Batumi (/bɑːˈtuːmi/; Georgian: ბათუმი [bɑtʰumi]); is the capital of Autonomous Republic of Adjara and the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest. It is situated in a Subtropical Zone at the foot of Caucasus. Much of Batumi's economy revolves around tourism and gambling (It is nicknamed "The Las Vegas of the Black Sea"), but the city is also an important sea port and includes industries like shipbuilding, food processing and light manufacturing. Since 2010, Batumi has been transformed by the construction of modern high-rise buildings, as well as the restoration of classical 19th-century edifices lining its historic Old Town.
Coat of arms
Location of Batumi in Adjara
|• Mayor||Lasha Komakhidze|
|• Total||64.9 km2 (25.1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||3 m (10 ft)|
|• Density||2,500/km2 (6,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+4 (Georgian Time)|
|Area code(s)||(+995) 422|
Batumi is located on the site of the ancient Greek colony in Colchis called "Bathus" or "Bathys" – derived from (Greek: βαθύς λιμεν, bathus limen; or βαθύς λιμήν, bathys limin; lit. the "deep harbor"). Under Hadrian (c. 117–138 AD), it was converted into a fortified Roman port and later deserted for the fortress of Petra founded in the time of Justinian I (c. 527–565). Garrisoned by the Roman-Byzantine forces, it was formally a possession of the kingdom of Lazica until being occupied briefly by the Arabs, who did not hold it; In 780 Lazica fell to kingdom of Abkhazia via a dynastic union, the later led the unification of Georgian monarchy in the 11th century.
From 1010, it was governed by the eristavi (viceroy) of the king of Georgia. In the late 15th century, after the disintegration of the Georgian kingdom, Batumi passed to the princes (mtavari) of Guria, a western Georgian principality under the sovereignty of the kings of Imereti.
A curious incident occurred in 1444 when a Burgundian flotilla, after a failed crusade against the Ottoman Empire, penetrated the Black Sea and engaged in piracy along its eastern coastline until the Burgundians under the knight Geoffroy de Thoisy were ambushed while landing to raid Vaty, as Europeans then knew Batumi. De Thoisy was taken captive and released through the mediation of the emperor John IV of Trebizond.
In the 15th century in the reign of the prince Kakhaber Gurieli, the Ottoman Turks conquered the town and its district but did not hold them. They returned to it in force a century later and inflicted a decisive defeat on the Georgian armies at Sokhoista. Batumi was recaptured by the Georgians several times, first in 1564 by prince Rostom Gurieli, who lost it soon afterwards, and again in 1609 by Mamia II Gurieli. In 1723, Batumi again became part of the Ottoman Empire. After the Turkish conquest Islamisation of the hitherto Christian region began but this was terminated and to a great degree reversed, after the area was re-annexed to Russian Imperial Georgia after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78.
It was the last Black Sea port annexed by Russia during the Russian conquest of that area of the Caucasus. In 1878, Batumi was annexed by the Russian Empire in accordance with the Treaty of San Stefano between Russia and the Ottoman Empire (ratified on March 23) . Occupied by the Russians on August 28, 1878, the town was declared a free port until 1886. It functioned as the center of a special military district until being incorporated in the Government of Kutaisi on June 12, 1883. Finally, on June 1, 1903, with the Okrug of Artvin, it was established as the region (oblast) of Batumi and placed under the direct control of the General Government of Georgia.
The expansion of Batumi began in 1883 with the construction of the Batumi-Tiflis-Baku railway (completed in 1900) and the finishing of the Baku-Batumi pipeline. Henceforth, Batumi became the chief Russian oil port in the Black Sea. The town population increased rapidly doubling within 20 years: from 8,671 inhabitants in 1882 to 12,000 in 1889. By 1902 the population had reached 16,000, with 1,000 working in the refinery for Baron Rothschild's Caspian and Black Sea oil company.
