Bay mud

Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles. Example locations are Cape Cod Bay, Chongming Dongtan Reserve in Shanghai, China, Banc d'Arguinpreserve in Mauritania, The Bristol Channel in the United Kingdom, Mandø Island in the Wadden Sea in Denmark, Florida Bay, San Francisco Bay, Bay of Fundy, Casco Bay, Penobscot Bay, and Morro Bay. Bay mud manifests low shear strength, high compressibility and low permeability, making it hazardous to build upon in seismically active regions like the San Francisco Bay Area.

Typical bulk density of bay mud is approximately 1.3 grams per cubic centimetre. Bay muds often have a high organic content, consisting of decayed organisms at lower depths, but may also contain living creatures when they occur at the upper soil layer and become exposed by low tides; then, they are called mudflats, an important ecological zone for shorebirds and many types of marine organisms. Great attention was not given to the incidence of deeper bay muds until the 1960s and 1970s when development encroachment on certain North American bays intensified, requiring geotechnical design of foundations.[1]

Bay mud has its own official geological abbreviation.[2] The designation for Quaternary older bay mud is Qobm and the acronym for Quaternary younger bay mud is Qybm. An alluvial layer is often found overlying the older bay mud.

In relation to shipping channels, it is often necessary to dredge bay bottoms and barge the excavated material to an alternate location. In this case chemical analyses are usually performed on the bay mud to determine whether there are elevated levels of heavy metals, PCBs or other toxic substances known to accumulate in a benthic environment. It is not uncommon to dredge the same channel repeatedly (over a span of ten to thirty years) since further settling sediments are prone to redeposit on an open estuarine valley floor.

Pickleweedecreekerazorback
Richardson Bay mudflats show exposed layers of bay mud

Depositional scenarios

Diatoms through the microscope
Decomposed diatoms are one component of bay mud

Bay muds originate from two generalized sources. First alluvial deposits of clays, silts and sand occur from streams tributary to a given bay. The extent of these unconsolidated interglacial deposits typically ranges throughout a given bay to the extent of the historical perimeter marshlands. Second, in periods of high glaciation, deposits of silts, sands and organic plus inorganic detritus (e.g. decomposition of estuarine diatoms) may form a separate distinct layer. Thus bay muds are important time records of glacial activity and streamflow throughout the Quaternary period.

Some depositional formation is quite recent, such as in the case of Florida Bay, where much of the bay mud has accumulated since 2000 BC, and consists of primarily decayed organic material.[3] In the case of Florida Bay these bay muds can accrete as much as 0.5 to 2.0 centimeters per annum, although the dynamic equilibrium of erosion, wave action redistribution and deposition complicate the net rate of layer growth. In the case of the Bristol Channel in the United Kingdom bay, mud formation has been occurring at least since the Eemian Stage (known as the Sangamonian Stage in North America), or about 130,000 years ago.[4] In other cases such as with San Francisco Bay, deposition has been interrupted by sea-level changes, and strata of vastly different vintages are found. In the San Francisco Bay Area, these are called Young bay mud and Older bay mud by geologists. Human activities can also affect deposition; close to half of the Young Bay Mud in San Francisco Bay was placed in the period 1855–1865, as a result of placer mining in the Sierra Nevada foothills.

Geotechnical factors

Dakinbldg
Dakin Building, a national headquarters use, built on driven piles over bay mud

Construction on bay mud sites is difficult because of the soil's low strength and high compressibility. Very lightweight buildings can be constructed on bay mud sites if there is a thick enough layer of non-bay-mud soil above the bay mud, but buildings which impose significant loads must be supported on deep foundations bearing on stiffer layers below the bay mud, or obtaining support from friction in the bay mud. Even with deep foundations, difficulties arise because the surrounding ground will likely settle over time, potentially damaging utility connections to the building and causing the entryway to sink below street level.

A number of notable buildings have been constructed over bay muds, typically employing special mitigation designs to withstand seismic risks and settlement issues. Complicating design issues, fill (beginning about 1850 AD) is sometimes found deposited on the surface level. For example, the Dakin Building in Brisbane, California was designed in 1985[5] to sit on piles 150 feet deep, anchoring to the Franciscan formation, below the bay muds and through an upper fill layer. Furthermore, the structure’s entrance ramp has been set on a giant hinge to allow the surrounding land to settle, while the building absolute height remains constant. The Crowne Plaza high-rise hotel in Burlingame, California[6] was also designed to sit over bay muds, as was the Westin Hotel in Millbrae, California and Trinity Church in Boston's Copley Square. Indeed, Boston's entire Back Bay district is named for the tidal bay that it now covers. Logan International Airport and the San Francisco International Airport are also constructed over bay mud.

