Bauhaus

The Staatliches Bauhaus (German: [ˈʃtaːtlɪçəs ˈbaʊˌhaʊs] (listen)), commonly known as the Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.[1]

The Bauhaus was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. The German term Bauhaus—literally "building house"—was understood as meaning "School of Building", but in spite of its name and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not initially have an architecture department. Nonetheless, it was founded upon the idea of creating a Gesamtkunstwerk ("'total' work of art") in which all the arts, including architecture, would eventually be brought together. The Bauhaus style later became one of the most influential currents in modern design, Modernist architecture and art, design, and architectural education.[2] The Bauhaus movement had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.[3]

The school existed in three German cities—Weimar, from 1919 to 1925; Dessau, from 1925 to 1932; and Berlin, from 1932 to 1933—under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928; Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930; and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime, having been painted as a centre of communist intellectualism. Although the school was closed, the staff continued to spread its idealistic precepts as they left Germany and emigrated all over the world.[4]

The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique, instructors, and politics. For example, the pottery shop was discontinued when the school moved from Weimar to Dessau, even though it had been an important revenue source; when Mies van der Rohe took over the school in 1930, he transformed it into a private school and would not allow any supporters of Hannes Meyer to attend it.

Bauhaus-Signet
The Bauhaus signet
The three Bauhaus schools
Bauhaus University Weimar 03
The Bauhaus building in Weimar
Bauhaus Dessau
The Bauhaus building in Dessau
Gedenktafel Birkbuschstr 49 (Lankw) Bauhaus Berlin
Memorial plate, Bauhaus Berlin
WalterGropius-1919
Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius (1883–1969)
Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Baudenkmal Bundesschule Bernau Waldfrieden 1
ADGB Trade Union School in Bernau bei Berlin
LocationGermany
CriteriaCultural: ii, iv, vi
Reference729
Inscription1996 (20th Session)
Area8.1614 ha
Buffer zone59.26 ha
Bauhaus is located in Germany
Weimar
Weimar
Dessau
Dessau
Bernau
Bernau
BauhausType
Typography by Herbert Bayer above the entrance to the workshop block of the Bauhaus Dessau, 2005

Bauhaus and German modernism

After Germany's defeat in World War I and the establishment of the Weimar Republic, a renewed liberal spirit allowed an upsurge of radical experimentation in all the arts, which had been suppressed by the old regime. Many Germans of left-wing views were influenced by the cultural experimentation that followed the Russian Revolution, such as constructivism. Such influences can be overstated: Gropius did not share these radical views, and said that Bauhaus was entirely apolitical.[5] Just as important was the influence of the 19th-century English designer William Morris (1834–1896), who had argued that art should meet the needs of society and that there should be no distinction between form and function.[6] Thus, the Bauhaus style, also known as the International Style, was marked by the absence of ornamentation and by harmony between the function of an object or a building and its design.

However, the most important influence on Bauhaus was modernism, a cultural movement whose origins lay as early as the 1880s, and which had already made its presence felt in Germany before the World War, despite the prevailing conservatism. The design innovations commonly associated with Gropius and the Bauhaus—the radically simplified forms, the rationality and functionality, and the idea that mass production was reconcilable with the individual artistic spirit—were already partly developed in Germany before the Bauhaus was founded. The German national designers' organization Deutscher Werkbund was formed in 1907 by Hermann Muthesius to harness the new potentials of mass production, with a mind towards preserving Germany's economic competitiveness with England. In its first seven years, the Werkbund came to be regarded as the authoritative body on questions of design in Germany, and was copied in other countries. Many fundamental questions of craftsmanship versus mass production, the relationship of usefulness and beauty, the practical purpose of formal beauty in a commonplace object, and whether or not a single proper form could exist, were argued out among its 1,870 members (by 1914).

Bauhaus Chemnitz hb
A Bauhaus building in Chemnitz

The entire movement of German architectural modernism was known as Neues Bauen. Beginning in June 1907, Peter Behrens' pioneering industrial design work for the German electrical company AEG successfully integrated art and mass production on a large scale. He designed consumer products, standardized parts, created clean-lined designs for the company's graphics, developed a consistent corporate identity, built the modernist landmark AEG Turbine Factory, and made full use of newly developed materials such as poured concrete and exposed steel. Behrens was a founding member of the Werkbund, and both Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer worked for him in this period.

The Bauhaus was founded at a time when the German zeitgeist had turned from emotional Expressionism to the matter-of-fact New Objectivity. An entire group of working architects, including Erich Mendelsohn, Bruno Taut and Hans Poelzig, turned away from fanciful experimentation, and turned toward rational, functional, sometimes standardized building. Beyond the Bauhaus, many other significant German-speaking architects in the 1920s responded to the same aesthetic issues and material possibilities as the school. They also responded to the promise of a "minimal dwelling" written into the new Weimar Constitution. Ernst May, Bruno Taut and Martin Wagner, among others, built large housing blocks in Frankfurt and Berlin. The acceptance of modernist design into everyday life was the subject of publicity campaigns, well-attended public exhibitions like the Weissenhof Estate, films, and sometimes fierce public debate.

Bauhaus and Vkhutemas

The Vkhutemas, the Russian state art and technical school founded in 1920 in Moscow, has been compared to Bauhaus. Founded a year after the Bauhaus school, Vkhutemas has close parallels to the German Bauhaus in its intent, organization and scope. The two schools were the first to train artist-designers in a modern manner.[7] Both schools were state-sponsored initiatives to merge the craft tradition with modern technology, with a basic course in aesthetic principles, courses in color theory, industrial design, and architecture.[7] Vkhutemas was a larger school than the Bauhaus,[8] but it was less publicised outside the Soviet Union and consequently, is less familiar in the West.[9]

With the internationalism of modern architecture and design, there were many exchanges between the Vkhutemas and the Bauhaus.[10] The second Bauhaus director Hannes Meyer attempted to organise an exchange between the two schools, while Hinnerk Scheper of the Bauhaus collaborated with various Vkhutein members on the use of colour in architecture. In addition, El Lissitzky's book Russia: an Architecture for World Revolution published in German in 1930 featured several illustrations of Vkhutemas/Vkhutein projects there.