In the late 1880s and after, more than 7,400 Doukhobor emigrants sailed for Canada from Batumi, after the government agreed to let them emigrate. Quakers and Tolstoyans aided in collecting funds for the relocation of the religious minority, which had come into conflict with the Imperial government over its refusal to serve in the military and other positions. Canada settled them in Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
During 1901, sixteen years prior to the October Revolution, Joseph Stalin, the future leader of the Soviet Union, lived in the city organizing strikes. On March 3, 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gave the city back to the Ottoman Empire; unrest during the closing weeks of World War I led to the re-entry of Turkish forces in April 1918, followed in December by British forces, who stayed until July 1920. Kemal Atatürk ceded the area to the Bolsheviks of the Soviet Union on the condition that it be granted autonomy, for the sake of the Muslims among Batumi's mixed population.
When Georgia gained its independence from the Soviet Union in 1989, Aslan Abashidze was appointed head of Adjara's governing council and subsequently held onto power throughout the unrest of the 1990s. Whilst other regions, such as Abkhazia, attempted to break away from the Georgian state, Adjara remained as an integral part of the Republic's territory. Abashidze exploited the central government's weaknesses and ruled the area as a personal fiefdom. In May 2004, he fled to Russia because of mass protests in Tbilisi sparked by the Rose Revolution.
Batumi today is one of the main port cities of Georgia. It has the capacity for 80,000-ton tankers to take materials such as oil that are shipped through Georgia from Central Asia. Additionally, the city exports regional agricultural products. Since 1995 the freight conversion of the port has constantly risen, with an approximate 8 million tons in 2001. The annual revenue from the port is estimated at between $200 million and $300 million.
Since the change of power in Adjara, Batumi has attracted international investors, and the prices of real estate in the city have trebled since 2001. In July 2007, the seat of the Constitutional Court of Georgia was moved from Tbilisi to Batumi to stimulate regional development. Several new hotels opened after 2009, first the Sheraton in 2010 and the Radisson Blu in 2011. The Trump Tower and the Kempinski was scheduled to open in 2013. The city features several casinos that attract tourists from Turkey, where gambling is illegal.
Batumi was host to the Russian 12th Military Base. Following the Rose Revolution, the central government pushed for the removal of these forces and reached agreement in 2005 with Moscow. According to the agreement, the process of withdrawal was planned to be completed in 2008, but the Russians completed the transfer of the Batumi base to Georgia on November 13, 2007, ahead of schedule.
In 2013, TAM GEO LLC announced it was investing $70 million to start construction of the 170-meter, 45-story mix-use complex Babillon Tower, which will be the tallest residential building in Georgia.
Batumi has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) according to Köppen's classification. The city's climate is heavily influenced by the onshore flow from the Black Sea and is subject to the orographic effect of the nearby hills and mountains, resulting in significant rainfall throughout most of the year, making Batumi the wettest city in both Georgia and the entire Caucasus Region.
The average annual temperature in Batumi is approximately 14 °C (57 °F). January is the coldest month with an average temperature of 7 °C (45 °F). August is the hottest month, with an average temperature of 22 °C (72 °F). The absolute minimum recorded temperature is −6 °C (21 °F), and the absolute maximum is 40 °C (104 °F). The number of days with daily temperatures above 10 °C (50 °F) is 239. The city receives 1958 hours of sunshine per year.
Batumi's average annual precipitation is 2,435 mm (95.9 in). December is the wettest month with an average of 303 mm (11.9 in) of precipitation, while May is the driest, averaging 84 mm (3.3 in). Batumi generally does not receive significant amounts of snow (accumulating snowfall of more than 30 cm (11.8 in)), and the number of days with snow cover for the year is 12. The average level of relative humidity ranges from 70–80%.
According to the March 31, 2008, decision of the Batumi City Council, Batumi is divided into seven boroughs, those of:
Novelty architecture in Batumi includes:
Although there is no religious data available separately for Batumi, the majority of the region's inhabitants are Eastern Orthodox Christian, and primarily adhere to the national Georgian Orthodox Church. There are also Sunni Muslim, Catholic, Armenian Apostolic, and Jewish communities.
The main places of worship in the city are:
Notable people who are from or have resided in Batumi:
The port of Batumi is on one of the routes of China's proposed Eurasian Land Bridge (part of the "New Silk Road"), which would see an eastern freight link to China via Azerbaijan and the Caspian Sea, and a western link by ferry to Ukraine and on to Europe.