Mudflats

When the mud layer is exposed at the tidal fringe, mudflats result affording a unique ecotone that affords numerous shorebird species a safe feeding and resting habitat. Because the muds function much like quicksand, heavier mammalian predators not only cannot gain traction for pursuit, but would actually become trapped in the sinking muds. The muds are also an important substrate for primary marsh productivity including eelgrass, cordgrass and pickleweed. Furthermore, they are home to a large variety of molluscs and estuarine arthropods. Richardson Bay, for example, exposes one third of its areal extent as mudflat at low tide, which hosts a productive eelgrass expanse and also a large shorebird community.

Mammals such as the Harbor seal may use mudflats to haul out of estuary waters; however, larger mammals such as humpback whales may become accidentally stranded at low tides. Note that normally humpback whales do not frequent estuaries containing mudflats, but at least one errant whale, publicized by the media as Humphrey the humpback whale, became stuck on a mudflat in San Francisco Bay at Sierra Point in Brisbane, California.

Worldwide occurrences

Bay muds occur in bays and estuaries throughout the temperate regions of the world. In North America, prominent instances are: (a) the Stellwagen Bank formed 16,000 to 9000 BC by glaciation of Cape Cod Bay in Massachusetts, (b) Florida Bay,(c) in California Morro Bay and San Francisco Bay and (d) Knik & Turnagain Arms in Anchorage, Alaska. In the United Kingdom large bay mud occurrences are found at Morecambe Bay, Bridgwater Bay and Bristol Bay. Straddling Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany is the Wadden Sea, a major formation underlain by bay muds.

In Asia the Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve in Shanghai, China is an example of a large scale bay mud formation. The Atlantic coast of Africa holds the Banc d'Arguin, a World Heritage nature preserve in the country of Mauritania. Banc d'Arguin is a vast area underlain by bay mud.

Regulatory issues and Actions

When building on top of bay mud layers or when dredging estuary bottoms, a variety of regulatory frameworks may arise. Normally in the United States, an Environmental Impact Report as well as a geotechnical investigation are conducted precedent to any major construction over bay mud. Combined, these reports have developed much of the data base extant on bay mud characteristics, frequently yielding original field data from soil borings. These data have demonstrated that in many locations the shallower bay muds contain concentrations of mercury, lead, chromium, petroleum hydrocarbons, PCBs, pesticides and other chemicals which exceed toxic limits: a geological record of human activities of the last century. These data are particularly important to consider when dredging of bay muds is contemplated as part of a development project. Such dredging can have impacts to receiving lands as soil contamination, but also water column impacts from sediment disturbance.

In the case of dredging within the United States, a permit is almost always required from the United States Army Corps of Engineers, after submission of extensive data on the project limits, chemical properties of the bay muds to be disturbed, a dredge disposal plan and often a complete Environmental Impact Statement pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. Further review by the United States Coast Guard would normally be required. Within individual state jurisdictions, such as California, an Environmental Impact Report must be filed for dredging of any significance; furthermore, agency reviews by the California Coastal Commission and the Regional Water Quality Control Board would normally be mandated. All of these regulatory bodies serve an important role in deciding whether an area may be dredged or not. However, the most important body is CEQA, or the California Environmental Quality Act. This guiding legislation is the reason for Environmental Impact Reports, costly mitigation measures and arduous review processes. One of CEQA's main goals is to promote interagency cooperation in the review process of a project. This is one of the main reasons why it is the overseer of all projects in California.[7]

For buildings proposed over bay mud layers, typically the municipality involved will, in addition to the usual engineering and design review issues common to all building projects (which are more complicated because of the site conditions), require an Environmental Impact Report [1]. This process would include reviews by that city’s building department, as well as applicable regional and state agencies such as those cited above for dredging projects, except that Coast Guard agencies would not typically be concerned. In developing in California, proposed development over bay mud layers would also have to go through a planning commission and a city council in order to be allowed. This process would respect the EIR, CEQA, and all the other bodies discussed above.[8] In the case of San Francisco the project would have to get approved by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors.[9]

In regards to San Francisco, some interesting negative externalities are being experienced due to the dredging of land by the Bay. The Millennium Towers, which were completed in 2008, are currently sinking. This has had a negative impact on the residents of this building. In response to this subsidence, San Francisco's city attorney has decided to file a lawsuit against the developer, because the developer failed to inform the residents of the accelerated speed that the building was sinking at.[10] If this lawsuit results in success for San Francisco this could lead to policy changes being made in the future surrounding transparency between developers and potential buyers of the developed land.