History of the Bauhaus

Weimar

The school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar on April 12, 1919 as a merger of the Weimar Saxon Grand Ducal Art School and the Weimar Academy of Fine Art. Its roots lay in the arts and crafts school founded by the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach in 1906, and directed by Belgian Art Nouveau architect Henry van de Velde.[11] When van de Velde was forced to resign in 1915 because he was Belgian, he suggested Gropius, Hermann Obrist, and August Endell as possible successors. In 1919, after delays caused by World War I and a lengthy debate over who should head the institution and the socio-economic meanings of a reconciliation of the fine arts and the applied arts (an issue which remained a defining one throughout the school's existence), Gropius was made the director of a new institution integrating the two called the Bauhaus.[12] In the pamphlet for an April 1919 exhibition entitled Exhibition of Unknown Architects, Gropius proclaimed his goal as being "to create a new guild of craftsmen, without the class distinctions which raise an arrogant barrier between craftsman and artist." Gropius's neologism Bauhaus references both building and the Bauhütte, a premodern guild of stonemasons.[13] The early intention was for the Bauhaus to be a combined architecture school, crafts school, and academy of the arts. Swiss painter Johannes Itten, German-American painter Lyonel Feininger, and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, along with Gropius, comprised the faculty of the Bauhaus in 1919. By the following year their ranks had grown to include German painter, sculptor, and designer Oskar Schlemmer who headed the theater workshop, and Swiss painter Paul Klee, joined in 1922 by Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky. A tumultuous year at the Bauhaus, 1922 also saw the move of Dutch painter Theo van Doesburg to Weimar to promote De Stijl ("The Style"), and a visit to the Bauhaus by Russian Constructivist artist and architect El Lissitzky.[14]

Bauhaus weimar
The main building of the Bauhaus-University Weimar. Built between 1904 and 1911 and designed by Henry van de Velde to house the sculptors’ studio at the Grand Ducal Saxon Art School, it was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996.
Weimarbauhaus6
Foyer of the Bauhaus-University Weimar, with Jugendstil (art nouveau) staircase

From 1919 to 1922 the school was shaped by the pedagogical and aesthetic ideas of Johannes Itten, who taught the Vorkurs or "preliminary course" that was the introduction to the ideas of the Bauhaus.[12] Itten was heavily influenced in his teaching by the ideas of Franz Cižek and Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel. He was also influenced in respect to aesthetics by the work of the Der Blaue Reiter group in Munich, as well as the work of Austrian Expressionist Oskar Kokoschka. The influence of German Expressionism favoured by Itten was analogous in some ways to the fine arts side of the ongoing debate. This influence culminated with the addition of Der Blaue Reiter founding member Wassily Kandinsky to the faculty and ended when Itten resigned in late 1922. Itten was replaced by the Hungarian designer László Moholy-Nagy, who rewrote the Vorkurs with a leaning towards the New Objectivity favored by Gropius, which was analogous in some ways to the applied arts side of the debate. Although this shift was an important one, it did not represent a radical break from the past so much as a small step in a broader, more gradual socio-economic movement that had been going on at least since 1907, when van de Velde had argued for a craft basis for design while Hermann Muthesius had begun implementing industrial prototypes.[14]

Gropius was not necessarily against Expressionism, and in fact himself in the same 1919 pamphlet proclaiming this "new guild of craftsmen, without the class snobbery", described "painting and sculpture rising to heaven out of the hands of a million craftsmen, the crystal symbol of the new faith of the future." By 1923, however, Gropius was no longer evoking images of soaring Romanesque cathedrals and the craft-driven aesthetic of the "Völkisch movement", instead declaring "we want an architecture adapted to our world of machines, radios and fast cars."[15] Gropius argued that a new period of history had begun with the end of the war. He wanted to create a new architectural style to reflect this new era. His style in architecture and consumer goods was to be functional, cheap and consistent with mass production. To these ends, Gropius wanted to reunite art and craft to arrive at high-end functional products with artistic merit. The Bauhaus issued a magazine called Bauhaus and a series of books called "Bauhausbücher". Since the Weimar Republic lacked the quantity of raw materials available to the United States and Great Britain, it had to rely on the proficiency of a skilled labor force and an ability to export innovative and high quality goods. Therefore, designers were needed and so was a new type of art education. The school's philosophy stated that the artist should be trained to work with the industry.[16][17]

Weimar was in the German state of Thuringia, and the Bauhaus school received state support from the Social Democrat-controlled Thuringian state government. The school in Weimar experienced political pressure from conservative circles in Thuringian politics, increasingly so after 1923 as political tension rose. One condition placed on the Bauhaus in this new political environment was the exhibition of work undertaken at the school. This condition was met in 1923 with the Bauhaus' exhibition of the experimental Haus am Horn.[18] The Ministry of Education placed the staff on six-month contracts and cut the school's funding in half. The Bauhaus issued a press release on 26 December 1924, setting the closure of the school for the end of March 1925.[19][20] At this point it had already been looking for alternative sources of funding. After the Bauhaus moved to Dessau, a school of industrial design with teachers and staff less antagonistic to the conservative political regime remained in Weimar. This school was eventually known as the Technical University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, and in 1996 changed its name to Bauhaus-University Weimar.

Dessau

Gropius's design for the Dessau facilities was a return to the futuristic Gropius of 1914 that had more in common with the International style lines of the Fagus Factory than the stripped down Neo-classical of the Werkbund pavilion or the Völkisch Sommerfeld House.[21] During the Dessau years, there was a remarkable change in direction for the school. According to Elaine Hoffman, Gropius had approached the Dutch architect Mart Stam to run the newly founded architecture program, and when Stam declined the position, Gropius turned to Stam's friend and colleague in the ABC group, Hannes Meyer.