The 2014–15 Umaglesi Liga was the 26th season of top-tier football in Georgia. The season began on 9 August 2014 and ended on 27 May 2015.2016 Umaglesi Liga
The 2016 Umaglesi Liga was a special transitional season of top-tier football in Georgia. Dinamo Tbilisi were the defending champions. This transitional season is a result of the Georgian Football Federation's decision to change the Umaglesi Liga season from an Autumn–Spring schedule to a Spring–Autumn one. The season began on 7 August 2016 and concluded with the second leg of the championship final on 11 December 2016.2017 Erovnuli Liga
The 2017 Erovnuli Liga (formerly known as Umaglesi Liga) was the 29th season of top-tier football in Georgia. Samtredia are the defending champions. The season began on 4 March 2017 and ended on 26 November 2017.2019 Erovnuli Liga
The 2019 Erovnuli Liga (formerly known as Umaglesi Liga) will be the 31st season of top-tier football in Georgia. Saburtalo Tbilisi are the defending champions. The season will begin on 1 March 2019 and is scheduled to be ended on 30 November 2019.43rd Chess Olympiad
The 43rd Chess Olympiad (also known as Batumi Chess Olympiad), organised by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) and comprising open and women's tournaments, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, was held in Batumi, Georgia, from 23 September to 6 October 2018. This was the first Chess Olympiad to take place in Georgia with the Georgian Chess Federation also hosting the Chess World Cup 2017 in Tbilisi.The total number of participants was 1,667, with 920 in the Open and 747 in the Women's event. The number of registered teams was 185 from 180 nations in the Open section and 151 from 146 nations in the Women's section. Both sections set team participation records. The main venue of the Chess Olympiad was Sport Palace Batumi, while the opening ceremony took place in the Black Sea Arena and the closing ceremony was held in the Batumi State Music Centre. The Chief Arbiter of the event was Greece's International Arbiter Takis Nikolopoulos.China won the gold medal in both the Open and Women's event. This was the first time since 1986 that one country united the titles and China became the second nation to do so after the former Soviet Union. China won their second gold medal in the Open event after they have previously claimed their first title in 2014 and defended their title won in 2016 to claim their sixth title overall in the Women's event. Peruvian player Jorge Cori, who played on the third board, was the best individual player in the Open event by scoring 7½ out of 8 points (seven wins and one draw) with a performance rating of 2925. Chinese reigning Women's World Chess Champion Ju Wenjun, playing on the first board, was the best individual player in the Women's event by scoring 7 out of 9 points (five wins and four draws), with a performance rating of 2661.The 89th FIDE Congress also took place during the event at which Russian politician and economist Arkady Dvorkovich was elected new President of FIDE following Kirsan Ilyumzhinov's withdrawal because of the United States Department of the Treasury's sanctions imposed against him for his alleged support to the Syrian government in the Syrian Civil War.Adjara
Adjara (Georgian: აჭარა Ač’ara [at͡ʃʼara] (listen)), officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (Georgian: აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა Ač’aris Avt’onomiuri Resp’ublik’a [at͡ʃʼaris avtʼɔnɔmiuri rɛspʼublikʼa] (listen)), is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia. Located in the country's southwestern corner, Adjara lies on the coast of the Black Sea near the foot of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, north of Turkey. It is an important tourist destination and includes Georgia's second-largest city of Batumi as its capital. About 350,000 people live on its 2,880 km2.