Sea Level Rise

Sea level rise in California will also have a huge impact on the ecosystems surrounding and within bays all across the globe. This phenomenon will completely engulf bay mud that makes up Bay Flats. In order to deal with sea level rise the California Coastal Commission has adopted policy guidelines to help California. Attached is a link to this policy document [11]

See also

References

  1. ^ Farzad Naeim, The Seismic Design Handbook, Kluwer Academic Publishers, (2003) ISBN 0-7923-7301-4
  2. ^ Floyd Fusselman, Environmental Concerns: Learn the Acronyms, Trafford Publishing, Victoria, B.C. (2002) ISBN 1-55369-461-9
  3. ^ R.B. Halley, E.J. Prager, R.P. Stumpf, K.K. Yates, and C.H. Holmes, Sea-Level Rise and the Future of Florida Bay in the Next Century, U.S.Geological Survey, (2001)
  4. ^ R.Kirby and W.R.Parker, Settled mud deposits in Bridgewater Bay Bristol Channel, Report no. 107, Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Surrey, UK (1980)
  5. ^ Judges praise innovative ideas, San Francisco Examiner, Page F-6, January 12, 1992
  6. ^ C.M.Hogan, Kay Wilson, Ballard George, Marc Papineau et al., Environmental Impact Report for the Crowne Plaza Hotel, prepared by Earth Metrics Inc and. published by the city of Burlingame, California, circulated by the State of California Clearinghouse, (1985)
  7. ^ Fulton, William (2012). Guide to California Planning 4th edition. Point Arena, California: Solano Press Books. ISBN 978-1-938-166-02-0.
  8. ^ Wheeler, Stephen (2013). Planning for Sustainability 2nd edition. New York, NY: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. ISBN 978-0-415-80988-7.
  9. ^ "About the Board". Board of Supervisors. City and County of San Francisco. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  10. ^ Fuller, Thomas (3 November 2016). "San Francisco Files Lawsuit Against Sinking Millennium Tower". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  11. ^ "Sea Level Rise Adopted Policy Guidance". California Coastal Commission. 12 August 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2016.

External links

Alluvium

Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediment that has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles of silt and clay and larger particles of sand and gravel. When this loose alluvial material is deposited or cemented into a lithological unit, or lithified, it is called an alluvial deposit.

Baynes Sound

Baynes Sound is the channel between Denman Island and Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. The sound is a narrow western offshoot of the Strait of Georgia that separates Vancouver Island from the mainland of British Columbia. The area is actively harvested by the local oyster industry, as is apparent by an abundance of oyster farms. It produces 39% of the oysters and 55% of the manila clams farmed in British Columbia. The sound is 40 km (25 mi) long and is 3.5 km (2.2 mi) wide at its widest point, although the average width is less than 2 km (1.2 mi). The southern boundary lies around Chrome Island, a small island off Boyle Point, the southern tip of Denman. The northern boundary is less defined, but lies between Tree Island at the northern end of Denman and the Comox harbour. The sound is dotted with the small communities of(north to south) Royston, Union Bay, Buckley Bay, Mud Bay, Fanny Bay, and Deep Bay on Vancouver Island. The crossing is served by the British Columbia Ferry Services Inc. ship MV Baynes Sound Connector, between Buckley Bay and Denman Island. Baynes Sound is named after British Rear Admiral Robert L. Baynes, who commanded the Pacific Squadron from 1857 to 1860.

Baynes Sound is the home of Vancouver Island University Center for Shellfish Research's Deep Bay Marine Field Station.

Baynes Sound is the safest route by boats into Comox Harbour, avoiding the shallow Comox Bar between Denman Island and the Comox Peninsula.