Meyer became director when Gropius resigned in February 1928,[1] and brought the Bauhaus its two most significant building commissions, both of which still exist: five apartment buildings in the city of Dessau, and the Bundesschule des Allgemeinen Deutschen Gewerkschaftsbundes (ADGB Trade Union School) in Bernau bei Berlin. Meyer favored measurements and calculations in his presentations to clients, along with the use of off-the-shelf architectural components to reduce costs. This approach proved attractive to potential clients. The school turned its first profit under his leadership in 1929.

But Meyer also generated a great deal of conflict. As a radical functionalist, he had no patience with the aesthetic program, and forced the resignations of Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, and other long-time instructors. Even though Meyer shifted the orientation of the school further to the left than it had been under Gropius, he didn't want the school to become a tool of left-wing party politics. He prevented the formation of a student communist cell, and in the increasingly dangerous political atmosphere, this became a threat to the existence of the Dessau school. Dessau mayor Fritz Hesse fired him in the summer of 1930.[22] The Dessau city council attempted to convince Gropius to return as head of the school, but Gropius instead suggested Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Mies was appointed in 1930, and immediately interviewed each student, dismissing those that he deemed uncommitted. He halted the school's manufacture of goods so that the school could focus on teaching, and appointed no new faculty other than his close confidant Lilly Reich. By 1931, the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party) was becoming more influential in German politics. When it gained control of the Dessau city council, it moved to close the school.[23]

Berlin

In late 1932, Mies rented a derelict factory in Berlin (Birkbusch Street 49) to use as the new Bauhaus with his own money. The students and faculty rehabilitated the building, painting the interior white. The school operated for ten months without further interference from the Nazi Party. In 1933, the Gestapo closed down the Berlin school. Mies protested the decision, eventually speaking to the head of the Gestapo, who agreed to allow the school to re-open. However, shortly after receiving a letter permitting the opening of the Bauhaus, Mies and the other faculty agreed to voluntarily shut down the school.[23]

Although neither the Nazi Party nor Adolf Hitler had a cohesive architectural policy before they came to power in 1933, Nazi writers like Wilhelm Frick and Alfred Rosenberg had already labeled the Bauhaus "un-German" and criticized its modernist styles, deliberately generating public controversy over issues like flat roofs. Increasingly through the early 1930s, they characterized the Bauhaus as a front for communists and social liberals. Indeed, a number of communist students loyal to Meyer moved to the Soviet Union when he was fired in 1930.

Even before the Nazis came to power, political pressure on Bauhaus had increased. The Nazi movement, from nearly the start, denounced the Bauhaus for its "degenerate art", and the Nazi regime was determined to crack down on what it saw as the foreign, probably Jewish influences of "cosmopolitan modernism".[1] Despite Gropius's protestations that as a war veteran and a patriot his work had no subversive political intent, the Berlin Bauhaus was pressured to close in April 1933. Emigrants did succeed, however, in spreading the concepts of the Bauhaus to other countries, including the "New Bauhaus" of Chicago:[24] Mies decided to emigrate to the United States for the directorship of the School of Architecture at the Armour Institute (now Illinois Institute of Technology) in Chicago and to seek building commissions.[a] The simple engineering-oriented functionalism of stripped-down modernism, however, did lead to some Bauhaus influences living on in Nazi Germany. When Hitler's chief engineer, Fritz Todt, began opening the new autobahn (highways) in 1935, many of the bridges and service stations were "bold examples of modernism"—among those submitting designs was Mies van der Rohe.[25]

Architectural output

The paradox of the early Bauhaus was that, although its manifesto proclaimed that the aim of all creative activity was building,[26] the school did not offer classes in architecture until 1927. During the years under Gropius (1919–1927), he and his partner Adolf Meyer observed no real distinction between the output of his architectural office and the school. So the built output of Bauhaus architecture in these years is the output of Gropius: the Sommerfeld house in Berlin, the Otte house in Berlin, the Auerbach house in Jena, and the competition design for the Chicago Tribune Tower, which brought the school much attention. The definitive 1926 Bauhaus building in Dessau is also attributed to Gropius. Apart from contributions to the 1923 Haus am Horn, student architectural work amounted to un-built projects, interior finishes, and craft work like cabinets, chairs and pottery.

In the next two years under Meyer, the architectural focus shifted away from aesthetics and towards functionality. There were major commissions: one from the city of Dessau for five tightly designed "Laubenganghäuser" (apartment buildings with balcony access), which are still in use today, and another for the Bundesschule des Allgemeinen Deutschen Gewerkschaftsbundes (ADGB Trade Union School) in Bernau bei Berlin. Meyer's approach was to research users' needs and scientifically develop the design solution.

Mies van der Rohe repudiated Meyer's politics, his supporters, and his architectural approach. As opposed to Gropius's "study of essentials", and Meyer's research into user requirements, Mies advocated a "spatial implementation of intellectual decisions", which effectively meant an adoption of his own aesthetics. Neither Mies van der Rohe nor his Bauhaus students saw any projects built during the 1930s.

The popular conception of the Bauhaus as the source of extensive Weimar-era working housing is not accurate. Two projects, the apartment building project in Dessau and the Törten row housing also in Dessau, fall in that category, but developing worker housing was not the first priority of Gropius nor Mies. It was the Bauhaus contemporaries Bruno Taut, Hans Poelzig and particularly Ernst May, as the city architects of Berlin, Dresden and Frankfurt respectively, who are rightfully credited with the thousands of socially progressive housing units built in Weimar Germany. The housing Taut built in south-west Berlin during the 1920s, close to the U-Bahn stop Onkel Toms Hütte, is still occupied.

Bauhaus-Dessau Festsaal

A stage in the Festsaal, Dessau

Bauhaus-Dessau Festsaal Bühnenbeleuchtung

Ceiling with light fixtures for stage in the Festsaal, Dessau

Bauhaus-Dessau Wohnheim Balkone

Dormitory balconies in the residence, Dessau

Bauhaus-Dessau Fensterfront

Mechanically opened windows, Dessau

Mensa Bauhaus Dessau

The Mensa (Cafeteria), Dessau

Impact

Olivetti-schawinsky-bauhaus-typewriter
An Olivetti Studio 42 typewriter, designed by Bauhaus alumnus Xanti Schawinsky in 1936

The Bauhaus had a major impact on art and architecture trends in Western Europe, Canada, the United States and Israel in the decades following its demise, as many of the artists involved fled, or were exiled by the Nazi regime. Tel Aviv in 2004 was named to the list of world heritage sites by the UN due to its abundance of Bauhaus architecture;[27][28] it had some 4,000 Bauhaus buildings erected from 1933 onwards.

In 1928, the Hungarian painter Alexander Bortnyik founded a school of design in Budapest called Miihely (also "Muhely"[29] or "Mugely"[30]), which means "the studio".[31] Located on the seventh floor of a house on Nagymezo Street,[31] it was meant to be the Hungarian equivalent to the Bauhaus.[32] The literature sometimes refers to it—in an oversimplified manner—as "the Budapest Bauhaus".[33] Bortnyik was a great admirer of László Moholy-Nagy and had met Walter Gropius in Weimar between 1923 and 1925.[34] Moholy-Nagy himself taught at the Miihely. Victor Vasarely, a pioneer of Op Art, studied at this school before establishing in Paris in 1930.[35]

Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, and Moholy-Nagy re-assembled in Britain during the mid 1930s to live and work in the Isokon project before the war caught up with them. Gropius and Breuer went to teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design and worked together before their professional split. Their collaboration produced the Aluminum City Terrace in New Kensington, Pennsylvania and the Alan I W Frank House in Pittsburgh, among other projects. The Harvard School was enormously influential in America in the late 1920s and early 1930s, producing such students as Philip Johnson, I. M. Pei, Lawrence Halprin and Paul Rudolph, among many others.

In the late 1930s, Mies van der Rohe re-settled in Chicago, enjoyed the sponsorship of the influential Philip Johnson, and became one of the pre-eminent architects in the world. Moholy-Nagy also went to Chicago and founded the New Bauhaus school under the sponsorship of industrialist and philanthropist Walter Paepcke. This school became the Institute of Design, part of the Illinois Institute of Technology. Printmaker and painter Werner Drewes was also largely responsible for bringing the Bauhaus aesthetic to America and taught at both Columbia University and Washington University in St. Louis. Herbert Bayer, sponsored by Paepcke, moved to Aspen, Colorado in support of Paepcke's Aspen projects at the Aspen Institute. In 1953, Max Bill, together with Inge Aicher-Scholl and Otl Aicher, founded the Ulm School of Design (German: Hochschule für Gestaltung – HfG Ulm) in Ulm, Germany, a design school in the tradition of the Bauhaus. The school is notable for its inclusion of semiotics as a field of study. The school closed in 1968, but the "Ulm Model" concept continues to influence international design education.[36]

The influence of the Bauhaus on design education was significant. One of the main objectives of the Bauhaus was to unify art, craft, and technology, and this approach was incorporated into the curriculum of the Bauhaus. The structure of the Bauhaus Vorkurs (preliminary course) reflected a pragmatic approach to integrating theory and application. In their first year, students learnt the basic elements and principles of design and colour theory, and experimented with a range of materials and processes.[37][38] This approach to design education became a common feature of architectural and design school in many countries. For example, the Shillito Design School in Sydney stands as a unique link between Australia and the Bauhaus. The colour and design syllabus of the Shillito Design School was firmly underpinned by the theories and ideologies of the Bauhaus. Its first year foundational course mimicked the Vorkurs and focused on the elements and principles of design plus colour theory and application. The founder of the school, Phyllis Shillito, which opened in 1962 and closed in 1980, firmly believed that "A student who has mastered the basic principles of design, can design anything from a dress to a kitchen stove".[39]

One of the most important contributions of the Bauhaus is in the field of modern furniture design. The ubiquitous Cantilever chair and the Wassily Chair designed by Marcel Breuer are two examples. (Breuer eventually lost a legal battle in Germany with Dutch architect/designer Mart Stam over the rights to the cantilever chair patent. Although Stam had worked on the design of the Bauhaus's 1923 exhibit in Weimar, and guest-lectured at the Bauhaus later in the 1920s, he was not formally associated with the school, and he and Breuer had worked independently on the cantilever concept, thus leading to the patent dispute.) The single most profitable tangible product of the Bauhaus was its wallpaper.

The physical plant at Dessau survived World War II and was operated as a design school with some architectural facilities by the German Democratic Republic. This included live stage productions in the Bauhaus theater under the name of Bauhausbühne ("Bauhaus Stage"). After German reunification, a reorganized school continued in the same building, with no essential continuity with the Bauhaus under Gropius in the early 1920s.[40] In 1979 Bauhaus-Dessau College started to organize postgraduate programs with participants from all over the world. This effort has been supported by the Bauhaus-Dessau Foundation which was founded in 1974 as a public institution.

Later evaluation of the Bauhaus design credo was critical of its flawed recognition of the human element, an acknowledgment of "the dated, unattractive aspects of the Bauhaus as a projection of utopia marked by mechanistic views of human nature…Home hygiene without home atmosphere."[41]

House in piness street
A classical Bauhaus building in Tel Aviv with "thermometer" windows

The White City

The White City (Hebrew: העיר הלבנה‎, Ha-Ir ha-Levana) refers to a collection of over 4,000 buildings built in a unique form of the Bauhaus or International Style in Tel Aviv from the 1930s by German Jewish architects who immigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine after the rise of the Nazis. Tel Aviv has the largest number of buildings in the Bauhaus/International Style of any city in the world. Preservation, documentation, and exhibitions have brought attention to Tel Aviv's collection of 1930s architecture. In 2003, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) proclaimed Tel Aviv's White City a World Cultural Heritage site, as "an outstanding example of new town planning and architecture in the early 20th century."[42] The citation recognized the unique adaptation of modern international architectural trends to the cultural, climatic, and local traditions of the city. Bauhaus Center Tel Aviv organizes regular architectural tours of the city.

Centenary year, 2019

As the centenary of the founding of Bauhaus, several events, festivals and exhibitions are planned around the world in 2019. The international opening festival at the Berlin Academy of the Arts from 16 to 24 January concentrated on "the presentation and production of pieces by contemporary artists, in which the aesthetic issues and experimental configurations of the Bauhaus artists continue to be inspiringly contagious".[43][44]

Bauhaus staff and students

People who were educated, or who taught or worked in other capacities, at the Bauhaus.

See also

Footnotes

  • a The closure, and the response of Mies van der Rohe, is fully documented in Elaine Hochman's Architects of Fortune.
  • Google honored Bauhaus for its 100th anniversary on April 12, 2019 with a Google Doodle.[45]

References

  1. ^ a b c Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 4th edn., 2009), ISBN 0-19-953294-X, pp. 64–66
  2. ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus, ed. (1999). A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (Paperback). Fleming, John; Honour, Hugh (5th ed.). London: Penguin Books. p. 880. ISBN 978-0-14-051323-3.
  3. ^ "Bauhaus Movemen". Rethinking the world Art and Technology – A new Unity.
  4. ^ ...], [contributors Rachel Barnes (2001). The 20th-Century art book (Reprinted. ed.). London: Phaidon Press. ISBN 978-0-7148-3542-6.
  5. ^ Evans, Richard J. The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 416
  6. ^ Funk and Wagnall's New Encyclopaedia, Vol 5, p. 348
  7. ^ a b (in Russian) Great Soviet Encyclopedia; Bolshaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, Вхутемас
  8. ^ Wood, Paul (1999) The Challenge of the Avant-Garde. New Haven: Yale University Press ISBN 0-300-07762-9, p. 244
  9. ^ Tony Fry (October 1999). A New Design Philosophy: An Introduction to Defuturing. UNSW Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-86840-753-1. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  10. ^ Colton, Timothy J. (1995) Moscow: Governing the Socialist Metropolis. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-58749-9; p. 215
  11. ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus, ed. (1999). A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (Paperback). Fleming, John; Honour, Hugh (5th ed.). Penguin Books. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-19-860678-9.
  12. ^ a b Frampton, Kenneth (1992). "The Bauhaus: Evolution of an Idea 1919–32". Modern Architecture: A Critical History (3rd ed. rev. ed.). New York: Thames and Hudson, Inc. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-500-20257-9.
  13. ^ Whitford, Frank, ed. (1992). The Bauhaus: Masters & Students by Themselves. London: Conran Octopus. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-85029-415-3. He invented the name 'Bauhaus' not only because it specifically referred to bauen ('building', 'construction')—but also because of its similarity to the word Bauhütte, the medieval guild of builders and stonemasons out of which Freemasonry sprang. The Bauhaus was to be a kind of modern Bauhütte, therefore, in which craftsmen would work on common projects together, the greatest of which would be buildings in which the arts and crafts would be combined.
  14. ^ a b Hal Foster, ed. (2004). "1923: The Bauhaus … holds its first public exhibition in Weimar, Germany". Art Since 1900: Volume 1 – 1900 to 1944. Rosalind Krauss, Yve-Alain Bois, Benjamin Buchloh. New York: Thames & Hudson. pp. 185–189. ISBN 978-0-500-28534-3.
  15. ^ Curtis, William (1987). "Walter Gropius, German Expressionism, and the Bauhaus". Modern Architecture Since 1900 (2nd ed.). Prentice-Hall. pp. 309–316. ISBN 978-0-13-586694-8.
  16. ^ "The Bauhaus, 1919–1933". The MET. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  17. ^ "Bauhaus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  18. ^ Ackermann et al., Bauhaus (Cologne: Könemann, 1999), 406.
  19. ^ Michael Baumgartner and Josef Helfenstein At the Bauhaus in Weimar, 1921–1924 Archived 29 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine, at Zentrum Paul Klee
  20. ^ Magdalena Droste (2002) [1990] Bauhaus, 1919–1933 p. 113
  21. ^ Curtis, William (2000). "Walter Gropius, German Expressionism, and the Bauhaus". Modern Architecture Since 1900 (2nd ed.). Prentice-Hall. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-13-586694-8.
  22. ^ Richard A. Etlin (2002). Art, culture, and media under the Third Reich. University of Chicago Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-226-22086-4. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  23. ^ a b David Spaeth (1985). Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Rizzoli New York. pp. 87–93. ISBN 978-0-8478-0563-1.
  24. ^ Jardi, Enric (1991). Paul Klee. Rizzoli Intl Pubns, p. 22
  25. ^ Richard J Evans, The Third Reich in Power, 325
  26. ^ Gropius, Walter (April 1919). "Manifesto of the Staatliches Bauhaus". BauhausManifesto.com.
  27. ^ "Unesco celebrates Tel Aviv". BBC News. 8 June 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  28. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "White City of Tel-Aviv – the Modern Movement". whc.unesco.org.
  29. ^ Edward Lucie-Smith, Late Modern: The Visual Arts Since 1945, London: Thames & Hudson, 1976, p. 164.
  30. ^ William Chapin Seitz, Marla Price, Art in the Age of Aquarius, Smithsonian Inst Press, 1992, p. 92.
  31. ^ a b Gaston Diehl, Vasarely, New York: Crown, 1972, p. 12
  32. ^ Jean Luc Daval, History of Abstract Painting, Paris: Hazan, 1989, p. 199.
  33. ^ See: William Chapin Seitz, Marla Price, Art in the Age of Aquarius, Smithsonian Inst Press, 1992, p. 92; Edward Lucie-Smith, Late Modern: The Visual Arts Since 1945, London: Thames & Hudson, 1976, p. 164; Jean Louis Ferrier, Yann Le Pichon, Art of our century: the story of western art, 1900 to the present 1990, London : Longman, p. 521.
  34. ^ Guitemie Maldonaldo, "Une réception différée et relayée. L'Atelier d'art abstrait et le "modèle-Bauhaus", 1950–1953", in: Martin Schieder, Isabelle Ewig, In die Freiheit geworfen: Positionen zur deutsch-französischen Kunstgeschichte nach 1945, Oldenbourg Verlag, 22 Nov 2006, p. 100.
  35. ^ Jean Louis Ferrier, Yann Le Pichon, Art of Our Century: The Story of Western Art, 1900 to the Present, 1990, London: Longman, p. 521.
  36. ^ Ulm, Ulmer Museum/HfG-Archiv. "HfG-Archiv Ulm – The HfG Ulm". www.hfg-archiv.ulm.de.
  37. ^ Bayer, H., Gropius, W., & Gropius, I. (Eds.). (1975). Bauhaus 1919–1928. London: Secker& Warburg.
  38. ^ Itten, J. (1963). Design and Form: The Basic Course at the Bauhaus and Later (Revised edition, 1975). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  39. ^ O'Connor, Z. (2013). "The Shillito Design School: Australia's link with the Bauhaus". The International Journal of Design in Society, 6(3), 149–159.
  40. ^ "Bauhaus Dessau".
  41. ^ Schjeldahl, Peter, "Bauhaus Rules," The New Yorker, November 16, 2009
  42. ^ "UNESCO, Decision Text, World Heritage Centre, retrieved 14 September 2009".
  43. ^ "100 years Bauhaus: the opening festival". Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  44. ^ "Bauhaus in pictures: The architects exiled by Nazis". BBC News. 16 January 2019. Archived from the original on 17 January 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  45. ^ "100th Anniversary of Bauhaus". Google. 12 April 2019.

Bibliography

  • Oskar Schlemmer (1972). Tut Schlemmer (ed.). The Letters and Diaries of Oskar Schlemmer. Translated by Krishna Winston. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-4047-1.
  • Stefan Boness (2012). Tel Aviv – The White City. Berlin: Jovis. ISBN 978-3-939633-75-4.
  • Magdalena Droste, Peter Gossel, ed. (2005). Bauhaus. Taschen America LLC. ISBN 3-8228-3649-4.
  • Marty Bax (1991). Bauhaus Lecture Notes 1930–1933. Theory and practice of architectural training at the Bauhaus, based on the lecture notes made by the Dutch ex-Bauhaus student and architect J.J. van der Linden of the Mies van der Rohe curriculum. Amsterdam: Architectura & Natura. ISBN 90-71570-04-5.
  • Anja Baumhoff (2001). The Gendered World of the Bauhaus. The Politics of Power at the Weimar Republic's Premier Art Institute, 1919–1931. Frankfurt, New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 3-631-37945-5.
  • Boris Friedewald (2009). Bauhaus. Munich, London, New York: Prestel. ISBN 978-3-7913-4200-9.
  • Catherine Weill-Rochant (2008). Rita H. Gans (ed.). Bauhaus: Architektur in Tel Aviv (in French and German). Zurich: Kiriat Yearim.
  • Catherine Weill-Rochant (April 2009). The Tel-Aviv School : a constrained rationalism. DOCOMOMO journal (Documentation and conservation of buildings, sites and neighbourhoods of the modern movement).
  • Peder Anker (1 January 2010). From Bauhaus to Ecohouse: A History of Ecological Design. LSU Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-3551-8. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  • Kirsten Baumann (2007). Bauhaus Dessau: Architecture Design Concept. Berlin: JOVIS Verlag. ISBN 978-3-939633-11-2.
  • Monika Markgraf (Ed.) (2007). Archaeology of Modernism: Renovation Bauhaus Dessau. Berlin: JOVIS Verlag. ISBN 978-3-936314-83-0.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Torsten Blume / Burghard Duhm (Eds.). Bauhaus.Theatre.Dessau: Change of Scene. Berlin: JOVIS Verlag. ISBN 978-3-936314-81-6.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Eric Cimino (2003). Student Life at the Bauhaus, 1919–1933 (M.A.). Boston: UMass-Boston.

External links

Anni Albers

Anni Albers (born Annelise Else Frieda Fleischmann; June 12, 1899 – May 9, 1994) was a German-born American textile artist and printmaker credited with blurring the lines between traditional craft and art.

Besides surface qualities, such as rough and smooth, dull and shiny, hard and soft, textiles also includes colour, and, as the dominating element, texture, which is the result of the construction of weaves. Like any craft it may end in producing useful objects, or it may rise to the level of art.

Bauhaus (band)

Bauhaus were an English rock band, formed in Northampton, England in 1978. The group consisted of Daniel Ash (guitar, saxophone), Peter Murphy (vocals, occasional instruments), Kevin Haskins (drums) and David J (bass). The band was originally named Bauhaus 1919 in reference to the first operating year of the German art school Bauhaus, although they shortened the name within a year of formation. One of the pioneers of gothic rock, Bauhaus were known for their dark image and gloomy sound, although they mixed many genres, including dub, glam rock, psychedelia and funk.Bauhaus broke up in 1983. Murphy began a solo career while Ash and Haskins continued as Tones on Tail and, later, reunited with David J to form Love and Rockets. Both enjoyed greater commercial success in the United States than Bauhaus had, but disappeared from the charts in their homeland. Bauhaus eventually reunited for a 1998 tour and again from 2005 to 2008.

Bauhaus University, Weimar

The Bauhaus-Universität Weimar is a university located in Weimar, Germany, and specializes in the artistic and technical fields. Established in 1860 as the Great Ducal Saxon Art School, it gained collegiate status on 3 June 1910. In 1919 the school was renamed Bauhaus by its new director Walter Gropius and it received its present name in 1996. Approximately 4,000 students are enrolled at the university today.

In 2010 the Bauhaus-Universität commemorated its 150th anniversary as an art school and college in Weimar.

In 2019 the university will be celebrating the centenary of the founding of the Bauhaus, together with partners all over the world.

Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau

Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau is a joint World Heritage Site in Germany, comprising six separate sites which are associated with the Bauhaus art school. It was designated in 1996, initially with four sites and in 2017 two further sites were added.The Bauhaus was only in operation from 1919 until 1933 and it educated no more than 1,250 students, of whom only 155 actually graduated with a Bauhaus Diploma. Nevertheless, it revolutionized 20th century architectural and aesthetic thinking and practice."[The] buildings designed by the masters of the Bauhaus are fundamental representatives of Classical Modernism... For this reason, they are important monuments not only for art and culture, but also for the historic ideas of the 20th century." - Application for the extension of the UNESCO World Heritage Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau, German delegation to UNESCO, December 2015.

Bauhaus discography

The discography of Bauhaus, a British gothic rock band, consists of five studio albums, four live albums, three compilation albums, four extended plays (EPs), eleven singles and three video albums. The band was formed in Northampton in 1978 by Daniel Ash (guitar), David J (bass), Kevin Haskins (drums) and Peter Murphy (vocals).

Released in August 1979 on Small Wonder Records, Bauhaus's debut single—the nine-minute-long "Bela Lugosi's Dead"—failed to make the UK Singles Chart. The band signed with 4AD in 1980 and released three more singles, all of which failed to chart. They also released their debut album, In the Flat Field, in 1980 and this became the band's first release to chart when it reached No. 72 on the UK Albums Chart. After changing labels in 1981 to Beggars Banquet Records, the band made the UK Singles Chart for the first time with "Kick in the Eye", which reached No. 59.

Their follow-up single, "The Passion of Lovers", reached No. 56. After the band's second album, Mask (1981), reached No. 30 on the UK Albums Chart, the next two singles failed to reach the Top 40 of the UK Singles Chart. October 1982 saw the band's highest showing in the UK Singles Chart when they released a cover version of David Bowie's "Ziggy Stardust", which reached No. 15—as well as reaching No. 13 on the Irish Singles Chart. Also released in October 1982, The Sky's Gone Out reached No. 4 on the UK Albums Chart. The band released two more singles and an album in 1983, all of which failed to capitalise on the success of their releases in late 1982, before disbanding.

After disbanding, all four members of Bauhaus undertook various solo projects before Ash, David J and Kevin Haskins reformed as Love and Rockets in 1985. Bauhaus reformed for the Resurrection Tour in 1998 and for a one-off concert in April 2005. Another reunion tour followed towards the end of 2005, before work started on a new album Go Away White, released in March 2008. The album charted poorly, only reaching No. 120 on the UK Albums Chart, but gave the band their first entry for a studio album on the U.S. Billboard 200 when it reached No. 105. Following the release of the album, Bauhaus disbanded again.

Dessau

Dessau is a town and former municipality in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt. Since 1 July 2007, it has been part of the newly created municipality of Dessau-Roßlau. Population of Dessau proper: 77,973 (June 2006).

Eisengarn

Eisengarn, meaning "iron yarn" in English, is a light-reflecting, strong, waxed-cotton thread. It was invented and manufactured in Germany in the mid-19th century, but is now most well known for its use in cloth woven for the tubular-steel chairs designed by Marcel Breuer while he was a teacher at the Bauhaus design school.

The yarn is also known as Glanzgarn ('gloss' or 'glazed' yarn).

Gunta Stölzl

Gunta Stölzl (5 March 1897 – 22 April 1983) was a German textile artist who played a fundamental role in the development of the Bauhaus school's weaving workshop. As the Bauhaus' only female master she created enormous change within the weaving department as it transitioned from individual pictorial works to modern industrial designs. Her textile work is thought to typify the distinctive style of Bauhaus textiles. She joined the Bauhaus as a student in 1920, became a junior master in 1927 and a full master the next year. She was dismissed for political reasons in 1931, two years before the Bauhaus closed under pressure from the Nazis.

The textile department was a neglected part of the Bauhaus when Ms. Stölzl began her career, and its active masters were weak on the technical aspects of textile production. She soon became a mentor to other students and reopened the Bauhaus dye studios in 1921. After a brief departure, Stölzl became the school's weaving director in 1925 when it relocated from Weimar to Dessau and expanded the department to increase its weaving and dyeing facilities. She applied ideas from modern art to weaving, experimented with synthetic materials, and improved the department's technical instruction to include courses in mathematics. The Bauhaus weaving workshop became one of its most successful facilities under her direction.

International Style (architecture)

The International Style is a major architectural style that was developed in the 1920s and 1930s and was closely related to modernism and modern architecture. It was first defined by Museum of Modern Art curators Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson in 1932, based on works of architecture from the 1920s.

It is defined by the Getty Research Institute as "the style of architecture that emerged in Holland, France, and Germany after World War I and spread throughout the world, becoming the dominant architectural style until the 1970s. The style is characterized by an emphasis on volume over mass, the use of lightweight, mass-produced, industrial materials, rejection of all ornament and color, repetitive modular forms, and the use of flat surfaces, typically alternating with areas of glass."

Josef Albers

Josef Albers (; German: [ˈalbɐs]; March 19, 1888 – March 25, 1976) was a German-born American artist and educator whose work, both in Europe and in the United States, formed the basis of modern art education programs of the twentieth century.

Marcel Breuer

Marcel Lajos Breuer ( BROY-ər; 21 May 1902 – 1 July 1981), was a Hungarian-born modernist architect, and furniture designer. At the Bauhaus he designed the Wassily Chair and the Cesca Chair which is “among the 10 most important chairs of the 20th century.” Breuer extended the sculptural vocabulary he had developed in the carpentry shop at the Bauhaus into a personal architecture that made him one of the world's most popular architects at the peak of 20th-century design.