Adjara is home to the Adjarians, a regional subgroup of Georgians. Adjara's name can be spelled in a number of ways, including Ajara, Ajaria, Adjaria, Adzharia, Atchara and Achara, among others. Under the Soviet Union, Adjara was part of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic as the Adjarian ASSR.Baku–Batumi pipeline
The Baku–Batumi pipeline is the name given to several pipelines and pipeline projects to transport kerosene and crude oil from the Caspian region to the Georgian Batumi oil terminal at the Black Sea. When first constructed in 1906, it was the world's longest kerosene pipeline.Batumi International Airport
Alexander Kartveli Batumi International Airport (IATA: BUS, ICAO: UGSB) is an airport located 2 km (1.2 mi) south of Batumi, a city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. The airport is 20 km (12 mi) northeast of Hopa, Turkey, and serves as a domestic and international airport for Georgia and northeastern Turkey.Batumi Ladies Open
The Batumi Ladies Open is a tournament for professional female tennis players played on outdoor Hard courts. The event is classified as a $15,000 ITF Women's Circuit tournament. It has been held in Batumi, Georgia, since 1997.Batumi Stalin Museum
Batumi Stalin Museum was a museum in Batumi, Georgia. It commemorated Joseph Stalin, who was active in socialist agitation among Batumi's refinery workers during 1901–1902. It closed in 2013, after suffering low visitation.Didi 10
The Didi 10 (Georgian: დიდი 10, "Big 10") is a professional domestic rugby union club competition in Georgia. It is the top tier of rugby competitions in the country.European route E692
European route E 691 is a European B class road in Georgia, connecting the cities of Batumi and Samtredia.FC Dinamo Batumi
FC Dinamo Batumi is a Georgian football club based in Batumi, Adjara. They regularly play in top division of Georgian football – Erovnuli Liga. The club plays their home games at Angisa Base, Batumi.Georgian Cup
The Georgian Cup (Georgian: საქართველოს თასი, Sakartvelos tasi) is the main cup competition in Georgian football.
The competition is a knockout (single elimination) tournament.Georgian Superliga
The Georgian Basketball Super League (Georgian: საკალათბურთო სუპერლიგა, Sakalatburto Superliga), also known as the Georgian Top League, is the highest professional basketball league in Georgia. The first season was played in 1991, and was won by Dinamo Tbilisi. The 1990s were dominated by BC Vita Tbilisi, who won the title a record 7 times. BC Batumi, and then Energy Invest Rustavi, dominated the following decade. More recently, the league was dominated by clubs attached to State departments, with first BC Armia (Ministry of Defense) establishing themselves as the country's leading club, and later BC MIA Academy(Ministry of Internal Affairs) winning the title.2013/14 was the first season when none of the country's universities were represented in the Superliga. This followed the decision by the Ministry of Education to withdraw funding from professional sports teams. That season saw Dinamo Tbilisi regain the title in a convincing manner, only to lose it the following year to a rejuvenated BC MIA Academy side.
The 2014/15 season saw the introduction of a second tier in Georgian basketball, called the A-League (A-Liga). Thus, for the first time, teams at the bottom of the Superliga were in danger of losing their top-tier status through relegation play-offs. It was then announced that from the 2015/16 season, the club finishing bottom of the Superliga will automatically get relegated to the A-Liga.Italian records in Olympic weightlifting
The following are the national records in Olympic weightlifting in Italy. Records are maintained in each weight class for the snatch lift, clean and jerk lift, and the total for both lifts by the Italian Weightlifting Federation (Federazione Italiana Pesistica).List of tallest buildings in Georgia (country)
This is a list of the tallest buildings in the country of Georgia. Many are located in the seaside city of Batumi, including the Batumi Tower, the tallest building in Georgia. The Millennium Hotel is the tallest building in Tbilisi, the capital.Makhinjauri
Makhinjauri (Georgian: მახინჯაური [mɑxindʒɑuri]) is a small town (daba) in Adjara, Georgia, with the population of 735 according to the 2014 census. It is located on the Black Sea coast, 5 km north of Batumi, the capital of Adjara, and functions as a seaside resort. Until the opening of Batumi railway station in 2015, Makhinjauri station was the one serving Batumi. Administratively, Makhinjauri was part of the Khelvachauri district from 1959 to 2011 and of the city of Batumi since 2011.Postage stamps of Batum under British occupation
Batumi (formerly Batum) is a city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. The city was under Russian rule at the beginning of World War I, but local unrest led to Turkey entering the city in April 1918, followed by the British in December, who stayed until July 1920.
|Climate data for Batumi|
|Record high °C (°F)||25.2
|Average high °C (°F)||10.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.6
|Average low °C (°F)||4.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−7.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||238
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||99||105||126||148||199||235||214||223||201||176||125||107||1,958|
|Source #1: Climate Data|
|Source #2: |
|Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia|
|Autonomous Republic of Adjara|
|Cities with local government|
|Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia|
|Autonomous Republic of Adjara|
|Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti|