 sq mi). Rising in southwestern Karnataka, it flows southeast some 800 kilometres (500 mi) to enter the Bay of Bengal. In Mandya district it forms the island of Shivanasamudra, on either side of which are the scenic Shivanasamudra Falls that descend about 100 metres (330 ft). The river is the source for an extensive irrigation system and for hydroelectric power. The river has supported irrigated agriculture for centuries and served as the lifeblood of the ancient kingdoms and modern cities of South India. Access to the river's waters has pitted Indian states against each other for decades.

Khulna District

Khulna District (Bengali: খুলনা জেলা, Khulna Jela also Khulna Zila) is a district of Bangladesh. It is located in the Khulna Division. It is bordered on the north by the Jessore District and the Narail District, on the south by the Bay of Bengal, on the east by the Bagerhat District, and on the west by the Satkhira District.

Kirtankhola

Kirtankhola (Bengali: কীর্তনখোলা) is a river that starts from Sayeshtabad in Barisal district and ends into the Gajalia near Gabkhan khal (canal). The total length of the river is about 160 kilometres (99 mi).In ancient times, the Ganges used to flow in three courses in Bengal, namely the Nalini, the Haldini and the Pabni. The Pabni, meeting with the ancient Padma River joint flow of which termed as the Sugandha, flowed through Madaripur south of Faridpur, again renaming as the Andar Khan or the Arial Khan. The Arial Khan branched out in several courses in Madaripur and flowed through Barisal. Flowing forward and receiving various names, the Arial Khan fell into the Bay of Bengal as the Haringhata.

In south of Madaripur, the Andar khal or the Arial Khan was named as the Sugandha and was the greatest river of Bakla Chandradwip or the South Bengal. In course of time, the deltaic branches of the Sugandha were silted up and gradually disappeared creating various islands or chars in many parts of the greater Barisal district. With the passage of time, the name Sugandha was lost and the name Arial Khan became more prominent. One of the offshoots of this Arial Khan flows eastward near Shayeshtabad and falls into the Bay of Bengal after meeting with the meghna at Sahbazpur in bhola. Another offshoot of Arial Khan flows south-southwest as the Kirtankhola up to Nalchity keeping the Barisal town on its west bank. The further course of the river falls into the Bay of Bengal receiving various names at various places and finally as the Haringhata.

Konaseema

Konaseema is the Delta region of the Godavari river in East Godavari District of Coastal Andhra Pradesh, India. Regarded as East Kerala due to its similarities to the Kerala backwaters. It is often termed as "God's Own Creation". It is surrounded by tributaries of the Godavari River and the Bay of Bengal.

After crossing Rajahmundry, the Godavari splits into two branches which are called Vriddha Gautami (Gautami Godavari) and Vasishta Godavari. The Gautami further splits into two branches, namely Gautami and Nilarevu. Similarly the Vasishta splits into two branches named Vasishta and Vainateya. These four branches, which join the Bay of Bengal at different places, form a delta of length 170 km (110 mi) along the coast of the Bay of Bengal and is called the Konaseema region.

Amalapuram is the major town in Konaseema, other towns are Razole, Ravulapalem, Kothapeta and Mummidivaram,. This region is mostly known for its coconut trees and paddy fields.Konaseema coconuts are exported to various places of India and the price of coconuts is less as the production is more.

Entrance of Konaseema region has been beautifully decorated, it symbolizes tourists that they are entering green land called Konaseema

The below arch is located in Ravulapalem to Amalapuram route

Meghna River

The Meghna River (Bengali: মেঘনা নদী) is one of the most important rivers in Bangladesh, one of the three that forms the Ganges Delta, the largest delta on earth, which fans out to the Bay of Bengal. A part of the Surma-Meghna River System, Meghna is formed inside Bangladesh in Kishoreganj District above the town of Bhairab Bazar by the joining of the Surma and the Kushiyara, both of which originate in the hilly regions of eastern India as the Barak River. The Meghna meets its major tributary, the Padma, in Chandpur District. Other major tributaries of the Meghna include the Dhaleshwari, the Gumti, and the Feni. The Meghna empties into the Bay of Bengal in Bhola District via four principal mouths, named Tetulia (Ilsha), Shahbazpur, Hatia, and Bamni.

The Meghna is the widest river among those that flow completely inside the boundaries of Bangladesh. At a point near Bhola, Meghna is 12 km wide. In its lower reaches this river's path is almost perfectly straight.

Nicobar Islands

The Nicobar Islands are an archipelagic island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean. They are located in Southeast Asia, 150 km north of Aceh on Sumatra, and separated from Thailand to the east by the Andaman Sea. Located 1,300 km southeast of the Indian subcontinent, across the Bay of Bengal, they form part of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

UNESCO has declared the Great Nicobar Island as one of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.

North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone

In the Indian Ocean north of the equator, tropical cyclones can form throughout the year on either side of India. On the east side is the Bay of Bengal, and on the west side is the Arabian Sea.

Padma River

The Padma (Bengali: পদ্মা Pôdda) is a major river in Bangladesh and India (downstream of Giria). It is the main distributary of the Ganges, flowing generally southeast for 120 kilometres (75 mi) to its confluence with the Meghna River near the Bay of Bengal. The city of Rajshahi is situated on the banks of the river. However, over 256 square miles of land, as large as Chicago, has been lost due to erosion of Padma since 1966.

Pre-1975 North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons

The years before 1975 featured the pre-1975 North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons. Each season was an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian tropical cyclone season has no bounds, but they tend to form between April and December, peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. Below are the most significant cyclones in the time period. Because much of the North Indian coastline is near sea level and prone to flooding, these cyclones can easily kill many with storm surge and flooding. These cyclones are among the deadliest on earth in terms of numbers killed.

Sagar Island

Sagar Island is an island in the Ganges delta, lying on the Continental Shelf of Bay of Bengal about 100 km (54 nautical miles) south of Kolkata. This island forms the Sagar CD Block in Kakdwip subdivision of South 24 Parganas district in the Indian State of West Bengal. Although Sagar Island is a part of Sundarbans, it does not have any tiger habitation or mangrove forests or small river tributaries as is characteristic of the overall Sundarban delta. This island, also known as Gangasagar or Sagardwip, is a place of Hindu pilgrimage. Every year on the day of Makar Sankranti (14 January), hundreds of thousands of Hindus gather to take a holy dip at the confluence of river Ganges and Bay of Bengal and offer prayers (puja) in the Kapil Muni Temple. Kolkata Port Trust has a pilot station and a light house.

Sriharikota

Sriharikota is a barrier island off the Bay of Bengal coast located in the Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, India. It houses the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, one of the two satellite launch centres in India (the other being the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station in Thiruvananthapuram). Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) launches satellites using multistage rockets such as the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle from Sriharikota.

Surma River

The Surma River (Bengali: সুরমা নদী, romanized: Surma Nadi, Shurma Nodi) is a major river in Bangladesh, part of the Surma-Meghna River System. It starts when the Barak River from northeast India divides at the Bangladesh border into the Surma and the Kushiyara rivers. It ends in Kishoreganj District, above Bhairab Bāzār, where the two rivers rejoin to form the Meghna River. The waters from the river ultimately flow into the Bay of Bengal.

The average depth of river is 282 feet (86 m) and maximum depth is 550 feet (170 m).

Arctic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
Indian Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Southern Ocean
Endorheic basins
Hydrography of the Indian subcontinent
Inland rivers
Inland lakes, deltas, etc.
Coastal
Categories
Climate
Geology
Extreme points
Landforms
Bordering entities
Subdivisions
Settlements
Environment

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.