Margaretha Reichardt

Margaretha Reichardt (6 March 1907 – 25 May 1984), also known as Grete Reichardt, was a textile artist, weaver, and graphic designer from Erfurt, Germany. She was one of the most important designers to emerge from the Bauhaus design school's weaving workshop in Dessau, Germany. She spent most of her adult life running her own independent weaving workshop in Erfurt, which was under Nazi rule and then later part of communist East Germany.

Neues Sehen

The Neues Sehen, also known as New Vision or Neue Optik, was a movement, not specifically restricted to photography, which was developed in the 1920s. The movement was directly related to the principles of the Bauhaus. Neues Sehen considered photography to be an autonomous artistic practice with its own laws of composition and lighting, through which the lens of the camera becomes a second eye for looking at the world. This new way of seeing was based on the use of unexpected framings, the search for contrast in form and light, the use of high and low camera angles, etc. The movement was contemporary with New Objectivity with which it shared a defence of photography as a specific medium of artistic expression, although Neues Sehen favoured experimentation and the use of technical means in photographic expression.

Oskar Schlemmer

Oskar Schlemmer (4 September 1888 – 13 April 1943) was a German painter, sculptor, designer and choreographer associated with the Bauhaus school.

In 1923, he was hired as Master of Form at the Bauhaus theatre workshop, after working at the workshop of sculpture. His most famous work is Triadisches Ballett (Triadic Ballet), which saw costumed actors transformed into geometrical representations of the human body in what he described as a "party of form and colour".

Peter Murphy (musician)

Peter John Joseph Murphy (born 11 July 1957) is an English singer, songwriter, and musician. He was the vocalist of the goth rock band Bauhaus and later went on to release a number of solo albums, such as Love Hysteria, Deep, and Holy Smoke. Thin with prominent cheekbones, a baritone voice, and a penchant for gloomy poetics, he is often called the "Godfather of Goth".

Stockholm Bauhaus Athletics

'BAUHAUSGALAN, formerly known as DN-Galan is an annual, international athletics meeting that takes place at the Olympic Stadium in Stockholm. Previously one of the five IAAF Super Grand Prix events, it is now part of the IAAF Diamond League, the world's premier one-day meeting circuit. It was first organized in 1967.

Having been known as the DN-Galan since its first edition, a title sponsor deal with DIY company Bauhaus led to a rebranding of the event in 2015, following a period of financial instability for the organisers.

Walter Gropius

Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Alvar Aalto, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture. Gropius was also a leading architect of the International Style.

Weimar

Weimar (German pronunciation: [ˈvaɪmaɐ̯]; Latin: Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately 80 kilometres (50 miles) southwest of Leipzig, 170 kilometres (106 miles) north of Nuremberg and 170 kilometres (106 miles) west of Dresden. Together with the neighbour-cities Erfurt and Jena it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia with approximately 500,000 inhabitants, whereas the city itself counts a population of 65,000. Weimar is well known because of its large cultural heritage and its importance in German history.

The city was a focal point of the German Enlightenment and home of the leading personalities of the literary genre of Weimar Classicism, the writers Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. In the 19th century, famous composers like Franz Liszt made Weimar a music centre and later, artists and architects like Henry van de Velde, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger and Walter Gropius came to the city and founded the Bauhaus movement, the most important German design school of the interwar period. However, the political history of 20th-century Weimar was inconsistent: it was the place where Germany's first democratic constitution was signed after the First World War, giving its name to the Weimar Republic period in German politics (1918–33), as well as one of the cities mythologized by the National Socialist propaganda.

Until 1948, Weimar was the capital of Thuringia. Today, many places in the city centre have been designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites (either as part of the Weimar Classicism complex or as part of the Bauhaus complex) and tourism is one of the leading economic sectors of Weimar. Relevant institutions in Weimar are the Bauhaus University, the Liszt School of Music, the Duchess Anna Amalia Library and two leading courts of Thuringia (the Supreme Administrative Court and Constitutional Court). In 1999, Weimar was the European Capital of Culture.

Ziggy Stardust (song)

"Ziggy Stardust" is a song written and recorded by David Bowie for his 1972 concept album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars. The song describes Bowie's alter ego Ziggy Stardust, a rock star who acts as a messenger for extraterrestrial beings. In 2010 the song ranked at No. 282 on Rolling Stone's list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". The song is one of four of Bowie's songs included in The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll.The character was inspired by British rock 'n' roll singer Vince Taylor, whom David Bowie met after Taylor had a breakdown and believed himself to be a cross between a god and an alien, though Taylor was only part of the blueprint for the character. Other influences included the Legendary Stardust Cowboy and Kansai Yamamoto, who designed the costumes Bowie wore during the tour. The Ziggy Stardust name came partly from the Legendary Stardust Cowboy, and partly, as Bowie told Rolling Stone, because Ziggy was "one of the few Christian names I could find beginning with the letter 'Z'". He later explained in a 1990 interview for Q magazine that the Ziggy part came from a tailor's shop called Ziggy's that he passed on a train, and he liked it because it had "that Iggy [Pop] connotation but it was a tailor's shop, and I thought, Well, this whole thing is gonna be about clothes, so it was my own little joke calling him Ziggy. So Ziggy Stardust was a real compilation of things."The original demo version of the song, recorded in February 1971, was released as a bonus track on the Rykodisc CD release of Ziggy Stardust in 1990. The demo also appeared on the Ziggy Stardust - 30th Anniversary Reissue bonus disc in 2002. The album version of the song was recorded in November 1971.

Alphabetically
By start year /
decade
Avant-garde movements
Visual art
Literature and poetry
Music
Cinema and theatre
General
Medieval
Renaissance
17th century
18th century
19th century
20th century
21st century
Related articles
Northern
Central
Western
Southern
Natural

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.