Benthic zone

The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean, lake, or stream, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. Organisms living in this zone are called benthos and include microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and fungi) as well as larger invertebrates, such as crustaceans and polychaetes. Organisms here generally live in close relationship with the substrate and many are permanently attached to the bottom. The benthic boundary layer, which includes the bottom layer of water and the uppermost layer of sediment directly influenced by the overlying water, is an integral part of the benthic zone, as it greatly influences the biological activity that takes place there. Examples of contact soil layers include sand bottoms, rocky outcrops, coral, and bay mud.

Benthos

Benthos is the community of organisms that live on, in, or near the seabed, also known as the benthic zone. This community lives in or near marine sedimentary environments, from tidal pools along the foreshore, out to the continental shelf, and then down to the abyssal depths.

Many organisms adapted to deep-water pressure cannot survive in the upper parts of the water column. The pressure difference can be very significant (approximately one atmosphere for each 10 metres of water depth).Because light is absorbed before it can reach deep ocean-water, the energy source for deep benthic ecosystems is often organic matter from higher up in the water column that drifts down to the depths. This dead and decaying matter sustains the benthic food chain; most organisms in the benthic zone are scavengers or detritivores.

The term benthos, coined by Haeckel in 1891, comes from the Greek noun βένθος "depth of the sea". Benthos is also used in freshwater biology to refer to organisms at the bottom of freshwater bodies of water, such as lakes, rivers, and streams. There is also a redundant synonym, benthon.

Camp Pardee, California

Camp Pardee is an unincorporated East Bay MUD company town for the operators of Pardee Dam. It is located in Calaveras County, California, near Pardee Reservoir. It lies at an elevation of 696 feet (212 m) and is home to 35 people.

Castro Cove

Castro Cove is an embayment of the San Pablo Bay in Richmond, California between Point San Pablo and the confluence of Wildcat Creek into Castro Creek.

Channel (geography)

In physical geography, a channel is a type of landform consisting of the outline of a path of relatively shallow and narrow body of fluid, most commonly the confine of a river, river delta or strait. The word is cognate to canal, and sometimes shows in this form, e.g. the Hood Canal.

East Bay Municipal Utility District

East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD), colloquially referred to as "East Bay Mud", is a public utility district which provides water and sewage treatment services for an area of approximately 331 square miles (860 km2) in the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay. As of 2018, EBMUD provides drinking water for approximately 1.4 million people in portions of Alameda County and Contra Costa County in California, including the cities of Richmond, El Cerrito, Hercules, San Pablo, Pinole, Lafayette, Moraga, Orinda, Danville, Oakland, Piedmont, Emeryville, Berkeley, Albany, Alameda, San Leandro, neighboring unincorporated regions, and portions of cities such as Hayward and San Ramon. Sewage treatment services are provided for 685,000 people in an 88-square-mile area (as of 2018). EBMUD currently has an average annual growth rate of 0.8% and is projected to serve 1.6 million people by 2030. Headquartered in Oakland, EBMUD owns and maintains 2 water storage reservoirs on the Mokelumne River, 5 terminal reservoirs, 91 miles (146 km) of water transmission aqueducts, 4,100 miles (6,600 km) of water mains, 6 water treatment plants (WTPs), 29 miles (47 km) of wastewater interceptor sewer lines and a regional wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) rated at a maximum treatment capacity of 320 MGD.

High-rise building

A high-rise building is a tall building, as opposed to a low-rise building and is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions. It is used as a residential, office building, or other functions including hotel, retail, or with multiple purposes combined. Residential high-rise buildings are also known as tower blocks and may be referred to as "MDUs", standing for "multi-dwelling unit". A very tall high-rise building is referred to as a skyscraper.

High-rise buildings became possible with the invention of the elevator (lift) and less expensive, more abundant building materials.

The materials used for the structural system of high-rise buildings are reinforced concrete and steel. Most North American style skyscrapers have a steel frame, while residential blocks are usually constructed of concrete. There is no clear difference between a tower block and a skyscraper, although a building with fifty or more stories is generally considered a skyscraper.High-rise structures pose particular design challenges for structural and geotechnical engineers, particularly if situated in a seismically active region or if the underlying soils have geotechnical risk factors such as high compressibility or bay mud. They also pose serious challenges to firefighters during emergencies in high-rise structures. New and old building design, building systems like the building standpipe system, HVAC systems (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), fire sprinkler system and other things like stairwell and elevator evacuations pose significant problems. Studies are often required to ensure that pedestrian wind comfort and wind danger concerns are addressed. In order to allow less wind exposure, to transmit more daylight to the ground and to appear more slender, many high-rises have a design with setbacks.

Apartment buildings have technical and economic advantages in areas of high population density, and have become a distinctive feature of housing accommodation in virtually all densely populated urban areas around the world. In contrast with low-rise and single-family houses, apartment blocks accommodate more inhabitants per unit of area of land and decrease the cost of municipal infrastructure.

Liberty Bay

Liberty Bay is a narrow inlet extending about 4 miles in a northerly direction from the northwest part of Port Orchard, adjacent to the Kitsap Peninsula in Western Washington.

The southeastern half of Liberty Bay is very narrow. The shores are low and wooded, and the shoreline is sand and gravel. There are mud flats at the head of the bay and in the small bight on the south side of the bay. Mud is the predominant bottom characteristic. Tidal velocities exceed 1 knot at times.

The city of Poulsbo, Washington lies at the north end of the bay.

Variously named Dogfish Bay, Liberty Bay and Poulsbo Bay. According to the Kitsap Peninsula Visitor and Convention Bureau's Web site: "Despite pleas of Poulsbo residents, the Washington State Legislature, in 1893 and 1899, refused to change the official title of Dogfish Bay to Liberty Bay. The present name was adopted through general usage. The original name was a location tie-in to the bayshore plant Harry Drescott operated in the 1860s. It used dogfish oil to grease the logs that made up lumber camp skid roads."

The tanker ship Liberty Bay is the most expensive Jones Act ship as of 2014.

List of Indian Shaker Church buildings in Washington

This is a list of Indian Shaker Church buildings in Washington state. Indian Shaker Church building architecture is unique to the Pacific Northwest, with unadorned, unpainted rectangular wooden structure.The list is derived from Washington Secretary of State archives unless noted.

Malott

Muckleshoot Indian Reservation—(Auburn)

Mud Bay — Mud Bay Indian Shaker Church was the first Shaker Church

Neah Bay

Nespelem

Nisqually State Park

Nooksack

Oakville

Queets

Skokomish; new church house built 1962

Swinomish

Taholah

Tulalip Indian Reservation—(Marysville): Indian Shaker Church (Marysville, Washington)

Wapato

White Swan — Independent Shaker Church of White Swan

Yakama Indian Reservation—Satus

Marinship

Marinship Corporation was a shipbuilding company of the United States during World War II, created to build the shipping required for the war effort. Founded in 1942, the shipyard built 93 cargo ships and oil tankers, before ending operations 1945.

Mudflat

Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers. They are found in sheltered areas such as bays, bayous, lagoons, and estuaries. Mudflats may be viewed geologically as exposed layers of bay mud, resulting from deposition of estuarine silts, clays and marine animal detritus. Most of the sediment within a mudflat is within the intertidal zone, and thus the flat is submerged and exposed approximately twice daily.

In the past tidal flats were considered unhealthy, economically unimportant areas and were often dredged and developed into agricultural land. Several especially shallow mudflat areas, such as the Wadden Sea, are now popular among those practising the sport of mudflat hiking.

On the Baltic Sea coast of Germany in places, mudflats are exposed not by tidal action, but by wind-action driving water away from the shallows into the sea. These wind-affected mudflats are called windwatts in German.

Oyster Point Marina/Park

Oyster Point Marina/Park is a 408-berth public marina and 33-acre (13 ha) park located in the city of South San Francisco, California on the western shoreline of San Francisco Bay.The City of South San Francisco owns Oyster Point Marina/Park. The San Mateo County Harbor District has operated Oyster Point Marina/Park under a Joint Powers Agreement (JPA) with the City since 1977. The JPA terminates in 2026.

The marina is located close to nearby job centers in various office complexes and high rises in downtown of this city known as a regional biotech center. It includes a fuel dock, boat launching ramp, and fishing pier. In addition to boating and parkland, there are hiking and jogging trails, picnic areas, and 2.5 acres (1.0 ha) of sandy beaches.

Port of Redwood City

The Port of Redwood City is a marine freight terminal on the western side of the southern San Francisco Bay, on the West Coast of the United States. This marine terminal is situated within the city of Redwood City, California. The port was developed from a natural deepwater channel discovered in the year 1850, at the mouth of Redwood Creek. From the early use as a log float port, commercial use expanded to a variety of industrial commodities; moreover, it is considered the birthplace of shipbuilding on the North American west coast. As of 2004 the annual freight shipments have reached about two million metric tons. The Port of Redwood City provides berths for dry bulk, liquid bulk, and project cargoes, along with certain recreational opportunities and public access to San Francisco Bay.The Port of Redwood City is the only deepwater port in the South San Francisco Bay. Significant expanses of bay mud are present nearby: in Redwood Creek, Westpoint Slough and especially at the mouth of Redwood Creek, where bay muds extend almost two kilometers into San Francisco Bay. In fact, the Port of Redwood City is the only major California port with significant expanses of natural habitat area in its immediate proximity.

San Rafael Creek

San Rafael Creek is a watercourse in Marin County, California, United States that discharges to San Rafael Bay, a small embayment of the San Francisco Bay. The mouth of San Rafael Creek is a channelized estuary through an industrial area. San Rafael Creek has a designation under Federal Law Section 303(d) as impaired by diazinon, the principal pollutant causing impairment designations for streams discharging to San Pablo Bay, which is the northern arm of San Francisco Bay. In September 2007, the organization Save The Bay designated San Rafael Creek as one of the top ten "worst trash hot spot" waterways flowing into the San Francisco Bay. The channel portion of San Rafael Creek below the Grand Street Bridge is dredged on a regular maintenance schedule to keep the shallow draft channel navigable. Dredge spoils are disposed of at a site near Alcatraz Island.

Most of the soils in the lower watershed are clays and bay mud, resulting in a low transmissivity of groundwater. Typical vertical soil profiles in the lower watershed are four to five feet of imported fill over 60 to 65 feet (18–20 meters) of bay mud set on a basement of Franciscan Sandstone bedrock. At the mouth of San Rafael Creek, situated on the south bank, is Pickleweed Park, where shorebirds can be seen, particularly in the winter migration season.

Sonoma Creek

Sonoma Creek is a 33.4-mile-long (53.8 km) stream in northern California. It is one of two principal drainages of southern Sonoma County, California, with headwaters rising in the rugged hills of Sugarloaf Ridge State Park and discharging to San Pablo Bay, the northern arm of San Francisco Bay. The watershed drained by Sonoma Creek is roughly equivalent to the wine region of Sonoma Valley, an area of about 170 square miles (440 km2). The State of California has designated the Sonoma Creek watershed as a “Critical Coastal Water Resource”. To the east of this generally rectangular watershed is the Napa River watershed, and to the west are the Petaluma River and Tolay Creek watersheds.

This south flowing river drains the western slopes of the Mayacamas Range, the southern slopes of Annadel State Park and the eastern slopes of the Sonoma Mountains with intermittent winter flows in the higher tributary reaches. As the tributaries and headwaters reach the valley floor, a perennial stream cuts through scenic and valuable vineyards of Kenwood. Sonoma Creek veers west at Kenwood and cuts a gorge running parallel to Warm Springs Road, where it turns south to historic Glen Ellen, passing within one mile (1.6 kilometers) of Jack London State Historic Park and the Wolf House and thence southward paralleling Arnold Drive. In the city of Sonoma it is an urban creek which emerges into agricultural areas to the south. Finally, Sonoma Creek discharges to the vast Napa-Sonoma Marsh at the northern tip of San Pablo Bay. Principal tributaries to the creek include Yulupa Creek, Graham Creek, Calabazas Creek, Bear Creek, Schell Creek, and Fowler Creek.

Stikky

Stikky was an American punk rock band, formed in Berkeley, California in 1985. The band was part of the 924 Gilman Street-scene. The group originally formed with the line-up of Todd Wilder (lead vocals/drums), Chris Wilder (guitar/vocals), and James Porter (bass/vocals). Porter left Stikky in 1987 and was replaced by former No Use for a Name guitarist Chris Dodge. Stikky's songs are known for being hardcore punk yet still retaining the sense of humor that East Bay bands were known for. After the band stopped playing with any regularity, bassist Chris Dodge released some of their material on his own record label Slap a Ham Records.

Zostera

Zostera is a small genus of widely distributed seagrasses, commonly called marine eelgrass or simply eelgrass. The genus Zostera contains 15 species.

Aquatic ecosystems

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.